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英语阅读理解之细节题


高一英语专题培优
——阅读理解解题技巧
考纲解读:
阅读理解是英语考试中的一个重要题型,分值高、题量大。阅读理解考查 的根本是检验学生对有关信息的搜集、加工能力。新的高中英语教学大纲明确规 定:"侧重提高阅读能力"。 英语考试大纲规定,考生应能:(1) 理解主旨和要义; (2) 理解文中具体信息; (3) 根据上下文推断生词的词义; (4) 做出简单判断和推理; (5)理解文章的基本结构; (6)理解作者的意图、观点和态度。

命题探究:
一.选材特点: 广东省高考阅读理解解题选材,一般遵循三个原则: 1. 文章一般为 4 篇,阅读量在 2500 个单词左右; 2. 题材广泛,包括科普、社会、文化、政治、经济等多方面内容; 3. 体裁多样,包括记叙文、说明文、应用文、论述文等。 二.题目类型: 高考中的阅读理解一般分为四大类:细节题、猜词题、推断题以及主旨题 三.题目特点: 1. 无论哪一类题都一定能在文中找到依据。 2. 每篇文章的 5 个小题正确答案的关键信息按照短文出现的先后顺序依次 排列。如第 2 题的关键信息点在第二段中,那么第 3 题的关键信息点很 可能就会在第三段中,而在第一段的可能性就很小。主旨大意题和写作 目的题一般都安排在第 5 小题。 阅读水平的提高不是一两天的阅读就可以见效的。 想要提高阅读能力, 一 是要培养良好的阅读行为习惯

提高分数技巧:
1. 抓好限时训练
同学们可以通过限时训练有计划、循序渐进地提高自己的阅读速度。做阅读理解训练 时,尝试在原文中划出答案出处,这能帮助我们在阅读时以文章为依据,而不凭空猜想。

2. 养成良好的阅读习惯
同学们在平时训练时要养成良好的阅读习惯。首先要避免“指读” 。很多学生喜欢用手 或笔指着文字读, 这种阅读习惯容易使思维停留在手指着的局部单词上, 会阻碍对中心思想

的理解。而且这种方法比默读慢得多,会影响阅读的速度。 其次要避免出声阅读。嘴唇随着文字而蠕动或发出细小的声音都会大大地影响阅读速 度。还要避免过多地停顿回读。在阅读过程中由于对某个词语或句子不太明白,眼睛过多地 重复同一个词语或句子, 这样既影响阅读速度, 又影响对文章的连贯理解和较好地获取中心 意思,而且易使眼睛和大脑疲劳。

3. 掌握适当的阅读技巧
常见的阅读方法有三种: (1)先文后题。即先把全文读懂,然后做题。这种方法的缺点是阅读的目的性不明确, 记住的细节内容未必有用,有用的内容未必记住。答题时仍需到短文中去寻找,实际上等于 降低了读速,降低了效率。 (2)先题后文。即先读问题,然后带着问题读文章。这种方法的优点是目的明确,在 阅读时有所侧重,能节省时间。该法比较适合类似广告性质的阅读理解题。缺点在于由于没 有读过短文,不了解文章的主题、细节分布情况,因而不可能很快找到所需信息,有时很有 可能断章取义,不利于做推理题和主旨大意题。 (3)文——题——文。即先快速通读全文,对文章形成总体印象,了解全文的题材、 主要结构、中心思想、主题段、主题句,然后读问题,明白该文章的考查点,最后,再带着 问题跳读文章,寻找与答题内容有关的词句,这样既提高了做题的准确性,又能有效地利用 时间。因此,文——题——文阅读理解方法是多数人采用的,可提高阅读速度的有效方法。

4. 积累文化背景知识
英语阅读能力的提高不仅需要一定的语言知识,还要有一定的文化背景知识和生活知 识。这就需要我们通过大量的阅读来积累。我们要拓展知识面,注意社会热点。我们了解的 东西越多,知识面越宽,对文章的理解就越容易。

5. 注重长难句的理解
近几年的高考阅读理解题十分注重借助复杂语境考查考生对语言语法知识综合运用 的能力。 所选阅读材料中常有大量复杂单句和复合句, 以此来增强句子结构的复杂性和语境 理解难度。所以,理解长句、复杂句成了考生顺利理解阅读材料,提高阅读速度的关键。 一般地说,造成长难句的原因主要有三个方面: (1)修饰语过多; (2)并列成份多; (3)语言结构层次多。 在分析长难句时应采用“先缩后扩”的方法。先缩,即首先找出句子的主语、谓语、 宾语,这样就抓住了句子的主干,也就从整体上把握了句子的结构。后扩,分析句子主干以 外的从句或短语的功能以及和主干的相互关系。例如:非谓语动词的成分是什么,其逻辑主 语是哪个,定语从句所修饰的先行词是哪一个,介词短语修饰哪个词,and 连接的是哪些并 列成分等等。

英语有句谚语 Practice makes perfect, 同学们如果能科学训练, 持之以恒,阅读水平就会有质的飞跃。

第一节:阅读理解之事实细节题
分析解读: 事实细节题是阅读理解中最常出现的题型,这类试题旨在考查学生对事实 细节的理解。主要针对 who, what, which, why, how, when, where 等来提问,可能 只针对文章中的某一特定的细节,也可能涉及若干个细节。很多同学在做这种题 目时比较喜欢在选项中寻找原文中的句子, 但往往照抄原文的句子并不一定是正 确选项。做这类题目时,应关注选项和原句的细微差别,选择与原文意思和所问 问题都相符的答案。 解题时注意以下两点: 1. 用题干或选项中的关键词在文中搜索(寻读)找到题眼,迅速锁定相关 词句或信息点,这是解题的依据所在。 2. 如果题干中含有否定意义的词语,如有 not,except 等,要特别留心。 解题技巧: 1. 解题原则:忠实于原文及全篇的逻辑关系,决不能主观臆断。 2. 文章中心是论点,事实细节是论据或主要理由;有关细节的问题通常是对文 中某个词语、某句子、某段落等细节及事实进行提问,所提问题一般可直接 或间接在文章中找到答案。 3. 提问的特殊疑问词常有:what,who,which,where,how,why 等。 4. 事实细节类题目常见的设问方式: (1) Which of the following is true/ not true? (2) Which of the following statement is correct according to the passage? (3) All the statements are true except______? (4) Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage? (5) The author mentions all of the following except_______? (6) Choose the right order of this passage. (7) According to the passage, when (where, why, how, who, etc.)? (8) The reason is _______? (9) From the passage we know that________? 5. 解题要领:仔细阅读材料,寻找答案来源;看准题目要求,避免干扰项;对 比相似表达,正确使用排除法。 典型例析: 一、Wh-疑问词提问题: 例 1:A French tourist highly praised for rescuing a two-year-old girl in Manhattan said he didn’t think twice before diving into the freezing East River. Tuesday’s Daily News said 29-year-old Julien Duret from France is the man who left the spot quickly after the rescue last Sunday. He lifted the little girl out of the water after she fell off the bank at the South Street Seaport museum. He handed the girl to her father, David Anderson, who had dived in after him. Q:Who dived after Duret into the river to save the little girl? A. David Anderson B. A passer-by C. His girlfriend D. A taxi driver

例 2: Lying in the sun on a rock, the cougar(美洲狮) saw Jeb and his son, Tom, before they saw it. Jeb put his bag down quickly and pulled his jacked open with both hands, making himself look big to the cougar. It worked. The cougar hesitated, ready to attack Jeb, but ready to forget the whole thing, too. Q: Why did Jeb pull his jacket open when he saw the cougar? A. To get ready to fight. B. To frighten it away. C. To protect the boy. D. To cool down
技巧:在题干中寻找线索词,并注意题干中的名词、动词、形容词等实词,找出线索词在文 中出现的位置。

二.排序题 例: In the 19th century England people liked to go to the seaside. In those days, ladies wore long bathing dresses, and men wore bathing suits. Women did not walk about on the beach(沙滩)in their bathing dresses. They hired a bathing machine. A bathing machine was used for changing in, and for taking the bather down to the sea. It cost 2 pence(便士) to hire a machine and an attendant(侍者). When she had paid, the bather climbed up the back steps and got into the bathing machine. Then she changed into her bathing dress. When she had changed, the machine was pulled down to the sea. The bathing machine stoped in the water and the bather went down the front steps into the water. If she did not want to get into the sea, the attendant pulled her in. Q: In 19th century people who used the bathing machine usually did the following things. Which is the right order for doing them? a. Changing into bathing clothes b. Getting out of the bathing machine c. Paying 2 pence d. Getting into the bathing machine e. Being taken down the beach f. Getting into the water A. e, d, a, b, f, c B. c, d, a, e, b, f C. c, d, e, a, b, f D. d, a, e, b, f, c [分析]答案 B 题目要求找出利用 bathing machine 游泳的程序,显然,租用一个 bathing machine 是要先付钱的,所以 c 就是第一个动作,下水 f 应该是最后一 个动作了。这样用排除法就可以排除 A 和 D 项。再看 B 和 C 项,从第一段倒 数第三句可知先 a 后 e,故选 B。
技巧:先找出最早的一个时间和事件,把它作为事件发生的具体点,然后使用排除法将范围 一一缩小,从而快速地选出正确答案。

练一练: When the right mixture of cosmic dust (宇宙尘) comes together near a young star, a planet begins to form slowly, the planet creates its own gravity(重力). That allows the planet to pull material from the disk of gases and other matter floating around the star and grow. Q: Which of the following shows the right order of a planet?s formation (形成)? a, that allows the planet to pull material b, slowly, the planet creates its own gravity c, matter floating around the star and grow.

d, when the right mixture of cosmic dust comes together near a young star A.b, a, c, d B. b, a ,d, c C. d, b, c, a D. d, b, a, c 三、计算题 例 1:Viewing Platform Penguin Plus(+V) More personalized wildlife viewing limited to 130people providing closer viewing of the penguin arrival than the main viewing stands. Adults $25.00 A. $37.50 Child $12.50 B. $62.50 C. $180.00 D. $150.00 Q: How much would a couple with one child pay for a closer viewing tour?
技巧:计算题也是近几年高考中常考的内容,此类试题是在文章中直接表现出来细节事实, 有的要经过具体的计算才能够得出正确的答案。 具体的计算题可以是对年代的计算、 月份的 计算或比例的计算等。文章中经常会出现许多数字,它们对解题产生一定的影响。解答此类

试题的方法是先来理解文章的大意,然后经过对比、分析、计算等就能够得出正确的答案
了。

练一练: We offer a wide choice of bachelors degrees (学位) for international students, which includes: Arts, Communication Studies, Social Sciences, etc. Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Education are only for New Zealand citizens, for further information: deg@waikato.ac.nz. Tuition Fees(学费) Tuition fees are different from department to department, generally from $5,000 to $6,000 a year. For further information: tui@waikato.ac.nz. Accommodation(住宿) You can have a room in a 4-bedroom flat, which will cost about $100 a month with other regular living costs of about $150 a month for one person. For further information: acc@waikato. ac.nz Health The Student Health Service provides excellent medical services for students. The Medical Centre is open five days a week, including student holidays with four doctor's and nurses to meet your medical needs. For further information: heal@waikato.ac.nz. Sports The Centre is a great place to have sports activities. Trained exercise teachers can help you work out a training plan and keep you active. The sports hall has volleyball, basketball and indoor football courts and a swimming pool as well. There are also a large number of sports clubs at Waikato. For further information: sport@ waikato.ac.nz(2005 安徽卷) Q: You have to pay at least ______ a year if you study at the University of Waikato.

A. $5,250

B. $8,000

C. $9,000

D. $11,000

[分析]B 此题为计算题。我们从所选的这些事实来看,文章中所说的 Tuition Fees 每 年需要 from $5,000 to $6,000,而 a 4-bedroom flat, which will cost about $100 a month, 一年需要$1200,另外的 other regular living costs of about $150 a month for one person 经过计算可以知道一年需要$1800,加起来一年至少需要$8000。

四、判断正误题 例. In our classroom, we work in various ways. The pupils often work in groups. This gives them the opportunity to learn to cooperate,to share,and to develop leadership skills. They also learn how to deal with problems as well as learning how to think ,to make decisions, to analyze and evaluate, and to communicate effectively. The pupils learn from each other as well as their teachers. Q: Which of the following is NOT MENTIONED in this paragraph? A. Group work gives pupils the opportunity to learn to work together with others. B. Pupils also learn to develop their thinging abilities. C. Group work provides pupils with the opportunity to learn to be capable(能干的) organizers. D. Pupils also learn how to take part in teaching activities
技巧: 1.审题: 确定选正/误。 2. 定位:查找原文中与选项内容相关的词句 3. 三误一正:对原文同义表达的为正确答案.如果定位困难,可以运用排除法,这样找 到答案的可能性就会增加。 4.为节省时间,通常找到答案就不再考虑其他选项。

练一练: Food sometimes gets poisoned with harmful things. A person who eats such food can get an illness called food poisoning. Food poisoning is usually not serious, but some types are deadly. The symptoms of food poisoning usually begin within hours of eating the poisoned food. Fever is one of the most common symptoms. Q: which of the following statements is not true? A. Food when poisoned can make people sick. B. Food poisoning means death. 以偏概全 C. Food poisoning comes in varieties. D. Food poisoning can be serious.

总结:

细节题的正确选项通常有以下特征: 1. 再现原文。 2. 对原文进行改写。 3. 对原文中的复杂语言现象进行简化 4. 正话反说、无中生有(适用于三正一误的是非题) 细节题的干扰项特点: 1. 是原文,但不是题目要求的内容。 2. 偷换概念,使选项看似原文再现。 3.根据读者主观想象或推测得出结论,而文中无涉及。 细节题解题思路: 1. 通读全文 2. 认真审题 3. 搜读定位 4. 确定答案 实战演练: A
A doctor was once teaching a class of medical students at a famous hospital in Edinburgh. An injured man was brought in, and the doctor turned to one of the students and asked him, “What?s wrong with this man?” “ I don?t know, sir “ the student answered. “ Shall I examine him and find out?” “ There?s no need to examine him”, said the doctor, “You should know without asking questions. He has hurt his right knee. Didn?t you notice the way he walked ? He hurt it by burning it in the fire. You see his trouser leg is burnt away at the knee. This is Monday morning. Yesterday was fine, but on Saturday the roads were wet and muddy. The man?s trousers are muddy all over. The man fell down on Saturday night. The doctor then turned to the man and said, “ You had your wages on Saturday and went to a public house and drank too much. You got wet and muddy on the way home. Because you had drunk too much, you fell on the fire and burnt your knee. Is that right ?” “Yes, sir.” said the man. 1. The medical students were having a lesson ______________. A. in a classroom C. at a well-known hospital B. at the library D. a medical school

2. The man hurt his knee_______________. A. on Saturday night C. on Monday morning B. yesterday D. on Friday night

3. The man burnt his knee _______________. A. when he was on his way to the hospital

B. because he had drank too much and fell on the fire C. because he was cold D. because he was ill 4. WAGE in the fourth paragraph means_______________. A. holiday B. money paid every week C. cars D. servants

5. The doctor was good at _______________. A. learning from others C. watching and thinking cabbc B. taking care of others D. teaching B Thomas Adams discovered bubble gum ( 泡泡糖 ) in the 1870s. He was an American. He wanted to find a use for chicle(糖胶树胶). Chicle is a Spanish word for sticky water that comes from one kind of Mexican tree .Mr Adams wanted to make rubber from chicle. Mr Adams worked in his home while he tried to find a way to make the chicle stronger. Hisson, Horatio, also helped him now and then. One day, young Horatio began to chew the chicle while he watched his father work. It did not taste very good, but Horatio enjoyed chewing it. Then the young boy began to blow bubbles with the new chicle which his father had made. Mr Adams had discovered bubble gum by accident. Mr Adams gave up trying to find a way to make rubber from chicle. Instead , he wanted to try and sell the new gum that he had made. He thought other people might like the taste too. He began to see his new kind of chicle as candy. In no time, children everywhere began chewing bubble gum. 1. Where was Thomas Adams from ? A. Canada B. The United States C. Europe D. England

2. Who was Horatio Adams? A. Thomas's father 3. What was Thomas Adams B. Thomas's wife trying to make ? C. Thomas's brother D. Thomas's son

A. A new kind of rubber . B. A new kind of chicle. C. A new kind of candy. D. Electric light. 4. Why did Thomas Adams want to sell bubble gum? A. His son enjoyed chewing it . B. He thought many people would like it. C. He could not make strong rubber from chicle.

D. all of above 5. Which of these sentences is not true? A. Horatio helped his father. B. Thomas Adams made rubber from chicle by accident. C. Horatio was the first person to chew bubble gum. D. Thomas Adams never made rubber. C You can see a bell tower that leans (倾斜 ) in the town of Pisa, Italy. What does it lean against ? Nothing. It's called the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and it's been leaning more ever since it was built about 700 years ago. Some say that long ago the great Italian scientist Galileo dropped weights from the tower to learn how fast things fall. Even then , the tower was a leaning tower. And today, little by little, one side of the tower keeps on sinking into the soft ground. The Leaning Tower tips (倾斜 ) about an inch every nine years. The farther it leans out of line, the faster it tips. You can climb stairs to the top of the tower and see the bells that once called people to a nearby church. But no one rings the bell now. The clang(铿锵声 ) might make the tower fall faster. The government of Italy once offered a prize for the best plan to keep the tower from falling any farther. Some people have ideas, but nothing has been done yet. If the Leaning Tower ever falls, it will be the end of what some people say is one of the seven wonders of the modern world. 1. The Leaning Tower ___________. A. because famous right after it was built B. leans against tower C. was built about seven centuries ago D. no longer tips today 2. What do you know about Galileo? A. He was a great physicist who built the Tower. B. He was well known for designing the Tower. C. He drew a very famous experiment on the Tower. D. He designed a good plan to adjust the Tower. 3. Nobody rings the bells in the Tower now because_______________. A. there is something wrong with the bells B. people in the town are annoyed by the ringing bells. C. nobody needs to be called to the church D. the clang might make the Tower tip faster 4. Which of the followings is NOT mentioned in the passage? A. The reason why the Leaning Tower is leaning. Bdadb

B. The condition of the Leaning Tower C. The plans that people offer to prevent the Tower from leaning. D. The measures that the government has taken to keep the Tower from falling. 5. We can learn from the passage that _______________. A. people like the Leaning Tower so they have done nothing to keep it from leaning B. it is very difficult to stop the tower from leaning C. even if the Tower falls , the seven wonders will still exist D.the ccdab D Charlie was sent to repair the telephone in a college. He stopped his car outside the gate and walked through a wide boulevard while a professor and his students were standing around the college flagpole in front of the teaching building. He stopped to watch what they were doing there. “We need to know how high the flagpole is," said the professor to his students." Who has a better way to calculate it?” The young men began to discuss it. They found several ways, but the professor negated them all. Charlie began to laugh and came up to the flagpole. '"Watch!" said the young man. He laid the flagpole on the ground and measured it with a tape and then said, “Exactly 15.12 meters." Then he replaced the pole and walked away. “What a silly idea!" the professor said angrily." We wonder how height it is. But he gave us the length!" 1. Charlie was a _____________. A. teacher B. professor C. repair man D. postman Italian government didn't offer any prize for the best plan

2. Charlie went to the college____________. A. by bus B. on foot C. by bike D. by car

3. The professor was going to ___________. A. put the flagpole down B. teach his students to calculate the flagpole's height C. make a new flagpole D. show his students how to measure the flagpole 4. The underlined word "negated" means___________. A. encourage B. not agree C. praise D. know

5. Charlie laughed because____________. A. he was good with math B. he thought the professor was silly

C. he could easily know the flagpole's height D.he cbdbc E Last summer I went through a training programme and became a literacy volunteer(扫盲志 愿者). The training I received, though excellent, didn?t tell me how it was to work with a real student, however, when I began to discover what other people ?s lives like because they couldn?t read, I realized the true importance of reading. The first student Marie was a 44-year –old single mother of three. In the first lesson, I found out she walked two miles to the nearest supermarket twice a week because she didn?t know which bus to take. When I told her I would get her a bus schedule(时刻表), she told me it would not help because she couldn?t read it. She said she also had difficulty once she got to the supermarket because she couldn?t always remember what she needed. Since she didn?t know words, she couldn?t write out a shopping list. Also, she could only recognize(认出) items by sight, so if the product had a different label(标识), she would not recognize it as the product she wanted. As we worked together, learning how to read built Marie?s self- confidence, which encouraged her in her studies. She began to make rapid progress and was even able to take the bus to the supermarket. After this successful trip, she reported how self-confident she felt. At the end of the programme, she began helping her youngest son, Tony, a shy grader, with his reading. She sat with him before he went to sleep and together they would read bed time stories. When his eyes became wide with excitement as she read, pride was written all over her face, and she began to see how her own hard in learning to read to paid off. As she described this experience, I was proud of myself as well. I found that helping Marie to build her self-confidence was more rewarding than anything I had ever done before. As a literacy volunteer, I learned a great deal about teaching and helping others. In fact, I may have learned more from the experience than Marie did. 1. The writer _______ last summer. A. worked in a supermarket C. helped a single mother to learn how to read 2. There were ______people in Marie?s family. A. 3 B. 4 C. 5 D.7 B. she lived far away from the bus stop D. she couldn?t find the right bus 3. Marie didn?t go to the supermarket by bus at first because ______ A. she liked to walk to supermarket C. she couldn?t afford the bus ticket B. talked with some single mothers D. helped a literacy volunteer knew more than the professor

4. Which of the following statement is True about Marie ? A. Marie could do things she had never been able to before. B. Marie was able to read stories with the help of her son. C. Marie decided to continue her studies in school D. Marie felt sorry about her hard work in learning to read 5. For the writer the most rewarding thing is _______

A.

Marie was able to read something

B. Marie could help her son with his reading C. Marie could take a bus to the supermarket D. Marie was helped to build her self-confidence


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