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9A上海牛津英语 U5

Unit 5

The human brain Memory

1. agree vi. 同意 He agrees with me. 他同意我的意见。 【指点迷津】agree with, agree to, agree on (1) agree wit 表示“同意…适合…”,后面一般接人作宾语。 I said that she‘d better finish the work first. But she didn‘t agree with me. 我说她最好先完成工作,但她不同意我的话。 (2) agree to 也表示“同意…”,但气候一般接办法、计划、提议或某件事作宾语。 We agreed to the plan. 我们同意那个计划。 (3) agree on 表示“双方就…达成协议,取得一致意见” We agreed on the question. 我们就这个问题取得了一致意见。 2. enjure v. hurt; damage 损害,伤害 There were two people injured in the car accident. 又两个人在车祸中受了伤。 She was injured badly in an accident during the work. 她在一次工伤事故中受了伤。 【指点迷津】injure, hurt, harm, damage, wound, destroy (1) injure vt. 损害,伤害,毁坏,指在事故中受到的意外伤害或情感、名誉上的伤害。 Don‘t injure his pride (reputation). 不要伤害他的自尊心(名誉)。 (2) hurt vt. & vi. 使受伤痛,损害,危害,指肉体或精神上的伤害、创伤,强调伤害造成 的痛苦。 It hurts your eyes to read in bed. 在床上看书对眼睛有害。 (3) harm n. & vt. 伤害,损害,危害,指对人或事物的危害。 Animals are our friends. We can‘t harm them. 动物是人类的朋友,我们不要伤害他们。 (4)damage vt.& n. 损害,毁坏,破坏,指因损害二使之失去使用价值、用途等。 The acid rain damaged the crops. 酸雨毁坏了庄稼。 (5)wound vt.& vi. & n. 使受伤,打伤,伤口,指利器或子弹给身体造成的伤害。 The bullet wounded him in the shoulder. 子弹打伤了他的肩膀。 (6)destroy vt. 破坏,摧毁,毁坏,指有目的有意图的破坏。 They had destroyed the bridge before the enemy came. 他们在敌人到来之前已经毁掉了 这座桥。 3. afterwards adv. 然后,后来地 We saw the film and afterwards walked home together. Soon afterwards, the balloon began to descend and it landed near an airfield. 过了一会儿,气球开始降落,并且在一个机场附近着陆了。 【知识拓展】-ward(s) (后缀) (1)构成形容词表示“向…的”;(2)构成副词表示“向”。 forwards 向前 backwards 向后 downwards 向下 upwards 向上 northwards 向北 southwards 向南 4. basic adj. 基本的 basic data 基本数据 basic industry 基础工业 The basic reason why he made so many mistakes in his homework is that he didn‘t go over his lessons yesyerday. 在他的家庭作业中犯那么多错的根本原因是他昨天没有复习功课。 【近义】essential adj. 基本的,必需的

【知识拓展】base n. 基础 She used her family‘s history as a base for her novel. 她把一家人的经历作为她小说的素材。 5. improve v. 改善,改进 He had a haircut to improve hia appearance. 为了改变形象,他理了发。 This is noe good enough. I want to improve it. I am unable to improve on his suggestion. 我提不出比他更好的建议了。 【近义】get better 转好 progress v. 进步 6.link v. 联结,联合 The two towns are linked by a railway. 这两个城镇由一条铁路连接起来。 【常用搭配】link A to B / link A together with B 将 A 和 B 连接在一起 The new bridge will link the island to the mainland. 新的桥梁将把该岛与大陆连接在一起。 7.method n. 方法 The best method of keeping fit is to exercise regularly. 【指点迷津】method, way 这两个词都有“方法”或“方式”的意思 (1) method 所表示的 “方法” 可以指做某件事的具体步骤或程序, 也可指抽象概念 “条理” 。 To do this, scientists have to devise methods using radar and underwater television. 为此,科学家还要设计出使用雷达和水下电视的方法。 (2) way 是个最通用的且不正式的词,可以用阿里代替 method。由于 way 常出现在许多固 定的词组中,可见这是个使用非常频繁的词;在不少含有 way 的词组中,使用 method 或 manner 等可能表意更准确些,但是那样却损害了生动性。 He always has his own way. 他总是随心所欲。 此句中的 way 就是 manner 的意思,因为说的是“个人喜爱的方式方法”。 另外 do sth in this way 中的 way 即 method 的意思, 但并不用 method。其他如: In time, all Sam‘s money was paid back in this way. 最后,山姆的全部钱都是用这种方式 付还的。 The only way to do this was to operate. 要做到这一点的唯一方法就是动手术。 Civilized men like such a way of living. 文明人喜欢这样的生活方式。 8.memorize v. 记住,记忆 He memorized the list of dates, but neglected the main facts corresponding to them. 他记住了那一系列日期,却忽略了与其有关的主要事实。 【指点迷津】memorize, remember (1) memorize 指的是“记住,熟记”,是将原本无记忆的东西通过某种手段二化作记忆。 Memorize these words and you will have a dictation tomorrow. (2) remember 指的是“回忆,记起”,是将原来记忆中的东西挖掘出来。 Can you remember what happened yesterday? 9.silly adj. 愚蠢的,傻的 Don‘t be silly, that insect won‘t hurt you. 别傻了,那虫子不会伤你的。 Don‘t stand there, you silly ass. 别站在那儿,你这笨蛋! 【近义】foolish adj. 愚蠢的,傻的,笨的 【反义】wise adj. 英明的,明智的,聪明的 clever adj. 聪明的,机灵的 10.colourful adj. 鲜艳的,彩色的;生动的,刺激的 a colourful shirt 鲜艳的衬衫 a colourful story 饶有趣味的故事 She has a rather colourful past. 她过去的生活多姿多彩。 【知识拓展】colour n. 颜色 You need more colour in this room. 你这房间的色调需要丰富些。

11.imagine v. 想象,设想 Can you imagine what what it would be like to live without electricity? I can‘t imagine living anywhere but Shanghai. 我很难想象能到上海意外的地方去生活。 【近义】suppose v. 假设,推想,猜想 guess v. 猜测,猜想

【知识拓展】imagination n. 想象力,想象 His writing lacks imagination. He is full of imagination. 12.connect v. 联合,连接 Will you connect this wire to the television? 你要把电线接到电视机上吗? If it is built, it will connect Britain to Europe for the first time in history. 一旦建成,在历史上第一次它把英国和欧洲连接起来。 【指点迷津】join, connect 两词都含有“联合,结合,接合”的意思。 (1) join 常指把明显分离的东西连接起来。 The new highway has joined the two cities. 新高速公路把两个城市连接起来。 (2) connect 语气较弱,连接的事物通常又直接接触。 A minor road connects the highways. 一条小路同几条公路相连。 13.dramatic adj. 戏剧性的,生动的 The meeting between the mother and her son was dramatic indeed. 母子之间的见面真的很又 戏剧性。 She made a dramatic speech at the meeting. 她在会上发表了激动人心的演说。 【知识拓展】drama n. 戏剧,戏剧艺术 My grandma prefers dramas to popular songs. 我奶奶喜欢戏剧而不喜欢流行歌。 14.death n. 死,死亡 The death of her mother was sudden. 她母亲的死很突然。 The accident was the death of him. 他因意外事故而死。 【指点迷津】death / die / dead / dying (1) die v. 死亡 death n. 死亡 To die for the people is a glorious death! 为人民而死,虽死犹荣。 A bad driver was responsible for their deaths. (2) dead adj. 死亡的,无生命的 My father has been dead for ten years. (3) dying adj. 将死的 The wounded soldier was dying and said something in a low voice. 这个受伤的士兵奄奄一息,虚弱地说着什么。

1. I heard in a book that we have a short-term memory and a long-term memory. short-term memory 短期记忆 long-term memory. 长期记忆

You can’t rely on your short-term memory .you should study hard. 你不能依赖于短期记忆,你应该努力学习。 2. When people get older, their short-term memory becomes worse, but we can still remember things that happened a long time ago. 当人们变老的时候,他们的短期记忆变得糟糕,但是我 们仍然能记得很久以前发生的事。 Get 和 become 都是系动词,后面加形容词作表语。 Summer is coming. It is getting hotter and hotter. 夏天来临了,天气变得越来越热。 The price of the gold is getting higher and higher. 黄金的价格越来越高。 The leaves became yellow. 叶子变黄了。 After 20 years’ hard work, he becomes rich. 在 20 年的努力工作后,他开始变得富有了。 3. He said, ?When you get old, three things start to go wrong. 他说: “当你老的时候,三件事开始变得糟糕起来。 ” go wrong 变坏 go 作为联系动词,意为“变为,成为,处于……..的状态” go mad 变疯 go hungry 挨饿 4. First, you start to lose your memory. 首先,你开始失去记忆。 lose one‘s memory 失去记忆 He‘s getting old and starts to lose his memory. 他变老了,开始失去记忆。 5. Afterwards, he could not remember anything for longer than a few minutes. 后来,他记得的事不能超过几分钟。 afterwards ad. 后来,以后 -ward(s)(后缀)①构成形容词,表示“向…..的”②构成副词,表示“向…….” forwards 向前 backwards 向后 downwards 向下 upwards 向上 northwards 向北 southwards 向南 6. I saw a programme on television about a man who had an accident and injured his brain. 我看了一个电视节目,说有一个男人遇到车祸大脑受伤了。 injure, hurt, harm, damage, wound, destroy 的区别。 injure vt.损害,伤害,毁坏,指在事故中受到的意外伤害或情感、名誉上的伤害。 Don‘t injure his reputation. 不要伤害他的名誉。 hurt vt.&vi.使受伤痛,损害,危害,指肉体或精神上的伤害、创伤,强调伤害造成的痛苦。 It hurts your eyes to read under the sun. 在太阳底下看书对眼睛有害。 harm n.&vt. 伤害,损害,危害,指对人或事物的危害。 Animals are our friends. We shouldn‘t harm them. 动物是人类的朋友,我们不应该伤害他们。 damage vt.& n.损害,毁坏,破换,指因损害而使之失去使用价值,用途等。 The acid rain damaged the crops. 酸雨毁坏了庄稼。

wound vt.&vi.使受伤,打伤 n. 伤口,指利器或子弹给身体造成的伤害。 The bullet wounded him in the shoulder. 子弹打伤了他的肩膀。 destroy vt.破坏,摧毁,毁坏,指有目的有意图地破坏。 They had destroyed the bridge before the enemy came. 7. He was often angry with because he thought that she never visited him. 他经常对她生气,因为他认为她从不去(医院)看他。 be angry with sb 对某人生气 She is angry with her husband because he lost 2,000 yuan. 她对丈夫生气,因为他丢了 2000 元。 8. One basic way of improving your memory is to use the link method. 一个改善你记忆力的基本方法是使用联系的方法。 improve one‘s memory 改善某人的记忆力 Practice can help you improve your memory. 练习能帮助你改善你的记忆力。 link n. 相关,联系 There is a new rail link between two towns. method n. 方法,办法,教学法,指系统的,理论上的方法。 A series of methods to get rid of pollution will be adopted. 【注意】way n.方法,手段,方式,通常不带有系统性。 I‘ve never tried to do this way. 9. Memory is connected with our feelings. 记忆和你的情感相关联。 be connected with 与……相关联 He was born in Canada, his family being closely connected with Canadian Army. 【注意】比较:be connected to 把……连接到 Thin wires are connected to cables. 细电线被连接到电缆上。 This dispute is nit directly connected to the negotiations. 这场战争不直接与谈判相关联。

1.lose one’s memory 失去记忆 The boy lost his memory after the car accident. 2.be essential for 对…至关重要 Food is essential for life. 食物是维持生命不可或缺的。 3.in hospital 住院 I‘ve never been in hospital 我从未住过院。 4.be angry with sb. 对某人生气 He was often angry with his wife because she seldom visited him. 他经常生他妻子的气,因为她很少来看他。 【指点迷津】be angry with, be angry at 两者都表示“对…生气”的意思 前者常表示对“人”生气,后者常表示对“事”或“物”生气。 The mother was quite with the son.

The guests were quite angry at the terrible service in the restanrant. 5.be connected with…= be joined / linked with… 与……相连 France is connected with Britain by the Channel Tunnel. 英吉利海峡隧道将英国和法国连接 在了一起。 That solitary old man was suspected to be connected with the crime. 那个孤独的老头被疑与 犯罪事件有关。 Memory is connected with our feelings. 记忆力是和我们的情感相联系的。 6.hear about 听说,了解 98% old people in the USA can remember where they were when they heard about the death of President John F Kennedey in 1963. 美国有 98%的老人都能记得当他们在 1963 年听到肯尼迪总统死讯时自己在哪里。 【指点迷津】hear about, hear, listen to hear about 听说; hear 听见,强调结果; listen to 听,强调动作 Have you heard about Julia coming to Geneva? 你有没有听说朱丽娅到日内瓦来了? I heard a loud noise. 我听见一声巨响。 Listen to the noise of the wind in the trees. 倾听林间的风声。 【知识拓展】hear from sb. 收到某人的来信 I‘m looking forward to hearing from you. 我正期待着收到你的来信。

1….but we can still remember things that happened a long time ago. …that happened a long time ago 为定于从句,that 为定语从句的引导词。 【知识拓展】 在复合句中作定语,修饰主句中某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词, 通常位于定语从句之前。引导定语从句的是关系代词 that, which, who (whom, whose) 和关系副词 when, where, how, why。关系代词或关系副词位于先行词和定语从句之间,它既起联系作用,又充当从句中的一个 成分。定语从句的基本结构为:先行词+关系词+定语从句。 Do you know the girl who /that is standing under a tree? She got a computer which / that her parents bought for her. The boy whose father is a doctor studies very hard. The classroom whose window is open is mine. I still remember the day when you leave for Beijing. This is the school where my mother works. Could you explain the reason why you were late? 2.When you get old, three things atart to go wrong. 此处 get 和 go 都是联系动词,意为“变得”,类似的动词还有 turn, become 【指点迷津】become, get, turn 这几个词作为系动词,都可以表示“变成”之意,但其用法不同,become 和 get 指变化 过程已经完成;become 比较正式,get 则更加口语化。Turn 则变成与原来完全不同。 He became very angry. It‘s getting dark. Her love turned into hate. Leaves turned yellow in autumn. 3.If you want to memorize something, you must make a picture in your mind. If the picture is silly, strange and colorful, you will remember it better. If someone says …, you will …

划线部分是由 if 引导的条件状语从句,事态为一般现在时,而主句则使用一般将来时。 If it rains tomorrow, I‘ll stay at home. If you feel cold, put on the warm coat. 如表示自然规律,客观事实,主句和从句都为一般现在时。 If you take a fish out of water, it dies. 4.An easy way to do this is to imagine there… 这句话中又两个不定式短语, 但它们起的作用不同。 do this 作定语修饰 an easy way, 而 to to imagine there…在整句话中作的是表语。 5.单词 way 在句中的不同意思 (1) One basic way of improving your memory is to use the link method. An easier way to do this is to imagine there is a ?mile‘ between the first letter and the last letter. In this way, you can work out the problem. (方式,方法) (2)On the way to the office, he came across an old friend. (在去某地的路上) (3)By the way, have you been there? (顺便问一下) (方面)

(4)Water is very important in many ways.

(5)Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the theatre? (路线)

More practice 语言点解读 Ⅰ.Words
1.various adj. 各种各样的,不同种类的 Their hobbies are many and various. 它们的业余爱好五花八门。 2.focus vt. 聚焦,集中 If you focus the sun‘s rays through a manifying glass on a dry leaf, it will start to burn. 用放大镜把阳光聚到叶子上,叶子就能燃烧。 3.concentrate v. 集中(思想、注意力等) 其后跟宾语时要加介词 on / upon. I must concentrate on my new job. 我必须专注于我的新工作。 He concentrated his energies on his study. 他把精力专注于研究。 I can‘t concentrate on my studies with all that noise going on. 吵闹声不绝于耳, 我精神无法集 中于学习。 4.thought n. 思想,想法 That boy hasn‘t a though in his head. 那孩子没脑子。 Didn‘t you have some thoughr of going to Spain this summer? 你想过今年夏天去西班牙吗? 5.technique n. 技术,技巧 applying modern techniques to a traditioal craft 将现代技术用于传统手工业 6.maintain vt. 维持,保持

Maintain your speed at 60 mph. 你要保持每小时 60 英里的速度。 7.store v. 储存,贮藏 have a good store of food in the house. 家里储备了大量食物。 8.prevent vt. 防止,阻止 Your prompt action prevented a serious accident. 你由于动作敏捷而防止了一次严重事故。

Ⅱ. Phrases
1.as well as 也,还,而且 He grows flowers as well as vegetables. 他既种菜也种花。 【指点迷津】as well, as well as (1)as well 的同义词为 too, 意为“也” He can speak French as well. 他也会说法语。 (2)as well as 意为“同,和,也”。用来连接名词和代词等。谓语动词用单数还是用复 数形式, 要根据 as well as 前的名词或代词来确定。 与动词连用时, v-ing 形式。 well as 用 As 同义词组为 not only…but also, 但侧重点不同。 Tom is as strong as Jack. 汤姆和杰克一样结实。 He draws as well as his cousin. 他和他表哥画得一样好。 2.in addition 另外 In addition (to the names on the list) there are six other applicants. 除此(名单上的名字)之外,还有六个申请人。

Grammar: 由 if, if…not, unless 引导的条件状语从句
(一)条件状语从句的含义 由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子叫复合句,在复合句中修饰主句中的 动词、形容词或副词等的从句叫做状语从句。状语从句根据它表达的意思可分为很多种,if 引导的句子在复合句中表示条件,做主句的条件状语,因此称为条件状语从句。 If you don‘t hurry, you‘ll be late. (二)if 引导的条件状语从句与主句事态的一致性 在复合句中,从句中的动词时态在一定程度上受到主句中动词时态的制约,英语语法 中称为时态呼应。 1.在含有条件状语从句的复合句中,如果主句是一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时代替一

般将来时。 If it rains, I will stay at home. I‘ll go with you if you don‘t want to go alone. 2.如果主句含有 must,may, can 等青苔动词,从句也要用一般现在时。 If you drive too fast, you may have an accident. You must stop if the traffic light is red. 3.如果主句是祈使句,从句用一般现在时。 Don‘t go and play football if you don‘t finish your homework. (三)unless 除非,如果不,可替换 if …not If you don‘t keep ice-cream in a fridge, it melts quickly. = Unless you keep ice-cream in a fridge, it melts quickly. If you don‘t invite me, I will not go to the party. = Unless you invite me, I will not go to the party. If the thief isn‘t caught red-handed, he will not admit anything. = Unless the thief is caught red-handed, he will not admit anything. 如果这个小偷不是被当场抓获,他就什么也不承认。 状语从句 用一个句子(从句)来作另一个句子(主句)的状语,用作状语的句子就叫作状语从句。作 什么样的状语就叫什么类型的状语从句。状语从句在复合句中作状语,修饰动词、形容词或 副词等。状语从句可以表示时间、条件、原因、地点、目的、结果、让步、方式、比较等意 义。 时间状语从句: when, while, as, as soon as, since, until, after, before Whenever he comes, he brings a friend. 他每次来都带个朋友。 1)when 意为―当……时‖,引导时间状语从句,表示主句的动作和从句的动作同时或先后 发生。eg:I feel very happy when you come to see me. 你(们)来看我时,我感到很高兴。 When you are crossing the street, you must be careful. 你 (们) 过街道时, 一定要小心。 【注】when 引导的时间状语从句,when 的从句可以用延续性动词,也可以用点动词。 eg: He was working at the table when I went in. 当我进去的时候,他正在桌旁工作。 Someone knocked at the door when I was sleeping. 当我正在睡觉时,有人敲门。 【注】when 也可以作并列连词,表示一个动词正在进行的时候,突然间发生了另外一件事。 eg:I was fishing by the river , when someone called for help. 我正在河边钓鱼,就在那时有人求救。 We were working in the chemistry lab, when the lights went out. 我们正在化学实验室工作,突然灯都熄灭了。 2) before 意为―在……之前‖,引导时间状语从句时,表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之 前。

eg: We cleaned the classroom before we left school yesterday. 昨天离开学校之前,我们打扫了教室。 He had been a cook before he went to college. 他上大学前曾当过厨师。 after 意为―在……之后‖,引导时间状语从句时,表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之后。 eg: After you use plastic bags, you mustn't throw them about. 你(们)用过了塑料袋之后,不准到处乱扔。 3) since 引导的时间状语从句,译为―自从……‖,主句常用现在完成时,从句常用一般过去 时。 eg: We have made many dumplings since we began to cook. 自从我们开始做饭起,我们已经包了许多饺子了。 We haven't seen each other since we parted . 我们自从分手以后一直没见过面。 【注】常用句型:It is +时间段+since 从句 译为:自从……有多长时间了。 eg:It is six years since she graduated from the university. 自从她大学毕业已有六年的时间了。 4) until 意为―直到……时‖,引导时间状语从句时,表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之 前。当主句的谓语动词是持续性动词时,主句常用肯定形式;当主句的谓语动词是非持续性 动词时,从句常用否定形式, not... until... 意为―直到……才……‖,这时的 until 可以用 before 来替换。 eg: I'll stay here until you come back. 我会呆在这里,直到你回来。 He didn't go to bed until he finished his homework.他直到做完作业才睡觉。 5) as soon as 意为―一……就……‖,表示从句的动作一发生,主句的动作马上就发生 eg: I'll tell him about it as soon as he comes back.他一回来我就告诉他这件事。 6) while 引导的时间状语从句,常译为―与……同时,在……期间‖,while 的从句中常用延 续性动词或表示状态的词。 eg: They rushed in while we were discussing problems. 当我们正在讨论问题时,他们冲了进来。 Father was cleaning the car while I was playing computer games. 当我正在打电子游戏时,爸爸正在清洗汽车。 【注】while 也可以作并列连词,表转折的关系,相当于 but,译为―然而‖。 eg: I like listening to music, while my brother likes doing sports. 我喜欢听音乐,而我的兄弟爱好运动。 7) till 和 until 引导的时间状语从句,译为―直到……为止‖,not … till / until 引导的时间状 语从句,译为―直到……才‖。前者强调主句动作的结束,用延续性动词,后者强调主句动作 的开始,用点动词。 eg:I will wait for my friend until / till he comes. 我要一直等到我朋友来。 We won't start our discussion until / till he comes. 我们要等到他来了,再开始我们的讨论。 条件状语从句: If, unless, as long as if 意为―如果‖,引导条件状语从句时,表示假如有从句的动作发生就(不)会有主句的动 作发生。 If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we will go there by bike. 如果明天不下雨,我们就骑自行车去那里。 If I get there early, I can see the doctor quickly.如果我早早地到那里,我就可以快点看病。 As long as I am alive, I will go on studying. 只要我活着, 我就要学习。

原因状语从句:As, because, since 常用的引导连词有 because, as 和 since,它们的区别是:在回答问题的时候,使用 because;对 于显而易见的原因,常用 as 或 since;as 和 since 的从句常放在主句之前,而 because 的从句 常放在主句之后。 eg:Why did you go? I went because Tom told me to go. 你为何去?那是因为汤姆叫我去。 He was angry not because we were late but because we made a noise. 他很生气不是因为我们来迟了,而是因为我们弄出了声音。 As it was raining hard, we had to be indoors. 由于雨太大,我们只好呆在家里。 Since you feel ill, you'd better not go to work. 既然你感觉不舒服,你最好不要去上班了。 Since we live near the sea, we enjoy nice weather.由于我们住在海边,能享受到好的天气。 地点状语从句:Where, wherever Put it where we can all see it.把它放在我们都能看到的位置。 We will go wherever the motherland need us most. 我们要到祖国最需要的地方去。 目的状语从句:So that, in order that 常用的引导连词有 so that, that 和 in order that 译为:以便,为了,目的是。 eg:Please speak more slowly so that we can make full notes. 请讲慢一点,以便我们能作详细笔记。 I shall write down your address that I may not forget. 我要把你的地址记下来,以免忘记。 I sent the letter by air mail in order that it might reach him in time. 这封信我以航空信发出,以便他能及时收到。 【注】目的状语从句可以用动词不定式来替换做目的状语 eg:We work harder than usual finish it in a week. 我们比平常加倍努力工作以在一周内完成工作。 Finish this so that you can start another.把这个做完,你可以开始另一个。 结果状语从句:So that, so…that, such…that He was so angry that he couldn't say a word. 他气得说不出话了。 让步状语从句:though, although, even if, however Though he is in poor health, he works hard.虽然他身体不好,但是他工作很努力。 方式状语从句: As Students do as the teachers say.学生们按照老师说的去做。 比较状语从句:than, (not)as…as, The work isn't as easy as I thought.这项工作比我想象得难。 1. 易混引导词 while, when, as 的区别: when 既可以指"时间点",与瞬间动词连用,也可以指"时间段",与延续性动词连用 (=while) 。如: When he came in, his mother was cooking. When (While) we were at school, we went to the library every day. While 表示时间段,因此,while 从句的谓语动词要用延续性动词。如: Please don't talk so loud while others are working. As 与 when 用法相似,但着重强调主句动作与从句动作同时发生,有"随着……"或"一 边……一边……"之意。如: As you get older, you get more knowledge.随着年龄的增长,你获得的知识就越多。 2.Because,as,since 的区别:

Because 用于表示直接原因,回答 why 提出的问题,语气最强;As 用于说明原因, 着重 点在主句,常译成"由于";since 表示显然的或已知的理由或事实,常译成"既然"。如: Water is very important because we can't live without it. He didn't come yesterday as his mother was ill. I'll do it for you since you are busy. 3.such…that, so…that, so that 引导结果状语从句的区别: such 是形容词,修饰名词; so 是副词,修饰形容词或副词。其结构如下: 1) such + a (n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词+that…… 2) such+形容词+复数可数名词+that …… 3) such +形容词+不可数名词+that……。如: This was such a good film that I went to see it several times. It was such good books that they sell well. It was such bad weather that I had to stay at home. He spoke so fast that I couldn't follow him. He is such a lovely boy that we all like him. =He is so lovely a boy that we all like him. 注:在"形容词+可数名词复数/不可数名词"结构中,当名词前有 many, much, few, little 表示数量的多少时,名词前用 so。如: She made so many mistakes that she didn't pass the exam. 4. 引导结果状语从句的连词,主要有 so/such…that…,so that 等。 1)so...that 结构在某种情况下可以与 enough to 和 too...to 结构相互转换。 eg: She is so short that she can]t reach the buttons of the lift. =She is too short to reach the buttons of the lift. 2)so that 也可以引导结果状语从句,意为结果是,以致于. eg: They missed the bus so that they were late for class. 【注】so that 也可引导目的状语从句,此时可用 to 或 in order to 替换,将其改为简单句。 eg: He got up early so that he could get to school on time. =He got up early to get to school on time. =In order to get to school on time, he got up early. 【做一做】 1. He asked me A. if she will come C. they would help us do it 2. You will be late A. after B. when . B. how many books I want to have D. what was wrong with me

you hurry up. C. unless D. if it‘s very cold.

3. I usually sleep with the window open A. until B. unless C. as D. if 4. We won‘t wait for you A. if B. unless C. when 5. I don‘t know if he A. to draw 6. You

you come here on time. D. till , I‘ll tell you.. D. drew

tomorrow. If he C. draw study hard.

B. to drawing fail if you

A. may, won‘t DCBBAC

B. will, won‘t

C. will, don‘t

D. may, /

【巩固练习】 选择合适的连接词,完成下列句子。 1.Jim spends a lot of money on books______he is not rich. 2.Kate fell into sleep ______she was listening to the music. 3.----Is David at school today? ----No. He is at home ______he has a bad cold. 4.We won't have supper ______my mother comes back. 5.Speak to him slowly ______he may understand you better. 6. ______ she doesn't come on Sunday, I'll go fishing by myself. 7.It is four years ______I had left that small village. 8. ______the air moves, it is called wind. 9.We will go to the park ______it doesn't rain tomorrow. 10.______little boys did ______much work. 11.There are few new words in the passage ______we can't understand it. 12.Go back ______you come from. 13.He reached the station ______the train had left. 14.----Do you have a swimming pool? ----No, we don't. At least, not ______big ______yours. 15.Give me your paper ______you have finished it. 16.It is raining hard, ______we have to stay at home. 17. ______you work harder, you'll never pass the final exam. 18.Look after te children ______I am out. 19.The village is ______far away ______I can't get there on foot. 20.That is ______an interesting book ______I can't stop reading it. Keys: 1.though 2.while 3.because 4.until 5. so that 6.Even if 7.since 8.when 9.if 10.Such, do 11.but 12.where 13.before 14.as(so), as 15.after 16.so 17.unless 18.while 19.so, that 20.such, that

A 卷 Ⅰ. Choose the best answer. 1. Nowadays people usually get ______ information from TV, newspaper and the Internet. A) quite a few B) a number of C) a lot of D) a pair of 2. There are two English books on the desk, but ______ of them is mine. A) both B) neither C) all D) none 3. –Jack, how are you feeling today? -- Much ______. I think I can go to school tomorrow. A) good B) better C) well D) best 4. My sister Mary swims faster than ______ student in her class. A) any B) any of C) any one D) any other

5. ______ you have been to America for many times, you must know something about this country. A) Since B) Although C) Unless D) When 6. We‘re going to Heping Cinema. You can come with us, ______ you can meet us there later. A) and B) but C) or D) so 7. Miss Wang asked me ______ I was busy with the test those days. A) that B) if C) when D) what 8. I am very hungry now. Mum, ______ will the meal be ready? A) how soon B) how far C) who D) which 9. Simon, you ______ do your homework today. Leave it for tomorrow. A) needn‘t to B) not need to C) don‘t need D) don‘t need to 10. ______ interesting the film we saw last night is! A) How B) What C) What a D) What an Ⅱ. Choose the right word to complete each sentence. 1. The old man was to the policeman who found the lost car for him. (thank) 2. For the time he became worried about the future because of the global financial crisis (金融危机). (one) 3. Qingming Festival is an important Chinese festival to remember people‘s relatives. (die) 4. Professor Brown can still tell quite a few funny , although he is already in his eighties. (story) 5. Bolt in winning the gold medal in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.(success) Ⅲ Rewrite the sentences as required. 1. The new flat cost Mr. Black a lot of money. (改为否定句) The new flat ______ cost Mr. Black ______ money. 2. The red bike belongs to my mother. (对划线部分提问) ______ ______ belongs to your mother? 3. Whiz-kid Wendy‘s never late for work.(改为反意疑问句) Whiz-kid Wendy‘s never late for work, _____ _____? 4. The boy is so strong that he can carry the heavy safe easily. (改为简单句) The boy is strong ______ ______ carry the heavy safe easily. 5. By the time he was six, he had started learning Japanese. (保持句子原意) He ______ learning Japanese ______ he was six. 6. James Nai. Smith, a Canadian doctor invented basketball. (改为被动语态) Basketball ______ ______ by James Nai. Smith, a Canadian doctor. Ⅳ. Reading comprehension Elephants use their trunks(鼻子)the way people use their hands. At the end of the trunk are parts that act like fingers. These allow elephants to do wonderful things. They pick up their food-parts of trees or maybe just a nut. They use their trunks to drink water or spray the water over their bodies to cool off. Because elephants do not see well, they use their trunks as―eyes‖.They do not walk where their trunks cannot feel the ground.

Carole is a twenty-two-year-old elephant at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. She can paint with her trunk. Her paintings are sold to make money for the park. ( )1.Elephants pick up objects with their_______. A. feel B. fingers C. teeth D. trunks ( )2.Elephants do not ______. A. eat tree parts B. see well C. eat nut D. like water ( )3. Carole is ______. A. a wild animal park B. an elephant trainer C. an elephant D. a city ( )4. The word ―spray ‖ means______. A.喷 B.饮 C.舀 D掘 ( )5. The best title of the passage is ______. A. Elephants‘ Trunks B. A Clever Elephant C. How Elephants Find Food D. How Elephants Paint New rules and behavior standards(行为规范)for middle school students came out in March. Middle School is going to use a new way to decide who the top students are. The best students won‘t only have high marks. They will also be kids who don‘t dye(染) their hair. The following are some of the new rules. Tell the truth. Have you ever copied someone else‘s work on an exam? Don‘t do it again! That‘s not something an honest student should do. If you have played computer games for two hours in your room, don‘t tell your parents you have done homework. Do more at school. Good students love animals and care for other people. April is Bird-loving month in China. Is your school doing anything to celebrate? You should join! That way, you can learn more about animals and how to protect them. When more people work together, it makes it more fun for everyone. Have you ever quarreled with your teammates when your basketball team lost? Only working together can make your team stronger. Be friendly to the people you are with. Try to think of others, not only yourself. Be open to new ideas. Have you ever thought that people could live on the moon? Maybe you‘ll discover Earth Ⅱ someday. Don‘t look down on new ideas. Everyone‘s ideas are important. You should welcome them, because new ideas make life better for everyone. Protect yourself. Has someone ever taken money form one of your classmates? Don‘t let it happen to you. If you have to go home late, you should let your parents know. Use the Internet carefully. The Internet can be very useful for your studies. But some things on the Internet aren‘t for kids, so try to look at Web pages that are good for you. You can use the Web for run or homework. Can‘t you find any good! Web sites for children? Here are some: Http:// kids.eastday.com Http ://www.chinakids. net.com http:www.Cycnet.com ( )6. The new school rules will help kids by telling them . A. how they can study well B. what they should do at school C. what is right and what is wrong D. how they can protect themselves ( )7. According to the passage, which of the following is not true? A. Take care of yourself when you are out.

B. Tell the truth, even when you are wrong. C. Keep some animals to protect them. D. Use the Internet, but keep away form bad things. )8. The main idea of the fourth paragraph is about . A. making the team stronger B. helping with each other C. being a good friend to others D. getting on well with others )9. Good Web sites for children can . A. be a waste of time B. help them with their studies C. do homework for them D. make life easier )10. The passage tells us how to . A. be top students B. do more at school C. care for others D. use the Internet

Ⅰ. CB BDA CB ADA Ⅱ. thankful first dead stories Ⅲ didn‘t, much Which bike started, when Ⅳ.

succeeded is she . enough to was invented



B 卷
Ⅰ. Choose the best answer. ( ) 1. Will you go to the Great Wall if it tomorrow? A. rain B. doesn‘t rain C. not rain D. won‘t rain ( ) 2.Success is concerned hard work. A. with B. to C. for D. from ( ) 3. Good memory by making a picture in your mind. A. will improve B.will be improved C. improves D. will be improvemented ( ) 4. I prefer a walk to in front of the TV. A. taking, sitting B. to take, sit C. take, sit D. take, sitting ( ) 5. ----The maths teacher is giving a lesson. He says who can find out a line to the two triangles. ----No one responses. A. connect with B. link with C. divide by D. connect ( ) 6. Some of the wheat is from Canada. What about ? A. another B. the other C. others D. the rest ( ) 7. Don‘t tell anybody about it. Keep it you and me. A. among B. between C. in D. with ( ) 8. ----Where is the scientist gave us the talk yeterday? ----He has gone back to Qinghua University. A. whom B. who C. whose D. which ( ) 9. On Tree Planting Day, we planted over 100 trees on sides of the road. A. both B. all C. each D. another

( ) 10.You shouldn‘t keep silent when . A. speaking B. spoken to C. spoken D. speaking to ( ) 11. ----I hear another new building , isn‘t it? ----Yes, it in two months. A. is building, will complete B. is being built, will be complted C. has been built, is completed D. is built, will finish ( ) 12. Without friendship, one can‘t be happy although he is rich enough. As for me, I will never forget the days I spent with my dearest friends. A. that B. when C. who Ⅱ. Choose the right word to complete each sentence. 1. I often have of my childhood. (memories, momorized) 2.This course will help the students to their spoken English. (improve, prove) 3. Look carefully and you‘ll see something happen. (dramatically, dramatic) 4. Please send this article to the at once. He‘ll print it for you. (director, editor) 5. As he ir an elderly man, his memory becomes worse and worse. (short-term, long-term) 6. It‘s very hot. Put the meat into the fridge, or it will go . (badly, bad) Ⅲ. Choose the right word or expression which is closest in meaning to the underlined part in each sentence below. A. put into his memory D. dramatic B. methods E. making sth. get better C. join, connect F. losing your memory

( ( ( ( (

) 1.Teachers adjust their ways of teaching in order to make them fit their students. ) 2. Don‘t expect anything very exciting will happen. ) 3. He can‘t memorize everything though he is very bright. ) 4. The medicine can keep you from being unable to remember things. ) 5. We should link theory with practice.

Ⅳ. Rewrite the sentences as required. 1. Unless you are honest, he won‘t believe you. (用 if 改写) 2. I am told that I have passed the exam. (改为被动语态) I am told that by me. 3. His memory was too poor to remember anything. (保持句意不变) His memory was poor remember anything. 4. Practise English every day, or you won‘t make progress. 保持句意不变) 5. You‘d better stop smoking at once. (保持句意不变) At once.

Ⅴ.Reading comprehension A SCHOOL REPORT Name: Edward Grade: Subjects: Maths: He is a little weak in this but he has tried his best to catch up with others. English: He is the best in the class. Keep it up. French: His reading is very good, and he can remember many words. History(历史): He is familiar(熟悉) with the names of many places in the world. Music: He doesn‘t like pop music, though he sings very well. Conduct: Fair No. in class: 9 Absence(缺课): 8 7 School: Kelvin Grove High School Term ending: May 6th

Remarks(评语): Edward can do a lot better. More work is needed next term. Class teacher: Ivy Principal: M. L. Martin School reopens: September 11 ( )1. After reading this, we know this is A. a studying plan of Edward Scott C. a school report of Edward Scott ( . B. A teaching plan of Ivy D. a working plan of M. L. Martin

)2. Which of the following is Not mentioned(提到) in the form? A. PE. B. Music. C. Maths. . C. geography . B. Maths and history D. music and English D. History D. History.

)3. Edward‘s best subject is A. Science B. English

)4. Edward is not good at A. Science and geography C. French and history

)5. According to the form, which of the following sentences is true? A. Edward can‘t sing songs very well. B. Edward doesn‘t do well in science. C. Edward can do better if he works harder next. D. Edward learns two foreign languages in school.

Shanghaihua (上海话):use it or lose it There are about 6.000 languages in the world and some experts say that as many as half of these languages will disappear in the next one hundred years. Will Shanghaihua be one of t 1 ? It‘s a question that more people are asking. In China, Putonghua is the official language. That m 2 it‘s the language of government, business and the media(媒体). And it‘s also the language that is used in schools. Shanghai is a special city. It is modern, fashionable and sophisticated (老练的). And Shanghaihua shows that by being modern, fashionable and sophisticated.“I love riding on the b 3 and listening to people speaking Shanghaihua.‖ Miss Evans, an American reporter said. ― I don‘t understand a word they are saying but I like the sound of the language. It sounds smoother than Putonghua. And Shanghainese like things ―renao‖(热闹)so even a discussion about the weather can sound like an argument or a party. My bus rides are a 4 interesting.‖ Young people still speak Shanghaihua but not as well as their parents and grandparents. They are under more and more pressure (压力) speak Putonghua. So the language is being used l 5 to often in everyday life. Some people want to keep the language from disappearing completely by building museums and having cultural festivals to save it. But a language isn‘t a painting or a book. It‘s a living thing and you e 6 use it or lose it. If people stop using it in their d 7 lives, a museum or a festival will not help. It will be lost forever , like the Yangtze River dolphin. Answers Ⅰ. BABAD DBBAB BA Ⅱ. 1. memories 2. improve 3. dramatic 4. editor 5. short-term 6. bad Ⅲ. BDAFC Ⅳ. 1. If you aren‘t honest, he won‘t believe. 2. the exam has been passed 3. so, that he couldn‘t 4. Iy you don‘t practise English every day, you won‘t make progress. 5. Please stop smoking





always less . either


C 卷 Ⅰ. Choose the best answer. 1. Don‘t play football near the river. Why not ______ it on the playground? A) plays B) playing C) to play D) play 2. Nowadays it is convenient for us ______ many things on-line. A) buy B) buying C) to buy D) buys 3. My friends ______ some foreigners around the Century Park this time yesterday. A) is showing B) are showing C) was showing D) were showing 4. Mr. Ken ______ more than sixty Chinese paintings since he came to Shanghai five years ago. A) collects B) collected C) has collected D) will collect 5 –Where is your uncle? -- He ______ to Hong Kong. He will come back in two weeks. A) has been B) had been C) has gone D) went 6. Sometimes the lion ______ ―the king of the jungle(森林)‖ because it is very strong and dangerous.

A) is called B) called C) are called D) calls 7. Peter was here just now. Perhaps he is in the teachers‘ office. The underlined part means ______. A) in time B) a short while ago C) just then D) at the same time 8. These days many young people are keen on Korean love TV series(韩剧). The underlined part means ______. A) dislike B) turn to C) are proud of D) are fond of 9. Ladies and gentlemen, attention, please. The plane will ______ in ten minutes. A) take off B) take up C) set out D) set up 10. Yang Liwei ______ about 21 hours travelling around the earth 14 times in the spaceship. A) took B) spent C) paid D) cost Ⅱ. Choose the right word to complete each sentence. 1 It‘s about twenty ____minutes‘_ walk to get there. (minute) 2 There is still some ___medicine__ left in the bottle. (medical) 3 It‘s much __safer___ to stay here than to go away. (save) 4 After __apologizing__ to me, she picked it up. (apologize) 5 I spent all my __childhood___ in that village. (child) Ⅲ Rewrite the sentences as required. 1 My sister read some children‘s stories. (对划线部分提问) What __kind___ of story ___did__ your sister read? 2 Sam speaks French most fluently in our class. (保持句意基本不变) ___Nobody__ ___else__ in our class can speak French as fluently as Sam does. 3 He put on more clothes in order not to catch cold. (保持句意基本不变) He put on more clothes so __that___ he ___woundn‘t__ catch cold. 4 We are busy now. We‘d better have fast food at lunchtime. (保持句意基本不变) __Since___ we are busy now, we‘d better have a ___fast___ lunch. 5 Dinosaurs probably all disappeared on the earth because of diseases. 保持句意基本不变 Dinosaurs probably all __died____ ___of___ diseases. 6 Tom hasn‘t received a letter from his parents for a long time. (保持句意基本不变) Tom‘s parents haven‘t _written to___ _____ him for a long time. Ⅳ. Reading comprehension Tourists in space Man has been traveling into space for more than 40 years. Even today though, very few people get the chance to be an astronaut, about 30 per year. This is mainly because of the expense. It costs millions of yuan to train and send astronauts into space. Very few countries can (1) this. This is why American businessman Dennis Tito paid 20,000,000 US dollars to the Russian space agency to go into space. He visited the International Space Station. His (2) , making him the first ever space tourist, took eight days altogether. He spent most of his time taking photos,

looking at the Earth and listening to music on his once-in –a –lifetime trip. After landing (3) back on earth, Mr. Tito thought the trip was worth the money. The only difficulty he had was walking but this is normal(正常) for anyone who‘s been in zero gravity(重力). Some people, especially in the American space agency, think that you must be (4) to go into space. They worry about the safety of other astronauts. However, Mr. Tito received training before he left. He also helped to prepare food for the others while in space. They told him what to do and where he was (5) to go. A survey showed that 75% of Americans supported space tourism. Some people are bored of all the places on earth. They are looking for a new (6) trip and space is the place. The money Mr. Tigo gave the Russians equaled 20% of their annual budget (年度预算). If we want to see men on Mars and other planets, we may need rich people (7) Mr. Tito to help us pay for it. The Russians have more rich people who want to become space tourists. They should take them. Choose the words or expressions and complete the passage 选择最恰当的单词或词语完成短 ( 文) 1. A) give B) afford C) receive D) prove 2. A) plan B) money C) trip D) time 3. A) heavily B) easily C) safely D) hardly 4. A) international B) traditional C) special D) professional 5. A) allowed B) made C) noticed D) invited 6. A) developing B) surprising C) boring D) exciting 7. A) except B) like C) with D) from Happy New Years! Today is March 17th. About two and a half months ago, I said "Happy New Year to many o f my friends. About fifty days ago, I said the same thing to some other friends. In about four day s; I'll say the same wishes to yet another group of friends. I'll do the same thing in July and also in September. "How can that be?" you might ask (if you' re from Western Europe or the America). "Everyone knows that New Year's Day is in January!" In fact, the date of New Year's Day depends on the calendar(日历)—and I have friends who use o ne or more of five different calendars to keep track of at least part of their lives: ? January 1st: New Year's Day on the Western / international calendar ? In January or February (in 2006, January 29th): New Year's Day on the Chinese calendar (Chi na, Korea, and a few other places) ? March 21st: New Year's Day on the traditional Persian (波斯) calendar ? Mid-July (usually the 16th): New Year's Day on the Islamic (Muslim)(穆斯林)calendar ? September: New Year's Day on most Eastern Orthodox Church(东正教)calendars (Central an d Eastern Europe) and, usually, on the Jewish calendar And these are just the New Year's Days that I know about! As a matter of fact, there are pr obably even more! ( ) 1. The first time the writer said, "Happy New Year!" was about January 1st. The second time was on or after ___. A. February 28th B. the middle of March

( (

) )

( (

) )



C. January 29th D. March 21st 2. The writer will say "Happy New Year" around March 21st to some ___ friends. A. Chinese B. Korean C. Persian D. Eastern Orthodox 3. According to the passage, we can infer that the exact(准确的) dates for the two New Yea r's Days in September are ___. A. probably different B. not always in September C. probably the same D. after September 4. The meaning of "keep track of is ___. A. understand B. choose C. manage D. forget 5. The Chinese calendar is used ___. A. only in China B. in several different places C. only in China and Korea D. all over the world 6 . The word "Years" in the title of this article ___. A. means that January 1st is at different times on different calendars B. is a mistake and should be "Year" C. is used because New Year's Day is at different times on different calendars D. means that the writer was polite

Ⅰ. DC DCC AB DAB minutes‘; medicine; safer; apologizing; childhood; Ⅲ kind, ded; Nobody else; that, wouldn‘t; Since, snack; died of; written to Ⅳ B C CDAD B CCACB C


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