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“it”用法总结


㈠ 1.it作人称代词 作人称代词
1.1.it的最基本用法是作人称代词,主要指刚提到 的最基本用法是作人称代词, 的最基本用法是作人称代词 的事物,以避免重复: 的事物,以避免重复 Ningbo is a beautiful city, isn’t it? 1.2.也可以指动物或婴儿 未知性别的婴儿或孩子 也可以指动物或婴儿(未知性别的婴儿或孩子 也可以指动物或婴儿 未知性别的婴儿或孩子): Is this your dog?No, it isn’t. ? 1.3.也可指抽象事物 也可指抽象事物: 也可指抽象事物 It was a great surprise to me when he did a thing like that.

2.非人称代词 非人称代词it 非人称代词
it有时并不指具体的东西,而泛指天气、时间、环境等, 有时并不指具体的东西,而泛指天气、时间、环境等, 有时并不指具体的东西 称为非人称的it: 称为非人称的 : 2.1.指天气: 指天气: 指天气 It is a lovely day, isn’t it? It is a bit windy. 2.2.指时间 指时间: 指时间 It was nearly midnight when she came back. 2.3.指环境 指环境: 指环境 It was very quiet in the café. 2.4.指距离: 指距离: 指距离 It is half an hour’s walk to the city centre.

引导词it ㈡.引导词 引导词 1. It is + 被强调部分 + that ...
使用该句型有以下几点请注意: 使用该句型有以下几点请注意: 强调句的谓语is或 永远用单数. ① 强调句的谓语 或was永远用单数 永远用单数 It was yesterday that I met your father in the street. street. 连接, ②不管被强调部分是哪种状语,只能用that连接, 不管被强调部分是哪种状语,只能用 连接 不得使用where、when等连词 等连词. 不得使用 、 等连词 It was in the street that I met your father yesterday.

主格或宾格)和 ③被强调部分为人时,可用who(主格或宾格 和 被强调部分为人时,可用 主格或宾格 whom(宾格 代替 宾格)代替 也行。 宾格 代替that,用that也行。 , 也行 1) It was your father that/whom /who I met in the street yesterday. . 2) It was I that/who met your father in the street yesterday. . 也要注意主谓一致、 ④强调句中 也要注意主谓一致、人称一致和否定转移 的问题。 的问题。 It is they who are our friends. . It was not until ten o'clock that we got home last night. .

第一句不是强调句,when不可改为 that,因为去掉it was和that后,只能组成 ⑤注意不要混淆强调句和其他从句。Itnight.” “We got home ten o'clock last is was…that…为强调句标志,去掉后仍可组 这样一个不完整的句子;第二句是强调 成一个完整的句子,只是没被强调,而其他 从句一般不具备这一特征。 句,that不可改为when.
比较: 1) It was ten o'clock when we got home last night.我们昨晚到家时已十点了。 2) It was at ten o'clock that we got home last night.我们昨晚是在十点到家的。

要点点拔

2. It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ...
该句型也是强调句型。主要用于强凋时间状语, 该句型也是强调句型。主要用于强凋时间状语, 译成汉语“直到... ...” ...才 译成汉语“直到...才...”,可以说是 not ... until ... 的强调形式。 的强调形式。 I didn’t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses. It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star. (强调句型) 强调句型) = Not until she took off her dark glasses did I realize she was a famous film star. (倒装 倒装) 倒装

3. it 用作形式主语 用作形式主语 3.1 代替主语从句 代替主语从句
1)It is + adj. +that从句 ) 从句 ① It is clear ( obvious, true, possible certain....) , , that ..... “清楚(显然,真的,肯定...)” 清楚( ...)” 清楚 显然,真的,肯定...) It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree. ②. It is important ( necessary, right, strange, , , , natural...) that ... that 后的从句中要用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形), 后的从句中要用虚拟语气( 动词原形), should 可以省去,建议记住该句型中的形容词。 可以省去,建议记住该句型中的形容词。 ————————————————— It is important that we (should) learn English well.

2).It is +v-ed +that 从句 ) ①It is said (reported/learned/believed/thought/known/ told/hoped.....) that …从句 常译为"据说(据报道,据 从句 常译为"据说(据报道, 悉...)" It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit. It is said that he has come to Beijing. ②. It is suggested ( ordered/demanded/insisted/ commanded.. ) that ... 主句中的过去分词是表示请求,建议,命令等词时, 主句中的过去分词是表示请求,建议,命令等词时,that 后的从句要用虚拟语气( 动词原形), ),should 可 后的从句要用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形), 以省;常译为“据建议;有命令...) 以省;常译为“据建议;有命令...) It is suggested that the meeting ( should ) be put off.

3)It is a pity ( a shame /an honour/a good ) thing/a fact,/a surprise/... ) that从句 从句. 从句
that后的从句一般用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形), 后的从句一般用虚拟语气( 动词原形), 后的从句一般用虚拟语气 should可省去.表示出乎意料,常译为“竟然”。没有 可省去. 可省去 表示出乎意料,常译为“竟然” 这种意义时,则不用虚拟语气。 这种意义时,则不用虚拟语气。 It is a pity that such a thing ( should ) happen in your class.这种事竟然发生在你们班 上,真是遗憾! 真是遗憾! 这种事竟然发生在你们班 It is a pity that he is ill.他生病了,真遗憾 他生病了, 他生病了

4).① It is time ( about time ,high time ) that ... ① 该句型中that 后的从句应该用虚拟语气,值得注意的是 后的从句应该用虚拟语气, 该句型中 常用过去时态表示虚拟.常译为“ 正是)... )...的 常用过去时态表示虚拟.常译为“是(正是)...的 时侯... ...” 时侯...” It is time that children went to bed. It is time you bought a new car. It is (high ) time you made up your mind.

② It is the first ( second ... ) time that从句 从句 (从句用现在完成时 have done ) 从句用现在完成时 It was the first ( second ... ) time that从句 从句 (从句用过去完成时 从句用过去完成时had done ) 从句用过去完成时 常译为"是第一( )...次 常译为"是第一(二)...次..."。 It is the first time I have been here. = This is the first time I have been here.

5).It happens (seems, looks, appears ) that从句 从句. , , 从句 碰巧…,似乎是 看起来…” 似乎是…,看起来 常译为 “ 碰巧 似乎是 看起来
该句型中it是形式主语, 引导的是主语从句, 该句型中 是形式主语,that 引导的是主语从句,主句中 是形式主语 等词是不及物动词。 的happen , seem等词是不及物动词。 等词是不及物动词 It happened ( so happened ) that he met his teacher in the street. 碰巧.. 碰巧.. ... It seems that he will be back in a few days. 看来... 看来...

3.2.作形式主语替代不定式 作形式主语替代不定式 1). It takes sb. ... to do sth. “做...要花费某人..” 要花费某人.. 做...要花费某人..” It took thousands of people many years to build the Great Wall.
2). It is kind ( of sb. ) to do sth. 引起, 不定式的逻辑主语是由 of引起,主句中的形容词必须是能表示逻辑 引起 主语特征的褒义或贬义形容词。 主语特征的褒义或贬义形容词。 常见的词有:

bad , brave , careless, clever , cruel , foolish , good careless (好心的), honest , horrible , kind , lazy , modest , naughty , nice(有教养的), polite, rude , silly , stupid , wise , wrong(错误的)等。 这个句型可以改写为: 这个句型可以改写为:sb. is kind to do sth. It is kind of you to say so. = You are kind to say so.

3). It is necessary ( for sb. ) to do sth.
不定式的逻辑主语是由for引起, 不定式的逻辑主语是由 引起,主句中的形容词 引起 通常是表示重要性,紧迫性,频繁程度,难易, 通常是表示重要性,紧迫性,频繁程度,难易,安全 等情况的中性形容词。 常见的形容词有: 等情况的中性形容词。 常见的形容词有: important, necessary, natural easy , safe , , , common , normal , hard , difficult , dangerous , unusual, rare , impossible , , pleasant It is important for her to come to the party. = It is important that she (should ) come to the party.

3.3.作形式主语替代ing形式 It is no good / no use / useless doing sth. 常译为 有好处或没有用” “┅有好处或没有用” 该句型中的真正主语是动名词短语, 该句型中的真正主语是动名词短语,主句中的表 语可以是no 语可以是 good , ( not any good ) , no use ( not any use )。 。 It is no good learning English without speaking English. It's useless trying to argue with Shylock.

4. It 作形式宾语 作形式宾语. We think it important to___________________________________ learn a foreign language. 6 1 2 3 该句型中的it 作形式宾语, 该句型中的 作形式宾语,为了记忆方便我们可称该句型 结构” 为“6123结构”。 结构 6 指主句中常用的动词: think, believe, make, find, 指主句中常用的动词: consider , feel; 1 指的是形式宾语 ; 指的是形式宾语it; 2 指的是宾补的两种形式:形容词或名词; 指的是宾补的两种形式:形容词或名词; 3 指的是真正宾语的三种形式:不定式短语,动名词短语 指的是真正宾语的三种形式:不定式短语, 引导的宾语从句。 或that引导的宾语从句。 引导的宾语从句 We think it our duty to clean our classroom every day. He felt it important learning English well. They found it difficult that they would finish their work in two days.

该句型主要用作处理瞬间动词的完成时, 该句型主要用作处理瞬间动词的完成时,要和表示一段时 间的时间状语连用。主句中是时间作表语, 间的时间状语连用。主句中是时间作表语,其时态是现在 时和完成时,引导的从句通常是一般过去时态, 时和完成时,引导的从句通常是一般过去时态,而且是瞬 间动词。如果主句是一般过去时,从句则用过去完成时 间动词。如果主句是一般过去时,从句则用过去完成时 It is (has been) 5 years since his father died. It is almost five years ___we saw each other last time. (2005 北京) 北京 A. before B. since C. after D. when (B)

特殊句式 1.It is …since…

2. It is …when…

该句型中的when引导的是一个时间状语从句,主句中的it 该句型中的when引导的是一个时间状语从句,主句中的it when引导的是一个时间状语从句 指时间,表语由具体的时间充当。常译为“ 的时候, 指时间,表语由具体的时间充当。常译为“当……的时候, 的时候 是……” It was 5 o’clock when he came here.

3. It be ... before ... 指时间, 该句型主句中的 it 指时间, 主句中的时态常是一 般将来时或过去时两种时态. 般将来时或过去时两种时态.主句中的表语多是 long, not long , 3 days , 2 weeks 等表示 , 时间段的词或短语,常译为“...之 时间段的词或短语,常译为“...之 ...” 后...”。 It was 3 days before he went to Beijing. It will be not long before he finishes his job.

4). It looks ( seems ) as if ... ) 该句型中it无意义 无意义, 引导一个状语从句。 该句型中 无意义, as if 引导一个状语从句。常译 ,"看起来好象..."如果与事实不相符合 看起来好象..."如果与事实不相符合, 为,"看起来好象..."如果与事实不相符合,则用虚 拟语气。 拟语气。 It looks as if he is ill.(真的病了) (真的病了) It looks as if he were ill. (没有生病) 没有生病) It seemed as if he were dying 5). It doesn’t matter whether ( if ) ... ) 该句型中whether(if) 引导的从句是真正主语,该句型常 引导的从句是真正主语, 该句型中 不论(是否)...没关系...。 )...没关系 译为 “不论(是否)...没关系...。 It doesn’t matter if they are old.

8). It的一些习惯用法 ) 的一些习惯用法 How is it with your study? 学习好吗? 学习好吗? That’s it . 这就对了。 这就对了。 It went hard with him. 他身遇不幸。 他身遇不幸。 It is all over with me. 我完蛋了。 我完蛋了。 We must fight it out.我们必须坚持到底。 我们必须坚持到底。 我们必须坚持到底 I can’t help it. 我没有办法。 我没有办法。

? Choose the best answer 1.It took us over an hour _______ along the street. A.walk B.to walk C.walking D.walked 2.I think it a great honour _______to visit your country. A.to invite B.inviting C.having invited D.to be invited 3.Many people now make _______a rule to buy cards for their friends before Christmas. A.themselves B.it C.that D.this 4._______is very clear to everyone that he's round and tall like a tree. A.This B.What C.That D.It 5.In the United States, bus travel doesn‘t cost much as train t ravel, _______? A.don't they B.does it C.do they D.doesn't it

6.Someone is at the door, who is _______? A.this B.that C.it D.he 7.—It is raining cats and dogs. — _______ . A.So it is B.So is it C.Neither it is 8.—My home is in that tall building over there. —_______ ? A.Can it see B.Can see it C.Can be seen it D.Can it be seen 9. _______ raining hard for 3 hours without stopping. A.It is B.It was C.It has been 10.—Has the boy got his bicycle now? —Yes, the police gave _______. A.him to him B.it to it C.it to him D.him to it D.It had been

D.Neither is it

1.__B____that there will be another good harvest this autumn. A. He is said B. It is said C. It says D. It was said 2.___D___ she was free on Monday morning, A. That happened B. It is happened that C. It happened to D. It happened that 3.B___three years since he joined the army. A. That is B. It is C. This is D. It was 4. ___D_____is good—— you to have taken good care of your classmates. A. This; to B. It; for C. That; it D. It; of 5. What a long way ___A_________! A. it is B is it C. is that D. This is


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