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2012届高三英语一轮复习语法精讲:专题13 倒装句(北师大版)


专题十三

倒装句

英语最基本的语序是主语在前,谓语动词在后。但有时由于句子结构的需要或表示强调,就 要采用倒装形式。 一、全部倒装 全部倒装是指将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般 过去时。常见的结构有: 1.here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run。 There goes the bell.铃响了。 2.表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语是表示运动的动词。 In came the teacher.老师进来了。 注意:上述全部倒装的句型的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。 Here he comes. 他来了。 3.表地点的词语置于句首或强调地点概念时用全部倒装。 On the table were some flowers.桌子上有一些花。 二、部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词 或情态动词,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前。 常见的情况有: 1. 带有否定意义的词或短语放在句首, 语序需要部分倒装。 常见的词语有: not, never, seldom, scarcely, barely, little, at no time, not only, not once, under no condition, hardly... when, no sooner... than..., not until...等。 Neither will theory do without practice,nor will practice do without theory.理论离不开实践,实践 也离不开理论。 Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.他不仅拒收了礼品,还狠狠批 评了送礼的人。 注意:当 not until 引出主从复合句时,主句倒装,从句不倒装。 The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep. 妈妈直到孩子睡着才离开房间。 只有当 not only... but also 连接两个分句时,才在第 1 个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的 not only...but also 仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。

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Not only you but also I am fond of music.我和你都喜欢音乐。 2.表示“也;也不” 的 so, neither, nor 放在句首时,句子要部分倒装。 Tom can speak French. So can Jack.Tom 会说法语,Jack 也会。 If you won't go, neither will I.如果你不去,我也不去。 注意: so 引出的句子用于对上文内容加以证实或肯定时, 当 不可用倒装结构, 意为“的确如此”。 —It's raining hard. 雨下得很大。 —So it is.的确很大。 3.only 放在句首,强调状语(副词,介词短语或状语从句等),全句语序要部分倒装。 Only in this way can you work out the problem.只有用这种方法你才能解决问题。 注意:如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装 Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed. 三、as, though 引导的倒装句 as / though 引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前(形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。 此时应注意:1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词;2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。 如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。 Hero as he is,he still has shortcomings.尽管他是一个英雄,但是他也有缺点。 Much as I like it,I'll not buy it.尽管我很喜欢它,但我不会买。 四、其他部分倒装 1.so / such...that 句型中的 so 位于句首时,需倒装。 So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.他害怕得动都不敢动。 Such great progress did he make that he was praised.他取得了如此大的进步以至于受到了表扬。 2.在某些表示祝愿的句型中。 May you all be happy.望大家开心愉快。 3.在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 等词时,可将 if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。 Were I you, I would try it again.如果我是你,我就再试一次。 高考试题每年都要涉及句法知识,特殊句式已经成为高考的热点,倒装句每年都有涉及。而 对于倒装句式的考查,命题人越来越重视,他们加大了对句子结构和知识面的考查,同时注 重考查知识之间的交叉以及句式的变化,例如倒装句中否定副词位于句首;as 引导让步状语 从句的倒装。
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他只有病得非常严重时才会卧床休息。

高考真题探究(2006—2011 年)
【2011 全国卷 I 28】Only when he reached the tea-house ______it was the same place he’d been in last year. A. he realized 【答案】D 【考点】本题考察倒装句。 【解析】Only 引导的状语从句位于句首,应把主句中动词的助动词提前构成部分倒装。 【2011 福建卷 29】—It’s nice. Never before____ such a special drink! —I’m glad you like it. A.I have had 【答案】C 【考点】考查时态及倒装。 【解析】never 是否定副词,置于句首,句子要部分倒装;由语意可知说话人以前从未喝过这 样特别的饮料,应该用现在完成时,故选 C 项。 【2011 湖南卷 32】Only after they had discussed the matter for a few hours _______a decision A. they reached 【答案】B 【考点】本题考察 only 前置的倒装句。 【解析】Only 引导状语从句前置,主句主谓要部分倒装。又因为从前文中的"had discussed"判 断出是过去时间,故选 B;句意:只有在他们讨论这个问题好几个小时之后他们才作出决定。 〖10 江苏〗—Is everyone here? A. come 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗倒装句 〖解析〗谓语动词根据后面的主语 〖10 四川〗If you have a job, A. do devote 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗考查谓语动词的强调及 “祈使句+and+将来时句子”的固定搭配。 B. don’t devote yourself to it and finally you’ll succeed. C. devoting D. not devoting B. comes —Not yet……Look , there_______ the rest of our guests! D. are coming B. did they reach C. they reach D. do they reach B. I had C. have I had D. had I B. he did realize C. realized he D. did he realize

C. is coming

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〖解析〗此处应是祈使句, 又有谓语动词的强调要借助助动词 do, 故选 A。句意为:“如果你 有了一份工作, 付出努力去做它, 最后你定能成功。” 〖10 四川〗We laugh at jokes, but seldom A. we think 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗考查倒装。 〖解析〗seldom 为否定副词放句首, 用部分倒装, 故选 D。句意为 “我们因笑话而笑, 但很少 去思考笑话怎样让我们笑。” 〖10?陕西〗John opened the door . There _____ he had never seen before. A. a girl did stand 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗考查特殊句式。 〖解析〗Here, There, Thus, Then 等副词位于句首, 且当句子的主语是名词时, 句子用全部倒装 句, 选 D。 〖10 江西〗Not until he left his home ______ to know how important the family was for him. A did he begin 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗考查倒装。 〖解析〗not until 放在句首要用部分倒装, 翻译为直到, 所以 begin 发生在 left 之后或同时发生 〖10 重庆〗At the meeting place of the Yangtze River and the Jialing River______, one of the ten largest cities in China. A. lies Chongqing 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗考查倒装。 〖解析〗表示方位的地点状语提前, 句子完全倒装, 所以选 A 项。 〖10 湖北〗Only if people of all the countries are united ________(我们才能解决)the existing problems in the world. (solve) 〖答案〗will we be able to solve/can we solve. 〖考点〗倒装句 〖解析〗only 位于句首修饰状语从句要倒装。根据 “主将从现”的原则可以确认主句的助动词
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about how they work. D. do we think

B. think we

C. we do think

B. a girl stood

C. did a girl stand

D. stood a girl

B had he begun

C he began

D he had begun

B. Chongqing lies C. does lie Chongqing

D. does Chongqing lie

是“will”, 或者使用情态动词“can” 〖09 安徽〗 A. It has 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗考查 There be 句型。 〖解析〗对于这个项目的实际价值人们依然还有怀疑。 〖(09 福建〗For a moment nothing happened Then A. voices had come 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗 〖解析〗副词 then 位于句首, 且当句子的主语是名词时, 句子用全部倒装句, 选 B。 〖09 海南〗 The computer was used in teaching. As a result, not only ________, but students became more interested in the lessons. A. saved was teachers’ energy C. teachers’ energy was saved 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗考查倒装 〖解析〗句意为:计算机应用于教学。结果, 不仅教师节省能量, 而且学生对课程更感兴趣。 考查 “not only...but also...”, 分不倒装。 〖09 山东〗So sudden ________that the enemy had no time to escape. A. did the attack 〖答案〗C 〖考点〗考查倒装 〖解析〗so ..that.., such ..that..的句子结构中, 若 so, such 和与其所修饰的词置于句首, 实行部 分倒装, 又 sudden 是形容词, 作表语, 所以选 C。 〖09 陕西〗Little A. did Rose care 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗考查倒装
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a certain doubt among the people as to the practical value of the project. B. They have C. It remains D. There remains

all shouting together.

B. came voices

C. voices would come D. did voices come

B. was teachers’ energy saved D. was saved teachers’ energy

放在句首作状语, 句子则进行部分倒装。前一部分倒装, 后一部

B. the attack did

C. was the attack

D. the attack was

about her own safety, though she was in great danger herself. B. Rose did care C. Rose does care D. does Rose care

〖解析〗little 是具有否定意义的词, 位于句首时句子用部分倒装句, 选 A。 〖09 四川〗Not until I came home last night ________ to bed. A. Mum did go 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗倒装语序的用法。 〖解析〗not until 位于句首时要用半倒装的句型, 把助动词 did 提到主语 Mum 的前面。所以 答案为:B 〖09 重庆〗Unsatisfied _________with the payment, he took the job just to get some work experience. A. though was he 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗倒装语序的用法。 〖解析〗 though 等词引导让步状语从句时, 常将表语提前置于句首, 其后跟连词和正常的主 as, 谓语序。 〖08 江西〗It was announced that only when the fire was under control homes. A. the residents would be permitted C. would the residents be permitted 〖答案〗C 〖考点〗此题考查部分倒装结构 〖解析〗句意为:据宣布, 只有在火势被控制住的时候居民们才被允许回到家中。that 从句中 only 引导的时间状语从句位于句首, that 从句需用部分倒装结构。 〖08 重庆〗Only when I left my parents for Italy A.I realized 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗考查部分倒装。 〖解析〗 “only+状语”放于句首时主句用部分倒装。首先要看到倒装的标志词 only, 然后再看 when 引导从句表示过去, 所以主句也用一般过去时态。 〖08 辽宁〗 Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason, and ______. A. I was neither B. neither was I C. I was either
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B. did Mum go

C. went Mum

D. Mum went

B. though he was

C. he was though

D. was he though

to return to their

B. had the residents been permitted D. the residents had been permitted

how much I loved them. C.had I realized D.did I realize

B.I had realized

D. either was I

〖答案〗B 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。 〖解析〗句意为:Bill 对 Jason 耽误了报告的事不高兴, 我也是(我也不高兴) 。表示 “某人也 不……时”, 应该用 “neither/nor+助动词/系动词/情态动词+主语”。 〖08 江苏〗 A.Only if;will you C.Unless;will you 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。 〖解析〗 句意为: 只有吃适当的食物, 你才能够保持……, only if 位于句首时, 主句应用部分倒 装形式。 〖07 全国Ⅱ〗If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, A.he will either C.he neither will 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗此题考查 neither 引导倒装句 〖解析〗neither 引导倒装句, 表示前者不做某事, 后者也不做。 〖07 上海〗—How was the televised debate last night?? —Super!Rarely A.a debate attracted C.a debate did attract 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。 〖解析〗否定副词置于句首时, 谓语动词要用部分倒装结构。 〖07 安徽〗Little own way in this business.? A.he realized C.didn’t he realize 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。
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you eat the correct foods B.Only if;you will D.Unless;you will

be able to keep fit and stay healthy.

.?

B.neither will he? D.either he will

so much media attention.? B.did a debate attract? D.attracted a debate

that we were watching his every move,

so he seemed to be going his

B.he didn’t realize? D.did he realize

〖解析〗否定副词 little 提前, 主句用部分倒装。 〖07 陕西〗 that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.? B.So successful was her business? D.So was her successful business

A.So successful her business was? C.So her business was successful? 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。

〖解析〗so+ adj. /adv. 置于句首时, 其主句需用部分倒装。 〖07 辽宁〗I have been living in the United States for twenty years, but seldom lonely as now.? A.have I felt 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。 〖解析〗将现在与以前相比较, 故用现在完成时, 当否定副词置于句首时, 句子要用部分倒装 形式。句意为:……但我很少感觉到像现在这样孤独。 〖07 江苏〗—My room gets very cold at night.? — A.So is mine 〖答案〗C 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。 〖解析〗 “so+助动词+主语”表示前面陈述的情况也适合于后者。 〖06 天津〗—Did Linda see the traffic accident?? —No, no sooner A.had she gone C.has she gone 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。 〖解析〗no sooner...than...为固定结构形式, 表示 “刚……就……”, no sooner 后常接 “had+主 语”这一倒装结构。 〖06 浙江〗 companies.?
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so

B.I had felt?

C.I have felt

D.had I felt

.? B.So mine is? C.So does mine D.So mine does

than it happened.? B.she had gone? D.she has gone

by keeping down costs will Power Data hold its advantage over other

A.Only 〖答案〗A

B.Just

C.Still

D.Yet

〖考点〗本题考查倒装句。 〖解析〗 根据句子结构可知, 本句使用了倒装句, 在给出的 4 个答案中, 只有 only+状语放于句 首时, 句子用倒装语序。 〖06 福建〗 A.So much 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。 〖解析〗以 “so+形容词”开头的句子要倒装。句意为:有这么多家庭作业要做, 因此我们没有 时间休息。 〖06 福建〗— It’s burning hot today, isn’t it?? — Yes. A.So was it 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查倒装。 〖解析〗 was it yesterday.意为 “昨天也是这样。 So it was yesterday.意为 “昨天的确这样。 So ”; ” 这需要与上文主语一致, 从句意来看应选 A 项。 〖06 江西〗— I reminded you not to forget the appointment.? — A.So you did 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查 “so+助动词+主语”与 “so+主语+助动词”的意义区别。 〖解析〗so+与前句相同的主语+助动词, 表示赞同, 意为 “确实”。 .? B.So I do not? C.So did you D.So do I yesterday.? B.So it was? C.So it is D.So is it homework did we have to do that we had no time to take a rest.? B.Too much? C.Too little D.So little

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