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高中阅读理解细节题解题技巧及练习


阅读专题-----细节题
一、题型特点与命题方式 所谓细节题,是指原文提到了某事物、现象或理论,题干针对原文具体叙述本身发问。细节事实理解题 主要考查考生对文章中某一些特定细节或文章的重要实事的理解能力。它一般包括直接理解题和语义理解题 两种。直接理解题的答案与原文直接挂钩,从阅读材料中可以找到。这种题难度低,只要学生读懂文章,就 能得分,属于低层次题。而语义理解题须将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语义上的转换才能得出结论。这类 题目要求考生能理解原文中某个短语或句子的含义,从而找到与答案意思相同的词语和句子。 这类试题旨在考查考生对事实细节的确定。这类试题一般只针对文章中某一特定的细节,也可能涉及若 干个细节,或者针对文章的主要事实,或利用图形图表或地图来表示信息等。此类试题一般又可分为两类: 一是直接理解题,答案可在原文中直接找到;二是词义转换题,答案是原文中有关词语和句子的转换,而不能 在原文中直接找到。 一般包括直接理解题(在原文中可直接找到答案,常用 who, what, when, where, why 和 how 等提问。 )语 义转化题(需要将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语义上的转换,两者存在表达上的差异,有时需要进行加工 或整理后方能得出结论) 、数字计算题、排列顺序题、图表图画题等。抓住文段中的事实和细节是做好该题 型的关键,也是做好其它类型问题的基础。这类题型的题干常为: When / Where did the story happen? Which of the following statements is (not) correct? Which of the following statements is (not) mentioned in the passage? Which is the right order of the events given in the passage? All the statements are true except… Which of the following statements is true/NOT true/false, according to the passage? Choose the right order of the events given in the passage? 该题型几乎都可以在文章中直接找到与答案有关的信息,或是其变体。所以,搜查信息在阅读中非常重 要,它包括理解作者在叙述某事时使用的具体事实、数据、图表等细节信息。在一篇短文里大部分篇幅都属 于这类围绕主体展开的细节。做这类题一般采用寻读法,即先读题,然后带着问题快速阅读短文,找出与问 题有关的词语或句子,再对相关部分进行分析对比,找出答案。 二、解题思路与应试技巧 细节题是针对文中某个细节、某句话或某部分具体内容设置问题,正确答案的根据一定可以在原文中找 到,即原文的改写往往成为正确选项。 通常细节题的正确选项有以下特征: 1、对原文句子中的关键词进行替换。把原文中的一些词换成意义相近的词,成为正确选项。 2、词性或者语态的变化。把原文中的一些词变换一下词性,或者改变原文句子的语态,给考生制造障 碍。 3、语言简化。把原文中的复杂语言现象进行简化,成为正确答案。 4、正话反说。把原文中的意思反过来表达而成为正确选项(适用于寻找错误选项的题目) 。

干扰项也是以文章中的某个细节设题,若不仔细辨别,很容易把它当成正确选项。干扰项有以下特征: 1、将原文内容扩大或缩小。把原文中的限定词去掉或替换,使该选项看似正确,实际上却是错误选项。 2、把未然当已然。改变文中某句话的时态,如把将来时变成现在时,把未发生的事情当成已发生的事 情。 3、无中生有。即选项内容是根据主观想象或推测得出的结论,而文中并未涉及。 4、偷换概念。把原来做该事的“张三”换成“李四”,所述细节确实与原文一致,一不小心就会误选。 5、文不对题。这类题最不容易辨别,选项中的描述与原文完全一致,确属原文中的一个细节,这时要 回到题干,看该选项是否能回答题干所提的问题。
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解读细节题的不同类型: 1、直接信息题 对此类题型,考生可以首先从问题中找到关键词,然后以此为线索,运用略读及查阅的技巧在文中迅速 寻找这一细节,找到后再把这一部分内容仔细阅读一遍,仔细比较所给选项与文中细节的细微区别,在准确 理解细节的前提下,最后确定最佳答案。 2、间接信息题 做这类题目时,考生需要对原文信息进行加工处理,然后再进行进一步的推理或鉴别,这是介于事实细 节题和推理判断题之间的一种题型,对考生来说有一定难度。 3、数字计算题 数字计算题也是近几年高考中常考的内容,此类试题是在文章中直接表现出来细节事实,有的要经过具 体的计算才能够得出正确的答案。具体的计算题可以是对年代的计算、月份的计算或比例的计算等。文章中 经常会出现许多数字,它们对解题产生一定的影响。解答此类试题的方法是先来理解文章的大意,然后经过 对比、分析、计算等就能够得出正确的答案。 4、排列顺序题 这种试题要求考生根据事件发生的先后顺序和句子之间的逻辑关系,找出事件发生的正确顺序。做这种 题时可采用“首尾定位法”,即最先找出第一个事件和最后一个事件,迅速缩小选择范围,从而快速选出正确 答案。 5、图表图画题 在有图表图画的阅读理解中,有的图表图画出现在阅读理解文章中,有的出现在选项中,这些图片的出 现增加了试题的直观性,同时也暗含着和文章内容相关的信息。在解答此类试题的时候,一定要把握图表图 画中所暗含的信息,特别是有些事实是通过图片来叙述的,我们可以采用按图寻找正确答案的方法。 【例】71. The chart shows that from 2005 to 2008, ________. A. the percentage of the Spanish families with a computer rose 35 points B. the percentage of the White families with a computer remained unchanged C. the number of the Black families with a computer was on the decrease D. the number of the Asian families with a computer showed the sharpest increase 【解析】D。请看原文中的柱形图:

由柱形图可以清楚地看出,拥有电脑的亚洲家庭的数量急剧增加,其他三项表述都与图表不符,故 D 项 正确。

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专项练习: 【考例 1】For many parents, raising a teenager is like fighting a long war, but years go by without any clear winner. Like a border conflict between neighboring countries, the parent-teen war is about boundaries: Where is the line between what I control and what you do? Q:Why does the author compare the parent-teen war to a border conflict? A. Both can continue for generations C. Neither has any clear winner B. Both are about where to draw the line D. Neither can be put to an end

【考例 2】 The researchers studied cultural differences in the recognition of facial expressions by recording the eye movements of 13 Western Caucasian and 13 East Asian people while they observed pictures of expressive faces and put them into categories: happy, sad, surprised, fearful, disgusted, angry, or neutral. They compared how accurately participants read those facial expressions using their particular eye movement strategies. Q:What were the people asked to do in the study? A. To make a face at each other. C. To classify some face pictures. B. To get their faces impressive. D. To observe the researchers? faces.

【考例 3】Confucius suggested Rule as a principle for the conduct of “Do not do to others what you would not want others to you. ”He assumed that all men were equal at birth, though some potential than others, and that it was knowledge that set men apart. Socrates focused on individual, and thought that the greatest purpose of man was to seek wisdom. He believed that some had more potential to develop their reason than others did. Like Confucius, he believed that the superior class should rule the inferior(下层的)classes. Q:Socrates shared with Confucius the idea that A. all men were equal when they were born B. the lower classes should be ruled by the upper class C. the purpose of man was to seek freedom and wisdom D. people should not ask others to do what they did not want to 【考例 4】Since Beijing's first ski resort was opened ten years ago, the sport has enjoyed astonishing increase. There are now more than a dozen resorts. Clothes markets in the city have added bright colored ski suits to their winter collections. Mr. Wei, a manager of a newly-opened ski resort in Beijing, sees the growth of an industry that could soon lead Chinese to head for the ski resorts of Europe. In recent years ski resorts offering natural snow have opened in China. But many are in faraway areas of the country and can't really match the equipment and services of some ski resorts in Europe. Q:Why are some Chinese likely to go skiing in Europe? A. To visit more ski areas. C. For a large collection of ski suits. B. To ski on natural snow. D. For better services and equipment. .

【考例5】He longs for conversations with an editor who will help him turn his good ideas into great ones. He wants someone to get excited about what he's doing and to help him turn his story idea upside down and inside out, exploring the best ways to report it. He wants to be more valuable for your paper. That's what you want for him, too, isn't it? Q:What does the reporter want most from his editors in their talks? A. Finding the news value of his stories. B. Giving him financial support. C. Helping him to find issues. D. Improving his good ideas 【考例 6】 But Parbati doesn?t catch elephants just for fun. “My work,” she says, “is to rescue man from the elephants, and to keep the elephants safe from man.” And this is exactly what Parbati has been doing for many years.
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Increasingly, the Indian elephant is angry: for many years, illegal hunters have attacked it and its home in the jungle has been reduced to small pieces of land. It is now fighting back. Whenever wild elephants enter a tea garden or a village, Parbati is called to guide the animals back to the jungle before they can kill. Q:For Parbati, catching elephants is mainly to A. get long lasting excitement C. send them back to the jungle . B. keep both man and elephants safe D. make the angry elephants tame

【考例 7】Parbati hasn?t always lived in the jungle. After a happy childhood hunting with her father, she was sent to boarding school in the city. But Parbati never got used to being there and many years later she went back to her old life. “Life in the city is too dull. Catching elephants is an adventure and the excitement lasts for days after the chase,” she says. Q:Before Parbati studied in a boarding school, ______________. A. she spent her time hunting with her father B. she learned how to sing love songs C. she had already been called an elephant princess D. she was taught how to hunt tigers 【考例 8】 It is hardly surprising that clothing manufacturers (生产商) follow certain uniform standards for various features(特征)of clothes. What seems strange , however, is that the standard adopted for women is the opposite of the one for men. Take a look at the way your clothes button. Men?s clothes tend to button from the right, and women?s form the left. Considering most of the world?s population-men and women-are right-handed, the men?s standard would appear to make more sense for women. So why do women?s clothes button from the left? Q:What is surprising about the standard of the clothing industry? A. It has been followed by the industry for over 400 years. B. It is different for men?s clothing and women?s. C. It works better with men than with women. D. It fails to consider right-handed people. 【考例 9】 The engineer Camillo Olivetti was 40 years old when he started the company in 1908. At his factory in Ivera, he designed and produced the first Italian typewriter. Today the company?s head office is still in Ivrea, near Turin, but the company is much larger than it was in those days and there are offices all around the world.By 1930 there was a staff of 700 and the company turned out 13,000 machines a year. Some went to customers in Italy, but Olivetti exported more typewriters to other countries. Q:From the text we learn that__________. A. by 1930 Olivetti produced 13,000 typewriters a year B. Olivetti earned more in the 1960s than in the 1950s C. some of Olivetti?s 700 staff regularly visited customers in Italy D. Olivetti set up offices in other countries from the very beginning 【考例 10】After World War Ⅱ, the population of most large American cities decreased; however, the population in many Sun Belt cities increased. Los Angeles and Houston are cities where population shifts(转移)to and from the city reflect the changing values of American society. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, city residents(居民)became wealthier. They had more children so they needed more space. They moved out of their apartments in the city to buy their own homes. They bought houses in the suburbs(郊区). Q:Why did American city residents want to live in the suburbs after World War Ⅱ? A. Because older American cities were dying. B. Because they were richer and needed more space. C. Because cities contained the worst pare of society. D. Because they could hardly afford a live in the city.
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【考例 11】When I was growing up in America, I was ashamed of my mother?s Chinese English. Because of her English, she was often treated unfairly. People in department stores, at banks, and at restaurants did not take her seriously, did not give her good service, pretended not to understand her, or even acted as if they did not hear her. Q:Why was the author?s mother poorly served? A. She was unable to speak good English. C. She was not clearly heard. B. She was often misunderstood. D. She was not very polite. W

【考例 12】My mother has realized the limitations of her English as well. When I was fifteen, she used to have me call people on phone to pretend I was she. I was forced to ask for information or even to yell at people who had been rude to her. One time I had to call her stockbroker (股票经纪人).I said in an adolescent voice that was not very convincing, “This is Mrs. Tan.” Q:From Paragraph 2, we know that the author was A. good a pretending C. ready to help her mother B. rude to the stockbroker D. unwilling to phone for her mother .

【考例 13】 The little baby whale—actually as big as our boat—was obviously stuck and could not move. The mother dived under the water and came up suddenly, making big whirlpools(漩涡) and waves. “She?s trying to help her baby, but on the wrong side,” my father said. At this point, my father moved our boat in a semicircle to the other side and, heading the boat towards the baby whale, pushed it gently. Q:The mother whale failed to help her baby because__________. A. she had stayed in the polluted water for too long B. the whirlpools she had made were not big enough C. she had no other whales around to turn to for help D. the waves pushed her baby in the wrong direction 【考例 14】 Fashion designer Angela Barnard, who runs her own fashion business in London, said older women were much more affected by celebrity(名流) style than in previous years .She said, “When people see stars such as Judi Dench and Helen Mirren looking attractive and fashionable in their sixties, they want to follow them. Older women are much more aware of celebrities .There?s also the boom in TV programmes showing people how they can change their look, and many of my older customers do yoga to stay in shape well in their fifties. Q:What can we learn about old women in terms of fashion? A. They are often ignored by fashion designers. B. They are now more easily influenced by stars. C. They are regarded as pioneers in the latest fashion. D. They are more interested in clothes because of their old age. 【考例 15】Andy rode slowly on his way to school, day-dreaming about the fishing trip that his father had promised him. He was so busy dreaming about all the fish he would catch that he was unaware of everything else around him.He rode along until a strange around drew him to the present. He came to a stop and looked curiously up to the heavens. What he saw shocked him. A huge swarm of bees filled the sky like clack cloud and the buzzing mass seemed to be heading angrily towards him. Q:Why did Andy fail to notice the swarm of bees earlier? A. He was riding to school. C. He was going fishing with his father. B. He was listening to a strange sound. D. He was lost in the thought of the fishing trip.

【考例 16】 Every day we experience one of the wonders of the world around us without even realizing it. It is not the amazing complexity of television. Nor the impressive technology of transport. The universal wonder we share and
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experience is our ability to make noises with our mouths, and so transmit ideas and thoughts to each other?s minds. This ability comes so naturally that we tend to forget what a miracle(奇迹)it is. Q:According to the passage, the wonder we take for granted is A. our ability to use language C. the amazing power of nature B. the miracle of technology D. our ability to make noises with mouth .

【考例 17】It was a village in India. The people were poor. However, they were not unhappy. After all, their forefathers had lived in the same way for centuries. Then one day, some visitors from the city arrived. They told the villagers there were some people elsewhere who liked to eat frog?s legs. However, they did not have enough frogs of their own, and so they wanted to buy frogs from other places. Q:From paragraph 1 we learn that the villagers __________. A. worked very hard for centuries C. were poor but somewhat content B. dreamed of having a better life D. lived a different life from their forefathers

【考例 18】This seemed like money for nothing. There were millions of frogs in the fields around, and they were no use to the villagers. All they had to do was catch them. Agreement was reached, and the children were sent into the fields to catch frogs. Every week a truck arrived to collect the catch and hand over the money. For the first time, the people were able to dream of a better future. But the dream didn?t last long. Q:Why did the villagers agree to sell frogs? A. the frogs were easy money C. they wanted to please the visitors B. They needs money to buy medicine D. the frogs made too much noise

【考例 19】Fear plays no part in this latest problem. “I?m not afraid I?ll lose my children. I won?t lose my children. We live together, and nothing, nothing,” she repeats, her voice rising when speaking to John?s lawyer, “will stop me from being with my children. A law? Year, right. Don?t disturb me when it comes to my children. You are never going to win. If John wants to see them, I cannot stop him. He?s their father—I want them to see him! However, his visit in his present condition will disturb the children?s stable (稳定的) life.” Q:According to Jane in the first paragraph, the law A. can?t take her children away from her C. will best settle the problem . B. can?t do anything with the case D. will disturb her children

【考例 20】 ECP has created national standards for healthy, environmentally (环境方面) clever and affordable homes which are called, the Green Communities Standards. These standards include water keeping, energy saving and the use of environmentally friendly building materials. Meeting the standards increases housing construction costs by 2%, which is rapidly paid back by lower running costs. Even the positioning of a window to get most daylight can help save energy. Q:What is an advantage of the buildings meeting the Green Communities Standards? A.Lower running costs. C. Less air to be lost in hot days. B. Costing less in construction. D. Better prices for homeless people. 参考答案 1.选 B。细节理解题。由第一段最后两句可直接判断答案为 B 项。 3. 选 C。细节理解题。由第五段的第一句… they observed pictures of. expressive faces and put them into categories: happy, sad, surprised, fearful, disgusted, angry, or neutral 可知,参与者被要求把面部表情的图片进行 分类。所以 C 项正确。 3. 选 B。细节理解题。根据第三自然段最后一句,跟孔子一样,苏格拉底认为,上层阶级应该统治下层阶级。 故选 B。
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4. 选 D。 细节理解题。 根据第二段的 Mr. Wei, a manager of a newly-opened ski resort in Beijing, sees the growth of an industry that could soon lead Chinese to head for the ski resorts of Europe 以及此段的最后一句 But many are in faraway areas of the country and can't really match(敌得过)the equipment and services of some ski resorts in Europe.可知。 5. 选D.由倒数第三段的第一句话可知这名记者希望他的编辑能帮他把好的想法变成更好的想法,与D项最接 近。其他三项文中均未提到。 6. 选 B。 根据第四段“My work,” she says, “is to rescue man from the elephants, and to keep the elephants safe from man.”可以得出答案 B。 7. 选 A。由第三段“After a happy childhood hunting with her father, she was sent to boarding school in the city.”一 句可知选 A 合适。 8. 选 B。 细节理解题。 从第一段第二句话 What seems strange , however, is that the standard adopted for women is the opposite of the one for men. 得出的。句意:然而令人奇怪的是适应于女性的标准和适应于男性的标准正好 相反。所以是 B 项“男性的服装和女性的不同”。 9. 选 A。 细节理解题。 根据第一段的 By 1930 there was a staff of 700 and the company turned out 13,000 machines a year.可知“到 1930 年,该公司已有员工 700 人,每年生产打字机 13,000 台。” 10. 选 B。细节理解题。根据第二段的“In the late 1940s and early 1950s, city residents(居民)became wealthier. They had more children so they needed more space. ”可知他们更富有而且需要更多的空间。 11. 选 A。考查事实细节。根据第一段的“Because of her English, she was often treated unfairly. ”可知. 12. 选 D。 考查事实细节。根据第二段的“I was forced to ask for information or even to yell at people who had been rude to her. ”可知. 13. 选 D。细节判断题。由第五段中…“She?s trying to help her baby, but on the wrong side,” my father said.…可 直接判断得出答案。 14. 选 B。细节判断题。由文中“…older women were much more affected by celebrity(名流) style than in previous years. ”和“…Older women are much more aware of celebrities”可以判定 B 项符合题意。 15. 选 D。 细节理解题。 从第一段的最后一句“他忙于想象他要钓的鱼而没有注意周围的一切。 ”可知选 D。 其 他三个选项均与信息句不符。 16. 选 A。细节理解题。 从第一段的第三句我们共有和体验过的奇迹是我们能够利用嘴发出声音, 从而彼 此之间传递观点可知, 人类有利用语言的能力。 此题易误选 D, 只考虑了 our ability to make noises with our mouths 而忽视了下文的中心。 17. 选 C。细节理解题。从第一段中二三句话“The people were poor. However, they were not unhappy. ”可知“村 民们虽然穷,但还是颇为满足的”。 18. 选 A。细节理解题。根据第三段第一句“This seemed like money for nothing. ”句中“for nothing”是“免费的” 意思,说明青蛙容易得到,并能赚到钱,村民才答应卖。 19. 选 A。 细节理解题。 根据文章第一段中“A law? Year, right. Don?t disturb me when it comes to my children. You are never going to win”.可知选项 A 正确。 20. 选 A。 细节理解题。 根据文章第三段倒数第二句话“Meeting the standards increases housing construction costs by 2%, which is rapidly paid back by lower running costs. ”可知,达到这些标准使得房屋建筑成本提高了 2%, 但很快就会被它的较低的运营成本补回。故选项 A 正确。 巩固练习: (1) Most people who enjoy movies do not really care how they are made. They just want to enjoy a good story. Movie producer and director George Lucas wants people to see the best made movies. So, his latest movie Star Wars
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was made without using film. Star Wars was made using digital cameras. A digital camera does not use traditional film. It captures images on videotape. The images recorded on videotape are the placed in a computer. George Lucas says that using digital cameras permits him to have much more control over the final product. For example, the image can be changed after it is placed in a computer. An expert can change color, add or take out objects, add people or beings who are not real. Much of what is seen in the new movie Star Wars is not real. Huge buildings, spacecraft and alien beings from other worlds were produced in a computer. Movie experts say digital technology is the real future of the motion picture industry. A theater will no longer have to wait days or weeks to show a new movie. Theaters will be able to receive copies of new movies by linking computers. Or they will use small computer disks to get a copy of the movie. When the new movie Star Wars was released last month, only 94 theaters around the world had the digital equipment needed to show it. So Mr. Lucas? company produced about 6,000 copies of the new digital movie on traditional film for release in most theaters. However, most people who have seen the movie say these film copies are of much better quality than other filmed movies. Critics say the new digital technology is very costly. Many theater owners will not buy the new technology, yet many of the people who worked on the new movie Star Wars say they would not like to work with film again. They said using digital equipment was faster, and videotape is much less costly than film. One cameraman said the director of a movie can immediately see what was just recorded, something impossible to do with film. 1. According to George Lucas, what makes the best made movies possible? A. A good story. B. Film. C. Digital cameras. D. Videotape. 2. Which is NOT true for the real future of the motion picture industry, according to movie experts? A. Linking computers for copies of new movies. B. Showing filmed movies in theaters. C. Using small computer disks to get a copy of the movie. D. Having the digital equipment needed to show the movie. 3. According to the passage, which is true about the new movie Star Wars? A. There are about 6,000 copies of the new digital movie. B. It has been shown in only 94 theaters around the world. C. It is the best among filmed movies. D. It is the product of the new digital technology. 4. Which of the following is NOT the advantages of the new digital movie? A. The director can have the objects and people added or taken out. B. It will be more convenient for theaters to get such kind of new movies. C. People all agree that the new digital movies are less costly than the filmed movies. D. The director can monitor the recording and check what was recorded just now. 解析: 1. C。直接信息题。根据第一、二段内容可知,拍摄一部优秀电影的关键是数码摄象机。 2. B。间接信息题。根据文章内容,其它三项都是未来采用数码摄象机后可能会出现的情况,B 项仍然是传 统模式。 3. D。综合信息题。A 项“偷换概念”,原文中说的 6,000 份是把 Star Wars 翻制成普通胶片电影;B 项中说只 在全世界 94 家影院放映也犯了“偷换概念”的错误,原文中说世界上只有 94 家影院有放映数字电影的设备, 但接着又说生产了 6,000 份普通胶片的电影供更多的影院放映。C 项“无中生有”,原文中并没有提到;D 项 符合原文信息。 4.C。综合信息题。只有 C 项与原文不符,对数字化电影的花费问题有两种不同的声音,反对者认为这种新 技术费用昂贵。 (2) As the US wakes up to China?s rising status as an economic and strategic competitor, US parents are urging their children to learn Chinese, reports Julian Borger.
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The US is being swept by a rush to learn Mandarin—from wealthy New York mothers hiring Chinese nannies(保姆)for their small children to a defence department education project in Oregon. The forces driving Mandarin?s momentum(势头)are parental ambition for children facing a future in which China is almost certain to be a major player, and the government is worried about that America may get left behind in that new world. The bottleneck is the supply of teachers. Mandarin instructors are difficult to import and difficult to train. There are visa problems in bringing over teachers from China but the biggest barrier is cultural. Teaching in Asia is generally done by rote and the change to western, interactive styles of instruction can be a large leap. On the other hand, it requires enormous firmness for westerners to learn a language like Chinese, with its thousands of written characters. According to the Asia Society in New York, all of America?s teacher-training institutions turn out only a couple of dozen homegrown Mandarin teachers. One way to ease the shortage is to find native Mandarin speakers and use fast-track methods to train them. However, the majority of Chinese-Americans grew up speaking Cantonese, the dialect spoken in Hong Kong, where their parents came from. Many are themselves signing on as Mandarin students at the private language schools springing up on the west coast. 1. Why are US parents so eager to make their children learn Mandarin? A. They are urged by the government to do so. B. They are afraid to be left behind by other parents. C. They believe China will play a major role in the future world. D. They are just carried away by Mandarin?s momentum. 2. The underlined word “rote” in the 4th paragraph probably refers to a teaching pattern which . A. focuses on memory work B. allows the students to think independently C. is centered on interactive skills D. puts much emphasis on examinations 3. What is the main problem in the Mandarin?s momentum in the US? A. The lack of qualified teachers. B. The cultural barrier between the east and west. C. The Americans? lack of firmness. D. The many written Chinese characters. 解析: 1. C。 直接信息题。从文章第三段“parental ambition for children facing a future in which China is almost certain to be a major player”可得出答案。 2. A。词义猜测题。从文章第四段西方互动教学方式与东方教学方式的对比关系中可得到答案,西方注重师 生互动,东方注重记忆。故选 A。 3. A。直接信息题。从文章第四段第一句话 The bottleneck is the supply of teachers.可得到答案。 (3) The New Yorker 1 Year, 46 Issues Cover Price: $194.70 Your Price: $46.00 About The New Yorker: The New Yorker is the eclectic magazine for readers interested in the arts, current events, and culture. The New Yorker includes articles on domestic and international news, exploring current ideas and trends, plus sports, fashion, and entertainment events. In addition, The New Yorker is well known for publishing outstanding short fiction and cartoons with an ironic twist. Playboy 1 Year, 12 Issues
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Cover Price: $72.88 Your Price: $15.96 About Playboy: Playboy is a magazine of literature, political thought, sports, commentary and humor. Although Playboy is most well known for its pictorials of beautiful women, it is also highly regarded for its interviews and fiction writing. Playboy includes regular feature articles on finance, sports, entertainment, self-improvement, technology, and psychology. You must be 18 or older to order Playboy. Nickelodeon 1 Year, 10 Issues Cover Price: $39.90 Your Price: $19.97 About Nickelodeon: Nickelodeon is filled with wonderful entertainment for children. It is wholesome, imaginative, and truly from a child?s point of view. Nickelodeon sees the world from your child?s perspective, where it?s fun to laugh-to think- to do-to learn. Share the award-winning entertainment and humor magazine from Nickelodeon with your kids. Lucky 1 Year, 12 Issues Cover Price: $35.40 Your Price: $15.00 About Lucky: Lucky is the ultimate shopping magazine with the best looks, the best buys, and the best trends before they hit the stores. But what makes really unique is all the detailed information you?ll get on how to purchase the merchandise you?ll find. Lucky provides you with 800 numbers, web site addresses, and more to make your shopping experience easy and convenient! Lucky is your one-stop shopping guide to all the greatest new products on the market. What?s more, it provides wonderful entertainment for women. 1. Which magazine gives buyers the largest price advantage in percentage? A. The New Yorker B. Playboy C. Nickelodeon D. Lucky 2. If you are a housewife, which magazine will you probably buy? A. The New Yorker B. Playboy C. Nickelodeon D. Lucky 3. If you are asked to choose a magazine for a little boy, which one do you think is suitable? A. The New Yorker B. Playboy C. Nickelodeon D. Lucky 4. What information is contained in all the four magazines? A. Sports B. News C. Entertainment D. Trends 5. For each issue, which magazine is the cheapest according to the advertisement? A. The New Yorker B. Playboy C. Nickelodeon D. Lucky 解析: 1. B。数字计算题。通过计算可知,Playboy 这份杂志读者享受的折扣最大。 2. D。直接信息题。Lucky 是一本关于购物的杂志,而且最后提到为妇女提供精彩的娱乐,因此最适合妇女阅 读。 3. C。直接信息题。快速查寻 About Nickelodeon 可知这是一本适合儿童阅读的杂志。 4. C。直接信息题。快速查寻四本杂志的广告可知都含有 Entertainment 方面的内容。 5. A。数字计算题。通过计算可知,The New Yorker 每期仅 1 美元,是四种杂志中每期最便宜的杂志。 (4) Happiness pays off, studies show. Psychologists seeking the real secrets of happiness report that very happy people tend to be more extroverted and agreeable than less happy people.
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“Our findings suggest that very happy people have rich and satisfying social relationships and spend little time alone relative to average people,” write psychologists Ed Diener and Martin E.P. Seligman in the journal Psychological Science. Solid social relationships do not promise happiness, but they are an important contributing factor. The very happy people whom the authors studied all said they had good quality social relationships. However, the authors write, there is no single key to high happiness. “High happiness seems to be like beautiful symphonic(交响乐) music—including many instruments, without any one being enough for the beautiful quality.” Diener regards happiness as “subjective (主观的) well-being” ―in other words, the person evaluates (评估) his or her own quality of life. The question to ask is, “Is my life going well,according to the standards I choose to use?” If the answer is “yes”, then that person is judged to be happy. Because people evaluate their lives based on happiness,“subjective well-being is very important. Though necessary, it is not enough for having a good life. Subjective well-being “seems quite necessary for the good society, although it is not enough for that society because there are other things we also value and would want in such a place,” says Diener. Can subjective well-being be measured scientifically? Diener points out three parts contributing to happiness: pleasant emotions and moods, lack of negative emotions and moods, and satisfaction judgment, to which other factors—including cheerfulness and feelings of fulfillment—may be added. There is no magic formula(公式)for happiness. Diener suggests steps you can take to ensure you are as happy as you can be. Surrounding yourself with good friends and family—people who care about you and whom you care about — is a start. Joining in activities you enjoy and value is also important; whether it?s work or play, keeping busy in an environment enjoyable to you will contribute much to your subjective well-being. In addition, a healthy outlook is necessary. 1. The underlined word “extroverted” probably means______. A. pleasant and social B. hard-working and active C. careful and shy D. warm-hearted and helpful 2. Happiness and symphonic music are common in that __________. A. they are both something beautiful B. they both make people feel pleased C. they both depend on more than one factor D. they are both hard to achieve 3. According to Diener, a person can be judged to be happy when he ______. A. has rich social relationships B. spends more time with other people C. lives a quality life D. thinks his life is going well according to the standards he chooses to use 4. Which of the following does not belong to components contributing to happiness? A. Pleasant moods. B. Negative emotions.C. Satisfaction judgment. D. Feelings of fulfillment. 解析: 1. A。词义猜测题。从后面的 agreeable(随和的)判断,此处词义为“外向的”,与 A 项最接近。 2. C。间接信息题。概括文章第四段可以得出答案:幸福和交响乐都不是单一成分组成的,而是取决于很多 因素。 3. D。间接信息题。从文章第五段可得出答案:幸福是一个人的一种感觉,以自己选择的标准来衡量自己是 否幸福。 4. B。间接信息题。从文章倒数第二段可知,不能构成幸福的显然是“消极情绪”。

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