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Grammar
非谓语动词

【三维目标】 知识与能力:1. 学习并掌握非谓语动词的基本 构成及用法。 2. 通过本节学习,能够运用该语 法规则解决较简单的习题。 过程与方法:先自主学习,必要时进行小组讨 论解决疑难问题。 情感价值观:进一步提高自主学习能力及合作 探究意识。

谓语:说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状 态。它有人称、数、时态和语态的变化。 e.g. He works. He takes care of the baby. He will go to Shanghai. He didn’t go to Shanghai. He has gone to Shanghai. You are students. You look smart. 单谓语或动词 短语 情态动词/助 动词+ v.

系动词+表语

非谓语:无人称,数的变化,不单独作谓语,但保留 动词特点,可以有宾语或状语。

e.g. He works.
He wants to work here.

He is working now.
He has done his work.

一、不定式与动名词做主语:
1. 动名词做主语往往表示泛指的、一般的行为; 不定式 做主语常表示某次具体的行为或将来的动作。 e.g. Climbing mountains is great fun. 爬山很有趣。 To visit China is my next goal. 2. 不定式做主语,一般用it当形式主语,把作主语的不 定式短语后置。 e.g. It took me only five minutes to finish the job. 3. 动名词作主语有时用it作形式主语,把动名词置于句 尾。常见于以下句型中: It’s use/ good / fun… It’s useful/ nice/ useless… e.g It’s nice seeing you again.

1. ________ a language requires time and effort. A. Learn B. Learning C. To learn D. Being learned 2. It is not always easy ________ invitations. A. to refuse B. refusing C. to be refused D. being refused 3. How __________ the problem will be discussed at tomorrow’s meeting. A. to solve B. to be solved C. being solved D. solving 4. It __________ forty-five minutes __________ there by bus. A. cost, to get B. takes, getting C. takes, to get D. takes, to get to 5. It is no good __________. You should give_________. A. to smoke, it up B. smoking, it up C. smoking, up it D. to smoke, up it

二、不定式与动名词做宾语:
? 1. 下列动词后常跟不定式做宾语:

want, wish, hope, expect, ask, afford, agree, choose, pretend, decide, happen, learn, offer, refuse, fail, plan, prepare, order, manage, promise, intend等。 ? e.g. He agreed to get someone to help us. ? They promised not to break the school rules again.

二、不定式与动名词做宾语:
2. 在下列动词或动词短语后常用动名词做宾语: admit, advise, allow, avoid, bear, cannot help, consider, delay, enjoy, finish, give up, imagine. include, keep, keep on, mind, miss, put off, permit, practice, resist, risk, suggest, stand, insist on, be busy等。

二、不定式与动名词做宾语:
3. 有些动词既能以不定式作宾语,又能以动名 词作宾语。两者意思基本相同,如:begin, start, like, hate, continue, prefer等。 但有些动词两种形式意思有很大的差别,此 类动词主要有:forget, remember, stop, regret, try, mean, can’t help等。

● remember (forget) to do sth. 记住(忘记)要做某事 remember (forget) doing sth. 记得(忘记)过去曾经做过某事 ● regret to do sth. 对现在要发生的事表示“抱歉、遗憾” regret doing sth. 对已经发生的事表示后悔

二、不定式与动名词做宾语:
● stop to do sth. 停下来去做某事 stop doing sth. 停止做某事 ● try to do sth. 设法…,想法…, 试图… try doing sth. 试一试, 试试看 ● mean to do sth. 打算…,想要…,有…的意图 mean doing sth. 意味着,意思是, ● can’t help to do sth. 不能帮忙做某事 can’t help doing sth. 禁不住做某事

二、不定式与动名词做宾语:
1. He gave us some advice on how ____ English. A. learning B. learned C. to learn D. learn 2. It ’s a pay day, and they are waiting ____. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to be paid 3. I don’t know whether you happen , but I’m going to study in the U.S.A this September . A.to be heard B. to be hearing C.to hear D. to have heard

4. I forgot _____ my name when I finished ____ the composition. A. to sign, to writing B. to sign, writing C. signing, writing 5. ---You were brave enough to raised objections at the meeting. ---Well, now I regret ____ that. A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done 6. She can’t help ____ the house because she’s busy making a cake. A. to clean B. cleaning C. cleaned D. being cleaned

三、不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词做表语
1. 表示一定的概念,具有名词的性质时,不定式和动名 词可以互换。 e.g. My hobby is collecting/ to collect ancient coins. 2. 若表示具体的、个别的动作或有将来含义时,一般用 不定式。 e.g. My wish is to find a part-time job this summer. 3. 现在分词和过去分词作表语具有形容词特征,也可以 作为形容词。但要注意二者的区别 e.g. The party was very exciting. They were very excited at the news.

1. Her wish is __________ an engineer. A. becoming B. become C. to become D. being come 2.Some people’s greatest pleasure is __________. A. fishing B. to fish C. to be fishing D. being fish 3. The report was so _______ that they were all __________. A. inspiring, exciting B. inspiring, excited C. inspired, excited D. inspired, exciting 4. ---“You look pale.” ---“I feel a little __________.” A. tire B. tired C. tiring D. tiresome

四、不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词做定语
1. 不定式做定语放在所修饰的名词后,表示未发生的 动作或通常发生的某一动作。 e.g. The train to arrive is from London. He is always the first to come and the last to leave. 2. 动名词做定语往往说明所修饰词的某种用途,一般 放在被修饰词的前面。 e.g. a washing machine (动名词做定语,= a machine which is used for washing) 洗衣机 a reading room(动名词做定语,= a room which is used for reading) 阅览室

3. 现在分词作定语表示主动、正在进行的动作。过去 分词作定语则表示被动、或完成的意义。单个分词 或形容词性的分词作定语往往放在被修饰词的前 面;分词短语作定语多置于被修饰词后面。 e.g. the rising sun(现在分词做定语,= the sun which is rising)正在升起的太阳 a moving movie 感人的电影 (形容词性分词作定 语) fallen leaves 落叶 a broken cup 一个破了的杯子 (过去分词作定语则表示被动、或完成)

1. She said she had a important meeting ______. A. to attend in B. to attend C. attend D. attending 2. He is always the first ______ questions. A. to answer B. answering C. to be answered D. being answered 3. The Olympic Games _______ in the year 2012 will be a great success. A. being held B. to be held C. held D. to hold 4. The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written

五、不定式、现在分词、过去分词做补足语
1. 在“动词+宾语+不定式”结构中,不定式作宾语补 足语,“宾语+不定式”构成了复合宾语。 有些动词要求不定式不带to,有些要求必须带to,还 有的带与不带都可以。 ● 以下动词后常跟带符号to的不定式做宾语补足语: ask, tell, want, wish, order, persuade, advise, allow, warn, encourage, cause, require等。 e.g. The doctor advised him to stay in bed for another few days. We wish him to remain and accept the post. 我们希望他留下来接受这个职位。

● 有些感官动词和使役动词,如see, watch, hear, feel, notice, observe, look at, listen to, let, have, make, keep, get 等后常跟不带符号to的不定式做宾语补足语,常表示 动作的整个过程。 e.g. We noticed him enter the house. 我们留意到他进了那所房子。 The boss made them work twelve hours a day. 老板让他们一天干12小时工作。

1. The doctor advised Lao Li __________ more rest. A. that he get B. to get C. would get D. get 2. Soon they saw the boy _________ in the crowd. A. disappear B. to disappear C. disappears D. disappeared 3. Birds are seldom heard __________ at night. A. sing B. singing C. to sing D. to be singing

2. 现在分词做补足语分两种情况: ● 形容词性质的现在分词作补足语: e.g. I find the book very interesting. 我发现这本书非常有趣。(宾语补足语) The boy is found very annoying. 发现这个小男孩很令人讨厌。(主语补足语) ● 动词性质的现在分词作补足语:感官动词和使役动 词,如see, watch, hear, feel, notice, observe, look at, listen to, let, have, make, keep, get等后可以跟表示动作性质的 现在分词作补足语,表示“正在或持续做某事”。 e.g. I see him passing by a bank. 我看见他正经过一家银行。(宾语补足语) He was seen working in the garden. 有人看见他正在花园里干活。(主语补足语)

1. He kept me __________ for many hours. A. to wait B. having been waited C. waiting D. waited 2. Mother caught the boy __________ in the corner. A. smoke B. to smoke C. smoking D. being smoked 3. Having read the Emperor's New Clothes, we all found it ___. A. interest B. interested C. interesting D. to interest

3. 过去分词(done)做宾语补足语,说明宾语的性质或状态,与宾 语一起构成复合宾语,其前的宾语是它的逻辑主语。 ● 若是及物动词的过去分词,既表示被动,也可以表示动作已 经完成(即先于谓语动词)。 ● 若是不及物动词的过去分词,则只表示完成。 ● 句子由主动变被动时,宾语补足语相应的变为主语补足语。

The boss found his plan carried out successfully. The boy was found lost in the forest. Have you heard this song sung in Japanese? (宾补) This song is often heard sung everywhere in China. (主补)

1. I need this chapter __________ before tomorrow. A. rewriting B. rewritten C. rewrite D. to write again 2. When she returned home, she found the window open and something __________. A. to steal B. losing C. missed D. stolen 3. There was so much noise that the speaker could not make himself _________. A. being heard B. heard C. hearing D. hear

六、不定式、现在分词、过去分词做状语
1. 不定式做状语,主要表示目的、结果、原因以及评论 性状语。 ● 不定式往往放在系表结构后面,表示产生某种情绪或 状态的原因。 e.g. She was surprised to see Jim walk in. 看到吉姆进来,她很惊讶。 ● 不定式可以单独作目的状语,有时为了强调目的性, 在不定式前可以加上in order, so as。 e.g. To succeed, one must first of all believe in himself. In order to keep warm, we shut all the windows.

六、不定式、现在分词、过去分词做状语
● 不定式表结果,常用在too… to, enough… to结构中。 有时不定式前加上only,表示出人意料的结果。 e.g. The child is old enough to dress himself. We hurried to the station only to be told that the train had left. The husband left his wife, never to return. ● 有些不定式是用来表示说话者的观点或态度的,放在 句子之外,修饰整个句子,我们称之为评论性状语。 e.g. I have never seen such a person, to tell you the truth. To cut a long story short, we disagree. 长话短说,我们不同意。

2. 现在分词做状语可表示时间、原因、结果、伴随、方 式、目的以及作评论性状语等。 ● 现在分词的一般式作时间状语,往往表示动作与谓 语动词同时发生或相继发生。现在分词的完成式作时间 状语,往往表示动 作先于谓语动词发生。 e.g. Hearing the news, they all jumped for joy. Having finished his speech, he answered our questions. ● 作原因状语:
Living far from the school, I have to get up early in the morning.

● 作结果状语,常位于句尾,前面的主句表示原因, 后面的分词短语表示直接造成的结果。 e.g. The fire lasted a whole night, causing great damage.

● 作伴随或方式状语,表示与谓语动词同时发生的另一动 作。 ● 现在分词作目的状语往往具有伴随性,多放于句尾,且 与主句间用逗号隔开。
e.g. Jane kept silent, trying not to show her feelings. ● 作评论性状语,有些惯用的分词短语在句中可以独立存

e.g. Following Tom, we started to climb. 我们跟随汤姆开始爬山。 She came riding a brand-new bike. 她骑着一辆崭新的自行车来的。

在,它们用来修饰全句,表明说话者的态度、观点等。
常见的有: generally speaking一般说来 strictly speaking严格说来 roughly speaking大致说来 narrowly speaking狭义上说 judging from/ by由…判断。 e.g. Judging from her accent, she must come from Australia.

1. __________ the cry for help, people immediately rushed out of the rooms. A. To hear B. Hearing C. Having heard D. They hearing 2. __________ Hello, he reached out his hand. A. Said B. Saying C. Talked about D. Talking to

That’s all. Thank you!


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