The ancient Loulan City lies on the west bank of Lop Nur Lake in Xinjiang region.The city was founded in the 2nd century BC in an oasis (绿洲) on the Silk Road.But it became less powerful and strong after its 800 years of development, and disappeared suddenly in the middle of the 6th century AD.At the beginning of last century, a Swedish explorer Sven Hedin discovered the city buried in the desert, which attracted attention from all over the world.
The city has already totally turned into dust.But archaeologists (考古学家) believe there was a water tunnel running through the city and dividing it into two different functional parts.Large numbers of potsherds (陶瓷碎片), wood pieces, coins, pieces of jewellery and wood slip documents provide us with plenty of information about the ancient city before it disappeared.
The study of the materials of the ruins of Loulan City perhaps can tell us why it disappeared.The archaeologist found that the Loulanese preferred Sun tomb which consisted of 7 circles of logs which became thicker and thicker from center to the outer circle, just like the sun shining.The unique but spectacular (壮观的；令人惊叹的) burying form was quite popular at that time but sped up the disappearance of Loulan City.A large amount of forest was cut down, which made Loulan City destroyed by the sandstorms at last.
Welcome to the unit & Reading — Pre-reading
Lost civilizations① Day 1, 15 July
I feel lucky to have won a place on this trip.We are in Italy now, and tomorrow we are visiting Pompeii.Next week we are flying② to China, and going to Loulan, which is known as China's Pompeii in the desert③.Both Pompeii and Loulan became lost civilizations long ago.
文明 ②are visiting 和 are flying
都是现在进行时，表示的 是将要发生的动作。 ③which is known as ...是非 限制性定语从句，修饰 Loulan。
[原文呈现] Day 2, 16 July
This morning we attended a lecture④ about Pompeii.The city was founded⑤ in the 8th century BC⑥.In 89 BC, the Romans⑦took over⑧ Pompeii.It then became a rich and busy city.Near the city was a volcano⑨.
④lecture/'lekt??(r)/n.讲座 attend a lecture 听讲座
⑤found/fa?nd/vt.兴建，创建 ⑥ BC/?bi?'si?/abbr. 公 元 前 (before
Christ 的缩写) ⑦Roman/'r??m?n/n.罗马人 adj.罗
马的，罗马人的 ⑧take over 夺取；接管 ⑨volcano/v?l'keIn??/n. 火 山 (pl.)
volcanoes/volcanos 表示地点的介词短语置于句首， 且句子的主语是名词时，句子用 全部倒装语序。
On 24 August AD⑩ 79, the volcano erupted ? and lava?， ash? and rocks poured? out of it onto the surrounding countryside.It continued to erupt for the next two days.Many people were buried? alive?， and so was the city ? .How unfortunate?！
[读文清障] ⑩AD/?eI'di?/abbr.公元(Anno Domini 的
缩写) ?erupt /I'r?pt/vi.(火山等)爆发 ?lava/'lɑ?v?/n.熔岩， 火山岩 ?ash/??/n.灰，灰烬 ashes 废墟；骨灰 ?pour/p??(r)/vi.涌流，倾泻 vt.倒出(液体) ?bury vt.埋，埋葬；安葬 ?alive adj.活的，在句中作主语补足语。 ?so was the city 是“so＋助动词＋主
Day 3, 17 July Today I saw the ancient
Roman city of Pompeii as it was 2,000 years ago ? .How amazing ！ ? The city was
forgotten for many years until the 18th century when a farmer discovered a stone with writing on it○21 .People started to dig ○22 in the area for treasure, which caused much damage○23 .
?as 用作连词，意为“正如”，引导 方式状语从句。
?How amazing! 多令人惊奇啊！ amazing adj.惊人的，了不起的
○21 when a farmer discovered ...是定
语从句，修饰 the 18th century, when 相当于 in which。
○22 dig v．挖，掘 n.触，碰；挖苦，
○23 which 引导非限制性定语从句，修
Thus, in 1860, the area was ○24 preserve v．保存，保护
put under government preserve sb./sth.from ...保护…… protection so it could be 免受……
preserved○24 and studied○25 . ○25 so it could be ...是目的状语从句。
失落的文明 [第 1～3 段译文] 第一天，7 月 15 日
能获得这次旅行的机会我感到很幸运。现在我们在意大利， 明天我们将游览庞贝。下周我们会飞往中国并打算去楼兰，那 是沙漠中的一座被誉为“中国庞贝”的古城。庞贝和楼兰都是 很久以前失落的文明。
第二天，7 月 16 日 今天上午我们听了一场有关庞贝的讲座。这座城市建于
公元前 8 世纪。公元前 89 年，罗马人占领了庞贝。后来庞 贝成了一座繁华的城市。离该城不远处有一座火山。公元 79 年 8 月 24 日，这座火山爆发了，岩浆、火山灰以及岩石喷 涌而出，全部倾泻到周围的村庄。火山爆发持续了两天。很 多人被活埋了，整个城市也被掩埋。真是太不幸了！
第三天，7 月 17 日 今天我见到了罗马古城庞贝，它就跟两千年前一模一
样。多令人惊奇啊！这座城市多年来一直被人们遗忘，直到 18 世纪时一个农民发现了一块刻有文字的石头。人们开始在 这一区域挖掘寻宝，这造成了很大的破坏。因此在 1860 年， 政府将这一区域保护了起来，便于保存和研究。
○26 When I walked around ○26 when 引导时间状语从句；as 引
the city, I saw streets just as 导方式状语从句。
they had been, with stepping with stepping stones ...是 with
stones along the road so you did
复合结构(with＋宾语＋介词短 语)，作状语，修饰 had been。
not have to step in the mud○27 ○27 mud /m?d/n.泥浆，烂泥
on rainy days! I saw several ○28 decorate/'dek?reIt/vt.装饰，装潢
houses which were decorated○28 be decorated with 装饰有……
with wall paintings○29 .
○29 which 引 导 定 语 从 句 ， 修 饰
I also saw the people who had been ○30 flee/fli?/(fled, fled) vt.&vi.逃避，
buried alive.It turns out that after the ash covered the people who
failed to flee ○30 the city, their ○31 researcher/rI's??t??(r)/n.研究者，
bodies nearly completely broke down and disappeared, leaving
empty spaces in the ash.Years researchers ○31 were able to
these empty spaces to produce ○33 disaster/dI'zɑ?st?(r)/n.灾难
true-to-life○32 figures of the people who had died in the disaster○33 .
who had died ...是定语从句，修 饰 the people。
You can see them today in ○34 where the people fell 是定语从
Pompeii, in the same places where 句，修饰 places。
the people fell○34 . The volcano is ○35 imagine v．想象；认为，想，
still there, but looks very quiet 后接名词、代词、v.-ing 或从句。
now.It's hard to imagine○35 how ○36 destroy/dI'str?I/vt.毁坏，摧毁
this peaceful volcano destroyed○36
○37 how this peaceful volcano ...是
the whole city○37 ！
Day 10, 24 July
Finally, we arrived in Loulan after several days of travelling.This commercial○38 city was busy and wealthy ○39 about 2,000 years ago.It was a stopping
○38 commercial/k?'m???l/adj. 商
point on the famous Silk Road
between the East and the West.
It is believed to have been gradually ○40 covered over ○41 by sandstorms ○42 from AD 200 to AD 400○43 .I am so excited to be here！
○41 cover sth.over(完全)盖住/遮住某物
○43 It is believed to have ...中 it 指代上文
提到过的 Loulan。本句使用了“It is believed to do sth.” 句型，常可转换为 “It is believed that ...”。
[第 4～5 段译文] 当我在城中漫步时，我看到保持原样的街道，沿路都有垫
脚石，这样下雨天你就不用在泥泞中行走了！我看到了几处装 饰着壁画的房子。我也看到了被活埋的人。原来，火山灰覆盖 了没能逃离城市的人，他们的身体几乎全部烧化消失了，只留 下火山灰里的人形空当。多年之后，研究者们能够利用这些人 形空当制作出逼真的遇难者轮廓。你现在可以在庞贝看到他们， 就在他们原来倒下的同样的位置。火山还在那里，但现在看起 来非常平静。很难想象这座平静的火山是如何摧毁整座城市的！
第十天，7 月 24 日 经过好几天的旅程，我们终于抵达了楼兰。这座商业城市
在大约两千年前也曾繁华过。它是连接东西方著名的丝绸之路 上的停靠点。人们相信，从公元 200 年到公元 400 年，它已被 沙尘暴逐渐吞没。能在这里我很兴奋！
Day 11, 25 July A scholar from the local
cultural○44 institute○45 ，
○44 cultural/'k?lt??r?l/adj.文化的 ○45 institute/'InstItju?t/n.(教育或其他
Professor Zhang, told us that ○46 ruin/'ru?In/n.废墟，毁坏 vt.破坏，
around the year 1900 the
European explorer Sven Hedin ○47 remains/rI'meInz/n.遗物，遗迹，
discovered the ruins○46 of the 遗骸
Loulan Kingdom.Sven found ○48 beneath/bI'ni?θ/prep.在……之下
the remains○47 of buildings ○49 buried beneath the sand ...是过去
buried beneath○48 the sand○49 ， 分词短语作后置定语。
[原文呈现] together with○50 a lot of
○50 together with 又，连同(同 as well as)
treasures, including coins, 连接并列主语时，谓语动词的数与第一
painted○51 pots○52 ，
material○53 such as silk, ○51 paint vt.(用颜料等)画；油漆
documents○54 and wall
paintings.When we went to ○53 material/m?'tI?rI?l/n.材料；物质 adj.物
the city, we saw the city
walls, palaces, temples, ○54 document/'d?kj?m?nt/n.文献，文件
towers.We found the ruins ○56 find 复合结构，即 find＋宾语＋adj.(作
most interesting○56 .
There was an ancient water system that ran through○57 the middle of the city○58 .The desert was once a green land with huge trees, but they were cut down○59 and that resulted
○57 run through 流经，贯穿 ○58 that 引导定语从句，修饰
○59 cut down 砍倒
in○60 the city being buried by sand ○60 result in 导致 result from
— what a pity！
[第 6 段译文] 第十一天，7 月 25 日
来自当地文化研究所的一位学者张教授告诉我们，大约在 1900 年，来自欧洲的探险家斯文·海定发现了楼兰王国的遗迹。 斯文发现了埋藏在沙子下面的建筑遗迹以及许多宝藏，包括钱 币、彩绘罐、像丝绸这样的布料、文献以及壁画。当我们到这 座城市时，我们看到了城墙、宫殿、庙宇、作坊及高塔。我们 发现楼兰废墟非常有趣。有一条古老的供水系统贯穿市中心。 这片沙漠曾经是大树成荫的绿洲，但这些树被砍倒了，那导致 楼兰这座城市被沙子埋没——多遗憾啊！
Please match the words with their proper Chinese meanings.
1．civilization 2．found 3．pour 4．decorate 5．disaster
A．兴建，创建 B．逃跑，逃避；迅速离开 C．毁坏，摧毁 D．装饰，装潢 E．破坏，毁坏；废墟
6．destroy 7．commercial 8．ruin 9．flee 10．remains
F．涌流，倾泻；倒出(液体) G．灾难 H．文明 I．商业的，贸易的 J．遗迹，遗物，遗骸
答案：1～5 HAFDG 6～10 CIEBJ
Are you familiar with these famous historic sites? Match the
following pictures with their names.
A．the Summer Palace
B．the Temple of Heaven
C．the Great Wall
D．the Confucius Temple
F．the Forbidden City
G．the ruins of Yuanmingyuan
H．the Taj Mahal
答案：1.F 2.G 3.I 4.E 5.H 6.A 7.C 8.D 9.B
Fast-reading 1．Look through the text and then finish the following question.
The text is mainly about a cultural tour to _s_i_te_s__o_f_lo_s_t__ _c_i_v_il_i_z_a_ti_o_n_s____.
2．Summarize the main idea of each diary. Diary 1 A．a visit to Pompeii city Diary 2 B．the purpose and destination of the trip Diary 3 C．the discovery of the Loulan Kingdom Diary 4 D．a lecture about Pompeii and the volcano Diary 5 E．general information about Loulan
答案：Diary 1—B Diary 2—D Diary 3—A Diary 4—E Diary 5—C
Careful-reading (Ⅰ)Choose the best answers according to the text.
1．Which disaster destroyed the city of Pompeii?
C．The volcano eruption.
2．What were the stepping stones along the road in the city used for?
A．Leading people walking along the road.
B．Making people not step in the mud in the streets on rainy days.
C．Making the city more beautiful.
D．Making the children avoid walking in the mud.
3．Loulan is called China's Pompeii in the desert because ______. A．both of them once had great civilizations B．both of them once had similar building structures C．they were both destroyed by volcano eruption D．they were both powerful in the ancient past
4．Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A．Pompeii was destroyed by a volcano while Loulan was gradually
covered over by sandstorms. B．Pompeii was in Italy while Loulan was in China.
C．Both of the two cities were discovered by local people.
D．Both of the two cities are lost civilizations about 2,000 years ago.
5．According to the last sentence, how did the author feel about the loss
of Loulan? A．Excited.
C．Happy. 答案：1～5 CBACB
(Ⅱ)Fill in each blank with only one word according to the text.
Lost civilizations Day 1 Planning to visit Pompeii and Loulan, both of (15th July) which became lost 1._c_iv__il_iz_a_t_io_n_s_ long ago.
Attending a 2._le_c_t_u_r_e_ and learning more about Day 2
the history of Pompeii — when it was (16th July)
3._f_o_u_n_d_e_d__, when and how it disappeared. ?Visiting Pompeii, which was forgotten for
many years. Day 3 ?Seeing several houses 4._d_e_c_o_r_a_t_ed__ with wall (17th July)
paintings and the bodies of people who failed to 5._f_le_e_/e_s_c_a_p_e__ when the volcano 6.e_r_u_p_t_e_d__.
Visiting Loulan, a 7._s_t_o_p_p_i_n_g_ point on the
Day 10 famous Silk Road between the East and the (24th July) West, which was gradually covered by
8._s_a_n_d_s_t_o_r_m_s_ from AD 200 to AD 400.
?Getting more information about Loulan by
listening to Professor Zhang. Day 11 ?Seeing lots of things that the city had,
(25th July) including the water 9._s_y_s_te_m__. ?Learning about the causes that 10.r_e_s_u_l_te_d_
in the city's disappearance.
Study-reading Analyze the following difficult sentences in the text. 1．When I walked around the city, I saw streets just as they had
been, with stepping stones along the road so you did not have to step in the mud on rainy days! [句式分析]
[尝试翻译] 当我在城中漫步时，我看到保持原样的街道，沿路 都有垫脚石，这样下雨天你就不用在泥泞中行走了！
2．It turns out that after the ash covered the people who failed to flee the city，their bodies nearly completely broke down and disappeared, leaving empty spaces in the ash. [句式分析] 本句是主从复合句， it 是形式主语，真正的主语 是由 that 引导的主语从句。该主语从句中包含一个由 after 引 导的时间状语从句，此状语从句中还包含一个由 who 引导的定 语从句，修饰先行词 people。现在分词短语 leaving ...in the ash 充当结果状语。 [尝试翻译]_原____来___，___火___山___灰____覆___盖___了___没___能____逃___离___城___市___的____人___，___他___们___的____身__ _体___几___乎___全____部___烧___化___消___失____了___，___只___留____下___火___山___灰___里____的___人___形___空____当___。_____
3．A scholar from the local cultural institute, Professor Zhang, told us that around the year 1900 the European explorer Sven Hedin discovered the ruins of the Loulan Kingdom. [句式分析]
[尝试翻译] 来自当地文化研究所的一位学者张教授告诉我们，大约 在 1900 年，来自欧洲的探险家斯文·海定发现了楼兰王国的遗迹。
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