阅读理解 As the railroads and the highways shaped the American West in the past centuries, a new electrical generating（发电）and transmission（输送）system for the 21 century will leave a lasting mark on the West, for better or worse. Much of the real significance of railroads and highways is not in their direct physical effect on the scenery, but in the ways that they affect the surrounding community. The same is true of big solar pants and the power lines that will be laid down to move electricity around. The 19 century saw land grants（政府拨地）offered to railroad c ompanies to build the transcontinental railroads ,leaving public land in be tween privately owned land . In much of the west ,some of the railroad sections were developed while others remained undeveloped ,and in both cases the landownership has presented unique challenges to land management, with the completion or the interstate highway system ,many of the small towns which sprang up as railway stops and developed well ,have lost their lifeblood and died . Big solar plants and their power lines will also have effects far beyond their direct footprint in the west .this is not an argument against building then ,we need alternative energy badly .and to really take advantage of it we need to be able to move electricity around far more readily than we can now . So trade-offs will have to be made .some scenic sport will be sacrificed .some species ( 物 种 )will be forced to move ,or will be carefully moved to special accommodations ,deals will be struck to reduce the immediate effects . The lasting effects of these trade-offs are another matter .the 21
st th st
development of the American west as an ideal place for alternative energy is going to throw off a lot of power and money to do a lot of good .but it is just as likely that they will be spent wastefully and will leave new problems behind, just like the railroad and the highway. The money set aside in negotiated trade –offs and the institution that control
will shape the west far beyond the immediate footprint of power plants and transmission lines .so let’s remember the effects of the railroad and the highways as we construct these new power plants in the west . ( ) 1.What was the problem caused by the construction of the railways?
A. small towns along the railways became abandoned. B. some railroad stops remained. C. land in the west was hard to manage. D. land grants went into private hands. ( ) 2. What is the major concern in the development of alternative energy
according to the last two parag raphs? A. the transmission of power C. the conservation of solar energy ( B. the use of money and power D. the selection of an ideal place
) 3.What is the author’s attitude towards building solar plants? B. approving C. doubtful D.
A. cautious disapproving (
) 4.Which is the best title for the passage?
A. h ow the railways have affected the west B. how solar energy could reshape the west C. how the effects of power plants can be reduced D. how the problems of the highways have been settled
【文章大意】说明文。文章说明的是一种新的太阳能电力系统是如何或好或坏的影响美国西 部地区的。 1.答案 C。 细节理解题。 由文章第二段 in both cases the landownership has presented unique challenges to land management ,with the completion or the interstate highway system 可知。 2.答案 B。细节理解题。由文章 alternative energy is going to throw off a lot of power and money to do a lot of good 和文章最后两段内容可以看出。 3. A 态度题，作者由铁路和高速公路在西部建设过程中出现的好的和坏的影响来说明 solar
plants 在西部建设也会出现同样的问题。他是担心的 caution 4. B 主旨大意题。文章说明的是一种新的太阳能电力系统是如何或好或坏 的影响美国西部地 区的。太阳能电力系统会重塑美国西部。
These days we hear a lot of nonsense about the ‘great classless society’. The idea that the twentieth century is the age of the common man has become one of the great clichés of our time. The same old arguments are put forward in evidence. Here are some of them: monarchy as a system of government has been completely discredited. The monarchies that survive have been deprived of all political power. Inherited wealth has been savagely reduced by taxation and, in time, the great fortunes will disappear altogether. In a number of countries the victory has been complete. The people rule; the great millennium has become a political reality. But has it? Close examination doesn’t bear out the claim. It is a fallacy to suppose that all men are equal and that society will be leveled out if you provide everybody with the same educational opportunities. (It is debatable whether you can ever provide everyone with the same educational opportunities, but that is another question.) The fact is that nature dispenses brains and ability with a total disregard for the principle of equality. The old rules of the jungle, ‘survival of the fittest’, and ‘might is right’ are still with us. The spread of education has destroyed the old class system and created a new one. Rewards are based on merit. For ‘aristocracy’ read ‘meritocracy’; in other respects, society remains unaltered: the class system is rigidly maintained. Genuine ability, animal cunning, skill, the knack of seizing opportunities, all bring material rewards. And what is the first thing people do when they become rich? They use their wealth to secure the best possible opportunities for their children, to give them ‘a good start in life’. For all the lip service we pay to the idea of equality, we do not consider this wrong in the western world. Private schools which offer unfair advantages over state schools are not banned because one of the principles in a democracy is that people should be free to choose how they will educate their children. In this way, the new merit ocracy can perpetuate itself to a certain extent: an able child from a wealthy home can succeed far more rapidly than his poorer counterpart. Wealth is also used indiscriminately to further political ends. It would be almost impossible to become the leader of a democracy without massive financial
backing. Money is as powerful a weapon as ever it was. In societies wholly dedicated to the principle of social equality, privileged private education is forbidden. But even here people are rewarded according to their abilities. In fact, so great is the need for skilled workers that the least able may be neglected. Bright children are carefully and expensively trained to become future rulers. In the end, all political ideologies boil down to the same thing: class divisions persist whether you are ruled by a feudal king or an educated peasant. 1.What is the main idea of this passage?[A] Equality of opport unity in the twentieth century has not destroyed the class system. Equality means money. [C] There is no such society as classless society. [D] Nature can’t give you a classless society. 2.According to the author, the same educational opportunities can’t get rid of inequality because [A] the principle ‘survival of the fittest’ exists. Nature ignores equality in dispensing brains and ability. [C] Material rewards are for genuine ability. [D] People have the freedom how to educate their children. 3.Who can obtain more rapid success [A] those with wealth. Those with the best brains. [C] Those with the best opportuniti es. [D] Those who have the ability to catch at opportunities. 4.Why does the author say the new meritocracy can perpetuate itself to a certain extent? Because [A] money decides everything. Private schools offer advantages over state schools. [C] People are free to choose the way of educating their children. [D] Wealth is used for political ends. 5.According to the author, ‘class divisions’ refers to [A] the rich and the poor. Different opportunities for people. [C] Oppressor and the oppressed. [D] Genius and stupidity. Vocabulary 1.discredit 损害，破坏，败坏（某人的名声） ，不可信 2.monarch 国王，女皇，君主政体 3.millennium 千年 the millennium 千僖年 4.bear out 证实 5.level out （升 跌之后）呈平稳状态 6.meritocracy 英才管理，英才教育，能人统治
7.knack 8.perpetuate 9.indiscriminate 10.boil down
技巧，诀窍 使永久，永存或持续 不加鉴别的，不加分析的，任意的 归结为??
难句译注 1. Close examination doesn’t bear out the claim. 【参考译文】深入探索证实此断言不确。 （也就是说太平盛世并没有成为政治现实） 。 2. might is right 谚语：强权即公理。 3. For all the lip service we pay to the idea of equality, we do not consider this wrong in the western world. 【结构简析】lip-service 口惠而实不至。EX: He pays lip-service to feminism but his wife still does all the housework.他口口声声说支持女权主义，但全部家务仍是他妻子的事。 【参考译文】我们口口声声赞扬平等思想，我们在西方世界中并不认为这一思想事错误的。 4. In the end, all political ideologies boil down to the same thing: class divisions persist whether you are ruled by a feudal king or an educated person. 【参考译文】最终，一切政治意识，都归结为 一件事：不论你是由封建国王统治还是英才统 治，阶级区分依然存在。 写作方法与文章大意 这是一篇对“无阶级社会和人人平等”论点的驳斥文章。作者从四个方面进行论述。1、 天赋的才能和智慧与平等原则无关。2、“适者生存，强权即公理”依然存在。3、人获得的 报酬是取决于人的才能而不是平等。4、金钱的作用，它不仅可以培育有能力的人，还是政治 的后盾。只有金钱加能力是成功的关键。所以所谓平等不存在，更没有无阶级的社会。 答案详解 1. A 二十世纪平等的机遇并没有摧毁阶级。文章一开始就对无阶级社会的论点进行了 反驳：有人认为君主整体已完全摧毁，幸存下来的王公贵族已经被剥夺了一切政治权力，继 承的财产为税收大幅度的削减，到时候，巨大的财富将消失殆尽，在许多国家中，已全面胜 利，人民进行统治，伟大的太平盛世已成为政治显示。作者认为：深入检查证实这一断言不 实。第二段提出了即使人人都获同样的受教育的机会，可人的天然智慧和能力与平等原则无 关，适者生存，强权即公理依然存在。教育的普及摧毁了老的阶级体制，却创造新的，报酬 是机遇才干成就。贵族统治就是英才统治，可在其他方面，社会依然，阶级确实存在。后面 两段集中论述了金钱的作用。 B.金钱意味着平等是错误的。C.不存在无阶级社会。内容是对的，但不是本文的主题思想。 D.自然界不会赋予你一个无阶级社会。 2. B 自然界在分赋人智慧和能力是不会顾及平等。 A.适者生存的原则存在。根据这一原则无智慧和能力者难以生存于社会。 C.物质报偿是根据 人的真正能力。D.人们有自由选择如何教育自己的孩子。这三项都基于一点――人的智慧和 能力。有智慧能力才能生存，才能获报偿，这已经是不平等，即使获同样的受教育的机会， 也不可能铲除不平等。 3. A 有钱的人。第三段一开始就点明：真正的能力、动物般机敏狡猾、技能、善抓机 会的诀窍，这一切都带来物质报偿。有了钱的人首要作的事情就是给孩子最佳教育机会，而
私人学校教育优于公立学校，人们又有自由选择如何教育自己的孩子。在这个意义上，英才 教育在某种程度上是永存的。一个来自富有家庭的有能力的孩子要比其对立面获得成功要快 得多得多。 B.具有很高智慧的人，若没有钱是难以成功的。第三段的最后一句话也点明这一点，金钱同 从前一样是强有力的武器。文章最后一段即使在完全遵循社会平等原则的社会里，禁止特权 的私人教育，人们也是按能力获报酬。小心翼翼而又耗费巨大地把聪明的孩子培养成未来的 统治者。C.具有最佳机遇的人。D.是 B 和 C 的结合。 4. A 金钱决定一切。新的英才教育在一定程度上永存。没有钱，上不起私立学校，谈不 上机会，更不用说英才教育。有了钱才能为孩子创造机会。 B.私立学校提供的优越性高于公立学校。C.人们有自由选择教育孩子的方式方法。D.财富用 于政治目的。第三段最后三句话：“财富也可以不加区别地用于更远的政治目的。没有强大 的财政作后盾，成为民主国家的元首几乎是不可能。金钱和过去一样是强有力的武器，这也 说明了金钱的力量，决定一切。” 5. A 富人和穷人。纵然作者提及，同样的教育机会也不可能铲除不平等，因为上天赋 予人之智慧是不可能考虑平等原则，可是作者也提到适者生存、强权即公理。贵族政治可读 成英才教育。这已说明英才指的是贵族的英才。第四段进一步指出有钱的人首先要做的就是 给子女一个良好的教育机会。而私立学校的教育质量优于公立学校。有钱人家的有能力的孩 子成功机遇就高。财产还可用于政治目的，要成为民主国家的领袖就得有雄厚的财力支持。 钱财和过去一样强有力。即使在以社会平等为原则的社会中，私立学校被禁，酬劳还是以人 的能力为准，大量需要有技能的工作人员，而差劲的人没有人关注。天才的孩子予以仔细而 又及其昂贵的培养以成为未来的统治者。 总之，政治意识归结为同一个东西――阶级划分存在，不论你是为封建帝王统治，还是为受 过教育的农民统治，从这里看，作者的 class division 指的是 A 项。 B.人们不同的机遇。C.压迫者和被压迫者。D.天才和笨蛋。
阅读理解-----A In the animal kingdom, weakness can bring about aggression in other animal. This sometimes happens with humans also. But I have found that my weakness brings out the kindness in people. I see it every day when people hold doors for me, pour cream into my coffee, or help me to put on my coat. And I have discovered that it makes them happy. From my wheelchair experience, I see the best in people, but sometimes I feel sad because those who appear independent miss the kindness I see daily. They don’t get to see this soft side of others. Often, we try every way possible to avoid showing our weakness, which includes a lot of pretending. But only when we stop pretending we’re brave or strong do we allow people to show the kindness that’s in them. Last month, when I was driving home on a busy highway, I began to feel unwell
and drove more slowly than usual. People behind me began to get impatient and angry, with some speeding up alongside me, horning (按喇叭) or even shouting at me. At the moment I decided to do something I had never done in twenty-four years of driving. I put on the car flashlights and drove on at a really low speed. No more angry shouts and no more horns! When I put on my flashlights, I was saying to other drivers, “I have a problem here. I am weak and doing the best I can.” And everyone understood. Several times, I saw drivers who wanted to pass. They couldn’t get around me because of the stream of passing traffic. But instead of getting impatient and angry, they waited, knowing the driver in front of them was in some way weak. Sometimes situations call for us to act strong and brave even when we don’t feel that way. But those are few and far between. More often, it would be better if we don’t pretend we feel strong when we feel weak or pretend that we are brave when we are scared. ( ) 1. The author has discovered that people will feel happy when ______. A. they offer their help B. they receive others’ help C. they feel others’ kindness D. they show their weakness ( ) 2. The author feels sad sometimes because ______. A. he has a soft heart B. he relies much on others C. some people pretend to be kind D. some people fail to see the kindness in others ( ) 3. What did the other drivers do when they saw the flashlights? A. They speed up to pass. B. They waited w ith patience. C. They tried their best to help. D. They put on their flashlights too. ( ) 4. In this passage, the author advises us to ______.
A. handle problems by ourselves B. accept help from others C. admit our weakness D. show our bravery ( ) 5. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? A. A Wheelchair Experience. B. Weakness and Kindness. C. Weakness and Strength D. A Driving Experience 本文是一篇记叙文，讲述作者对 weakness 思考，建议我们应该承认自己的软弱的一面 1. A 细节理解题 根据第一段最后一句话“And I have discovered that it makes them happy.”及此句之前的内容可以得出答案。 2. D 细节理解题 根据第二段第一句话“But sometimes I feel sad because those who appear independent miss the kindness I see daily”可以得出答案。 3. B 细节理解题 根据倒数第二段最后一句话“But instead of getting impatient and angry, they waited, knowing the driver in front of them was in some way weak ”可 以得出答案。 4. C 主旨大意题，文中反复提示 weakness 给作者带来的好处，不难得出答案为 C 5. B 主旨大意题 综合原文，以及运用排除法，不难得出答案为 C。A 和 D 太片面， C 选项中的 strength 文中没有提及。
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