I.词语辨析： 1、possible / probable / likely
possible：指客观上有可能性，但含有希望很小的意思；不能用人做主语。常用句式： It is possible to do sth. / It is possible for sb. to do sth. / make it possible for sb. to do sth. 另外：名词前有：all, every, the only, the best 及其它形容词的最高级修饰时，possible 一般放于 名词之后，作后置定语, 但也可以放于名词前。 e.g. This is the only way possible. They have tried every possible method to do the experiment.
probable：probable 比 possible 可能性大，“很有可能、大概”，所以我们可以这样说：“Probable is more possible than possible”。 probable 指有实际的依据和逻辑上的合理性；
probable 也不用人做主语。常用句式：It is probable that ….. e.g. It is probable that he will be late again. It seems probable that he will come. Such a thing is possible, but not probable.
likely：表示从外表迹象进行判断有可能发生的事。常用以下句型： Sb. is likely to do sth. / It is likely that sb. will do sth. / Most(Very) likely sb. will do sth. e.g She is likely to go to the USA soon. It is likely that we’ll have another test. Very likely it will rain in no time.
2、separate / divide separate：指“把因某种原因而混在一起的人或物分开”。 e.g. I tried my best to separate the two fighting boys, but failed. Please separate these papers in half an hour. 常用句式：separate A from B e.g. Can you separate good apples from the bad ones for me? His whole family were separated from one another during the war. divide：指“把原为一体的整体分割开来，成为若干个小的个体”。常用句式： divide A into B：把 A 分成 B. e.g. He divided the cake into four parts and gave each of us one. divide sth. between / among sb.：和某人分享/分担某物/事
e.g. We divide the rent among the three of us. 3、prevent / protect
prevent：阻止、防止（事情的发生）。与 from 连用，from 可省略。 e.g. The heavy rain prevented us（from）going to school. Nothing will prevent history（from）going forward.
含有“阻止、防止某人干某事”意思的词组还有： stop … (from) doing sth. = keep … from doing，在 keep…from 中，from 不能省。 e.g. His illness stopped him (from) going to Kunming on business. His fear of darkness keeps him from going out at night.
protect：保护，常用句式：protect sb. / sth. from ….：保护 4、add / add to / add … to / add up / add up to
add：加、加起来，常用：add A and B 或 add sth. up e.g. If you add two and three, what / how much will you get? 又说、补充说 e.g. “I don’t trust him any more.” He added. = He added that he didn’t trust him any more.
add to：增添、增加 e.g. His illness added to our worry.
add … to：把……加进……里 e.g. Please add some more sugar to the water. Add some salt to the soup, and it will be more delicious.
add up：把……加起来 e.g. Would you please add these numbers up?
add up to：总计达… … = come to e.g. These numbers add up to 5678. His debts added up to ten thousand yuan altogether.
5、common / ordinary / usual common：指“因常见而不足为奇”。 e.g. In the past, cars were rare, but now cars are common. It is a common sight to see foreigners walking in the street. ordinary：指“平淡无奇、无特别之处”。 e.g. I don’t want to wear this dress to attend this ordinary meeting.
He is one of the ordinary workers in our factory. usual：指“习惯性的、遵循常规的、一贯如此的”。 e.g. He is reading in his usual chair.
After the flood, everything returned to usual. 常用短语：as usual：与往常一样；than usual：比平常……；as is usual with sb.：某人一贯如此 e.g. As usual, today he got up at 5:30 and prepared breakfast.
But yesterday he got up earlier than usual. As is usual with him, he failed to do his homework. 常用句型：It is usual (for sb.) to do sth.：（某人）做……是常有的事。 e.g. It is usual for him to be late for school. 6、each other / one another each other：（通常指两者间的）互相、相互 e.g. The two boys helped e ach other all the way and they got home finally. one another：（一般指三者或三者以上的）互相、相互 e.g. Students should lea rn from one another. 区分：one… the other：（一般指两者中的）一个……另一个 e.g. I have two brothers. One is a worker, the other is a doctor. 7、provide / supply：提供、供应 provide：常用句式：provide sb. with sth. = provide sth. for sb. e.g. Our school provides snacks for the students every afternoon. The power station provides us with cheap electricity. provide：可以解释为：抚养、瞻养，用：provide for sb.句式。 e.g. Poor Mr. Black has to provide for a large family. She has only a boy to provide for. supply：常用句式：supply sb. with sth. = supply sth. to / for sb. e.g. We supply eggs, sugar and many other things to / for our residents. The media supplies us with lots of information. 常用短语：supply and demand：供需； a good supply of：大量的……；be in short supply：供应
1、n ot all / each / every … / both not 与 all、each、every…、both 连用，即构成部分否定，解释： not all… = all … not ：不是所有的……都…… e.g. All the students can’t understand it. Not all the boys like playing football. not each… = each… not…：不是每个……都…… e.g. Each girl doesn’t like colorful clothes Not each of them can get up on time. not every… = every…not…：不是每个……都…… e.g. Not every student can study English well. not both… = both… not…：两个……不都是…… e.g. Both the boys aren’t good ones. 注：全不、都不：none … is / are…； 没一个：no one …；两个都不：neither … is
2、vote：投票 vote on：就……投票表决 e.g. We voted on whether to go or not. In those days women had no right to vote on important matters. vote for：投票支持、赞成 e.g. The public voted for the building of a new hospital. vote down：投票否决 e.g. We decided to vote down his proposal. vote against：投票反对 e.g. All the students vote against smoking in classrooms. vote through：投票通过 e.g. Finally we voted through the decision
4、a list of：一个……单 e.g. He gave me a list of things that we needed for the meeting.
list 短语：make a …list：编一个……单；draw up a list：造表； put a person’s name on the list： 把 某人列入名单；take a person’s name off the list：把某人除名
list：vt. 列表、造册 e.g. Please list all the thing you want to buy.
5、ensure：担保、保证 1）+ 名词 e.g. This letter will ensure you a seat on the ship. His recommendation ensured me a job in that shop. Good food and enough sleep will ensure your early recovery. 2) + that ….：保证……一事， = make sure (that)… e.g. Can you ensure that I get a room on the ship? I will try my best, but can’t ensure that you will be employed. 3) ensure sb. against / from sth.：保护……免受…… e.g. No one will ensure you from being fired if you don’t work hard.
6、avoid：逃避、避免，常用句式：avoid (doing) sth. e.g. He changed his mind at the last minute, so he avoided the air crash.. To avoid meeting him, I took the other road.
7、point：n. 点、分数、要点 e.g. 3.142 is read “three point one four two”. He got 75 points in the last exam.
常用短语：turning point：转折点； freezing point：冰点； to the point：得要领、中肯的； off the point：离题的、偏离要点的； at / on the point of…when…将近/.就要……的时候，就在这时……
vt. （用……）指向 point to：指着，主语可以是人或物 e.g. He pointed to door and told me to go out.
The clock stopped, with the hour hand pointing to 5. point at：指着，主语是人 e.g. It’s rude to point your finger at others.
The teacher pointed at the map and asked us where the place was. point out：指出 e.g. Please point out the spelling mistakes in the article.
The teacher points out that a good knowledge of English is a must for students. 8、intend：打算、想……、意欲
1）intend to do：打算做…… e.g. I intend to study abroad next year.
They intended to buy the old house and move in. 2) intend that … should.. e.g. We intend that the plan should be carried out next month. 3) sth. be intended for …：某物是准备用于/给……的。 e.g. This book is intended for senior students inten tion：意图、意向. He went to Shanghai with the intention of seeing his friends. 9、take turns：轮流（at doing sth,)做某事 e.g. We take turns at looking after mother day and night. 表示“轮流”的词组和句型还有： by turns (at doing …)：轮流/依次地做…… e.g. All the way we drove the car by turns. in one’s turn：轮到某人时 e.g. I’ll talk to you, each in your turn. out of turn：次序混乱的 e.g. The students answered the questions out of turn. It is one’s turn to do sth.：轮到某人做某事 e.g. It is my turn to clean the blackboard this week.
Whose turn is it to do the housework today? 10、plan：计划、打算
1) n. one’s / the plan for …：……的计划 e.g. What’s your plan for tomorrow?
That’s my plan for increasing sales this year. 2) vt. plan to do sth. e.g. They rejected my plan to run the factory.
He planned to rent a house and live by himself. 11、three times：三次、三倍
e.g. I have been to Tokyo many times. 英语倍数表示法三句式： 1) A is 几次 as + adj. as B e.g. This river is five times as long as that one.
2) A is （几– 1）次 + 比较级 than B e.g. This river is four times longer than that one. 3) A is 几次 + the + n. + of B e.g. This river is five times the length of that one. 12、conclude：1）结束 = end, stop e.g. The teacher concluded his class with a poem.
After explaining the rules, the headmaster concluded the meeting. 2) 下结论：conclude that …
e.g. From these facts, I conclude that I am right in this point. He concluded that he would quit the chance.
conclusion：结论， arrive at / come to / draw / reach / make a conclusion e.g. We arrived at a conclusion after a heated discussion. 13、base A on B：A 是以 B 为根据/依据的 e.g. He based his theory on real life.
The film is based on a folk story. sth. based on….：以……为根据的…… e.g. a film based on real life, a story based on imagination 14、speed：n. 速度； at a speed of…：以……的速度（后接数字）；at the speed of：以……的速度（后接名词） e.g. The car is going at a speed of 100 km/h.
No object on the earth can travel at the speed of light at present. The horse can run at the speed of the train. speed 与 at 或 with 的搭配：with 可与：all / lightening / great / surprising 连用，其余均与 at 连用， 如：full, high, top, low, ordinary….。 vt. / vi. (speed—sped—sped, speeded：少用。）加快……的速度；加速前进（speed up) e.g. The driver sped his car to make up for the time. The train sped up and soon disappeared. 15、percent 百分比、百分之，= %, 用于：x percent of + n.结构，这一结构作主语时，谓语动词取决 于名词，并不取决于百分比的大小。 e.g. Nearly 97 % of the water in the world is sea water. About one percent of the students in this school are Party members.
注 ：30% of the population are old / workers. 16、be willing：情愿、愿意，用于：be willing to do sth. / that …should…句型。
e.g. I’m willing to help you for free. Are you willing that he should be sent to work there?
willingly：乐意地、欣然地 = with pleasure e.g. — Will you please help me with my English study?
— Yes, willingly. 17、report：n. 报告、报道
e.g. give / make / present / listen to a report I read a funny report in the paper today. Vt. 报道：report (doing) sth.，向…… 报告……（report sb. / sth. to …)
e.g. I will report such a thing to the headmaster. The girls reported him to the teacher for his smoking.
18、convince：说服、使……相信，常用句式： 1) convince sb. of sth.； 2) convince sb. to do sth.； 3) convince sb. that … e.g. Finally he convinced me of his honesty. We convinced them to go with us. She convinced me that she didn’t make the stupid mistake.
19、responsible：负责任的 e.g. He is a responsible father. be responsible for：为……负责 e.g. I’ll be responsible for my words. A teacher should be responsible for the safety of his or her students.
20、chance：vt. 偶然发生、碰巧 ( chance to do sth. / It chanced that …) e.g. I chanced to look out of window and so saw the accident. It chanced that I knew something about it. n. 1）运气(uc.) e.g. It is pure chance that I found the news. 2）希望、可能性(uc.) There is (no) chance of doing sth. / that ….. e.g. There is no chance of his coming for the meeting.
have (no) chance of doing sth.：（没）有做某事的希望。 e.g. She has no chance of recovery / recovering from illness.
3) 机会(c.) have a / the chance to do / of doing sth. ：有机会做…… / Chances are that …很有可能…… e.g. That year I had a chance to go to the USA, but I deserted it.
Chances are that he has already finished his work and is waiting for us. chance 的短语：by chance 偶然的； by any chance：万一； take a chance：冒险一试 21、make one’s way：（克服困难）前进 e.g. They made their way through the fog.
The travelers made their way across the desert. 我们还可以这样表示：fight one’s way：打出一条路；feel one’s way：摸索着前进…… 22、run after：追赶、(口语）追求 e.g. The bus was full, but still some people were running after it.
The young man is running after the lady. 23、The first time + 从句, = When + 从句：某人第一、二、三……次做某事时，……。可以指过去
的时间，也可以指将来的时间。 e.g. The second time he came to see me, I was working in a shop. You’ll like him the first time you see him. 注：这一结构是用名词短语引导从句。能引导从句的名词短语还有：the moment, the minute, the second, …. e.g. He turned and ran away the moment he saw me.
I recognized his voice the minute I heard it on the phone. 24、Sb. / Sth. be sai d to ….：据说某人……，to 后可用：do, be, be doing, have done 等形式。
e.g. She is said to be a good student in the class. They are said to have seen the film already. The boy is said to be studying in the USA.
这一句型可改为： It is said / reported / known / believed …that sb. …. e.g. It is said that she is a good student in her class.
It is known that China is a great country with a long history. It is believed that there are strange animals living in the forest.
25、It is time ….：该……了，……的时间到了。 1）+ (for sb. ) to do sth. e.g. It’s tome (for us) to do our homework. 2) + that … did / should do … (虚拟语气） e.g. It’s time that we went home / should go home. It’s time that the students went to / should go to the playground.
III. 语法点拨：过去分词及过去分词短语作定语 过去分词及过去分词短语作定语，要注意以下几点：
A、被修饰的名词与过去分词及过去分词短语的动作之间存在被动关系； e.g. a stolen car, the newly-built house, the house built last week, the books borrowed from the library ….
B、单个的过去分词作定语，一般前置，但有时也可后置； e.g. spoken English, a burnt house, a puzzled boy；the things unexplained = the unexplained things, the guests invited, …
C、过去分词短语作定语必须后置； e.g. a house burnt last night, a lesson given by Mr. Smith, the boy lost on the way, a book written by Luxun,
D、过去分词短语作定语有三种时态：1、done….：一般式，表示动作经常发生或已发生； 2、being done：表示动作正在进行； 3、to be done：表示动作将要发生。 请对比一下句子： e.g. This is the bridge built last year. The bridge being built will be finished next month. The bridge to be built soon will be very beautiful.
E、分词及分词短语作定语时，均可以转换成一个定语从句。 e.g. a stolen car = a car that / which was stolen the window broken yesterday = the window that / which was broken yesterday
1、Having an ice-cream in winter is very ______ these days.
2、______ from her parents from birth, she couldn’t recognize them at all when meeting them.
A. To separate
B. To be separated C. Separated
D. Being separated
3、My father is _____ to come to see me.
D. may be
4、The room ______ tens of years ago is still in good condition.
A. having built B. being built C. to be built
5、We voted ____ the proposal, and it will come into effect next month.
6、The bad weather _____ the plane taking off.
7、“And I’ll give you a hand, too”, he _______ .
A. added to
C. added up
D. added up to
8、“All the boys don’t like studying English”. Means _______ .
A. None of the boys like studying English.
B. No boy likes studying English
C. Not a boy likes studying English
D. Some boys don’t like studying English. 9、He stepped aside and so avoided _____ by the passing car.
B. to hit
C. to be hit
D. being hit
10、“You can refer to the book,” he said, ______ at a dictionary.
C. to point
D. having pointed
11、_________ is said to have finished the work.
12、An elephant is about five times ______ a horse.
A. as heavy as B. the weight
C. heavier as
13、_____ on a real event, the story is very moving.
D. that of
C. To base
14、It’s high time that we ______ a break.
C. to have
15、As people’s life improves, car factories are stepping _____ their production.
16、I haven't seen you for a couple of days. What have you been up __ ?
17、— There must be a dozen pens in this house but I can never find one when I need one.
— Keep looking, ______ is sure to turn up.
18、— The book isn't easy for Jack to understand, is it?
— _____ His foreign language is far better than expected.
A. No, it isn't
B. I'm afraid not C. I don't think so D. Yes, it isn’t
19、The Browns looked forward with hope ______ a chance to go abroad.
A. to get
B. of getting
C. in getting
D. to getting
20、We like Fred _____ all the boys he was the most honest one.
B. because of C. as
D. for that
Keys: 1-10: ACCDD,ABDDB 11-20: AADBA, BACDB
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