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高中英语语法之倒装


高中英语语法之倒装
倒装是一种语法手段,用于表示一定的句子结构或强调某一句子成分。倒装句有两种:完全 倒装和部分倒装。 1. 完全倒装 1) 完全倒装即把整个谓语放到主语之前(是整个谓语动词,而非助动词) 。 例如:In came the teacher and the class began. (老师走了进来,然后开始上课。 ) 2) there 引出的完全倒装句:there be 句型结构中,there 是引导词,主语在 be 后面。 There is a box in the classroom. 除了最常见的 there be 句型以外,there 还可以接 appear, exist, lie, remain, seem to be, stand 等,一般都译成"有"的含义,构成完全倒装句。 例如:There appeared to be a man in black in the distance.(远处有个穿黑色衣服的人。 ) 3) 由地点和时间副词引出的完全倒装句: 以地点副词 here, there 和时间副词 now, then 开头, 后面的动词是 be, come, exist, fall, follow, go, lie, remain, seem, stand 等,而主语又是名词时, 构成完全倒装句。Up climbed the boy when his mother came. 如果主语是人称代词,主语和主要动词的词序不变。 There goes the bell. There comes the bus. Here is an apple for you. There she comes. (不能是 There comes she.)

4)为了表达生动,有时把表地点、方位的副词,如 up, down, out, away, in 等放在句首,同 时把谓语动词放在主语之前,构成完全倒装。若主语为人称代词,主语和谓语动词的位置不 变,只将副词放在句首。 Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机肚底下窜出一枚导弹。 Away hurried the boy. 注意: 在 here, there 引出的倒装句中,当主语是普通名词时用完全倒装句,但当主语是代词时,就 要用部分倒装句。 例:Here comes the postman!(邮递员终于来了!注意实意谓语动词位于主语之前。 ) Here we are.(我们到了。注意系动词位于主语代词之后。 )
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Out rushed the girl.

Out he rushed.

2. 部分倒装

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部分倒装即只把谓语的一部分(如助动词、情态动词等)放到主语前,或把句子的强调成分 提前。 1) 否定副词及短语位于句首时,要部分倒装。 高考常考的这类词或词语有: never , not, seldom, hardly, rarely, scarcely, little, nowhere, by no means,on no condition (绝不), in no case( 无论如何都不),under no circumstances(在任 何情况下都不,无论如何都不) ,at no time(在任何时候都不)等。 我从没见过如此美丽的地方。 → I have never seen such a beautiful place. → Never have I seen such a beautiful place. Little did he say at the meeting. I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means is the teacher satisfied with my progress. Under no circumstances can anyone break the rule. On no condition should you visit that place. 你决不能去那个地方。 Not a single mistake did he make in the exam. 他在考试中没有犯一个错误。 It’s beyond description. Nowhere else in the world can there be such a quiet and beautiful place. 2) 以 only 所修饰的副词,介词短语或状语从句的句子放在句首时要用部分倒装。 Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to work. Only in this way can we learn English well. Only after you have reached eighteen can you join the army. Only by changing the way we live will we be able to save the earth. 注意:如果 only 后的词组不是状语,则不需倒转。 Only he knows this. 不能说: Only does he know this.

3)一些如 scarcely……when, no sooner ……than, hardly……when( 一?就?)引导的主从复 合句主句放于句首时,主句要倒装,且主句要求使用过去完成式,从句使用一般过去时。 即 Hardly / No sooner + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / + 一般过去时。如: We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. → No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. 我们刚一坐下,车子就启动了。 He had hardly finished the article when the light went out. 他刚写完文章,灯就熄灭了。 → Hardly had he finished the article when the light went out.
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Hardly had the thief seen the police when he ran away. 除此之外, not only … but also;so...that; such…that 等放于句首时也要部分倒装,但注意: 前倒后不倒, 即前一分句倒装,后一分句不用倒装。 Not only is he interested in football but also he plays it well. So hard does he work that he has made great progress in English. So selfish was she that everyone avoid talking with her. Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great achievements. 4)not until 引导的从句位于句首时,要部分倒装,但注意:主句要倒装,从句不倒装。 直到他的妈妈回来,他才完成作业。 → He didn’t finish his homework until his mother came back. → Not until his mother came back did he finish his homework. 5)so / neither /nor 位于句首的情况。 ① So + 助/be/情态动词 +主语,表示“某人也是这样” ,前后有两个不同的主语。 (表肯定) ② So + 主语 +助/be/情态动词,表示“确实如此,的确如此” 。前后是相同的主语。 ③ Neither\ Nor +助/be/情态动词 +主语,用于对前面否定情况的认同,表示“某人也不” ④ so it is with somebody = it's the same with somebody 表示“前者怎么样,后者也怎么样” [注意] 前面既有否定句又有肯定句,或有多个谓语动词或助动词难以选择时,用此句型。 He promised to finish my homework, so did I. He promised to finish my homework, so he did. It was sunny yesterday. So it was.

You don't know what to do now, neither/ nor do I .(你不知道现在该做什么,我也不知道。 ) I don't like him, nor do I care about him. 我不喜欢他,也不关心他。 John likes English but he doesn't like maths, so it is with me (so it is the same with me). Tom is a student and he studies hard, so it is with me. —He was really manly enough to be responsible for what he had done. 自己的所作所为负责。 —So he was, and so it was with you. 他的确如此,你当时也一样。 6) 由 as 引导的部分倒装句: 当 as 引导让步状语时, although, though 一样, 和 当用作“尽管”之义时, 可以用于部分倒装句。 (形容词/ 副词/ 名词/ 动词 + as + 主语 + 谓语) 。
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他像个男子汉,敢于对

e.g. ① Although they are proud, they are afraid to see me. → Proud as they are, they are afraid to see me. ②Although he is a child, he seems to know everything. → Child as he is, he seems to know everything.(child 前不加冠词) ③ Although he likes Beijing very much, he is unwilling to live there. → Much as he likes Beijing, he is unwilling to live there. Hard as he worked, he did not pass the exam.(虽然他很用功,但他还是没及格) 7) May 置句首,表示祝愿。 May you succeed.祝你成功! 8)虚拟条件句的倒装。 (详见虚拟语气专题讲解)

当堂练习: 翻译: 1. 虽然他是个孩子,但他懂得很多。 → 2. 只有用这种方式我们才能提高我们的英语水平。 → 3. 直到他失去健康,他才意识到好的身体意味着什么。 →

1. Not until I began to study ____ how much time I had wasted. A. didn’t I realize B. did I realize C. I didn’t realize D. I realized

2. Only by practising a few hours every day ____ be able to master the language. A. you can B. can you C. you will D. will you

3. If you don’t go, neither ____. A. shall I B. do I C. I do D. I shall

4. No sooner ____ to the station ____ the train left. A. had I got, when B. I had got, than C. had I got, th an D. did I get, when

5. ---- Your father is very strict with you. ours

---- ____. He never lets off a single mistake of

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A. So he is

B. So is he

C. He is so

D. So does he

6. ____ today, he would get there by Sunday. A. Would he leave B. Was he leaving C. Were he to leave D. If he leave

7. Never in my life ____ such a thing. B. have I heard or seen

A. I have heard or have seen D. did I hear or see

C. I have heard or seen

8. ---- Here ____! Where is Xiao Liu?

---- There ____.

A. comes the bus, is he B. comes the bus, he is C. the bus comes, is he D. the bus comes, he is 9. ____ , I will not buy it. A. Much as do I like it B. As much I like it 10. ---- I like football. I don’t like volleyball. A. So do I B. Neither do I C. Much as I like it ---- ____. C. So it is with me D. So is it with me D. As I like it much

11._____ the expense, I _____ to Italy. A. If it were not, go C. Weren't it for, will go B. Were it not for, would go D. If it hadn t been, would have gone

12. So _____ in the dark ness that he didn' t dare to move an inch. A. he was frightened B. was he frightened C. frightened he was D. frightened was he

13.—In modem times, girls like beautiful clothes. —Yes, _____ and boys. After all, our life has greatly improved. A. so do they; so do you C. so do they; so you do B. so they do; so you do D. so they do; so do you --- _____.[来源:学*科*网Z*X*X*K] D. So do we

14.—You have an English class every day except Sunday. A. So we have B. So we do C. So have we

15.1 wonder if your wife will go to the ball. If your wife _____, so _____ mine. A. does; will B.will; does C.will; would D.does; do

16. Only after I read the text over again _____ its main idea. A. that I knew B.did I knew C. 1 could know D. I did know

17.—You seem to have learned all the English words by heart. A.So l do B.So do l C. So I have D. So ha ve 1

18. —I seldom watch TV, but listen to the radio a lot. A. So do I B. Neither do I C. I m the same
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D. So it is with me

19. So excited _____ that he couldn't say a word. A. he seemed B. did he seem C. was he seeming D. he did look

20. Jimmy was so nervous not a single word _____ down in the dictation. A. he wrote B. he was written C. did he write D. was he written

Not until he lost his health did he realize what good health meant. 1~5 BDACA 6~10 CBBCC 11~15 BDDBA 16~20 BADBC

家庭作业 1. Not until I began to work _____ how much time I had wasted. A. didn’t I realize B. did I realize C. I didn’t realize D. I realize 2. —Where is Kate? —Look,_______, she is at the school gate. A. there she is B. there is she C. here you are D. here it is 3. Which of the following sentences is correct? A. In the teacher came B. In did come the teach er C. In did the teacher come D. In came the teacher 4. Out _____, with a stick in his hand. A. did he rush B. rushed he C. he rushed D. he did rush 5. _______, he is honest. A. As he is poor B. Poor is he C. Poor as he is D. Poor as is he
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6. ________, he knows a lot of things. A. A child as he is B. Child as he is C. A child as is he D. Child as is he 7. _____, you can’t lift yourself up. A. Even you’re strong B. Strong as you areC. How strong you are D. In spite you’re strong 8. So carelessly ________that he almost killed himself. A. he drives B. he drove C. does he drive D. did he drive 9. Early in the day ____the news _____the enemy were gone. A. come; that B. came; that C. comes; that D. came; what 10. Only when you realize the importance of foreign languages_____ them well.
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A. you can learn B. can you learn C. you learned D. did you learn 11. Only after liberation _____ to be treated as human beings. A. did they begin B. they had begun C. they did begin D. had they begun 12. Not only ____ to stay at home, but he was also forbidden to see his friends. A. he was forcing B. he was forced C. was he forcing D. was he forc ed 13. Not until his father was out of prison____ to school. A. can John go B. John can go C. could John go D. John could go 14. Never before _____ seen such a stupid man. 15. Rarely ____such a silly thing.
[来源:学*科*网 Z*X*X*K]

A. am I B. was I C. have I D. shall I

A. have I heard of B. I have heard of C. am I heard of D. had I heard of 16. Little _____ about his own health though he was very ill. A. he cared B. did he care C. does he care D. he cares 17. Only when _____ in the afternoon _____ able to leave. A. the match was over; they were B. was the match over; were they C. was the match over; they were D. the match was over; were they 18. Hardly ____ down ____ he stepped in. A. had I sat; than B. I had sat; when C. had I sat; then D. had I sat; when 19. No sooner _____asleep than she heard a knock at the door. A. she had fallen B. had she fallen C. she had fell D. had she fell 20. She did not see Smith. ________. A. Neither did I B. Nor didn’t I C. Neither I did D. So didn’t I 21. In fr ont of the farmhouse ______. A. lay a peasant boy B. laid a peasant boy C. a peasant lay D. did a peasant boy lie 22. —You ought to have given them some advice. —_____, but who cared what I said ? A. So ought you B. So I ought C. So did you D. So I did 23. —It was hot yesterday. —_____. A. It was so. B. So was it. C. So it was. D. So it did A. is he fit B. he is fit C. he fit D. fit be

24. No longer _____ to be monitor of the class. 25. —You like football very much. —________.

A. So do IB. So I do C. I do too D. It is the same with me 26. Only by practicing a few hours every day___ be able to master the language.
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A. you can B. can you C. you will D. will you 27. Hardly _____ the bus stop ___ the bus arrived. A. we had got to; when B. we had got to; thenC. had we got to; than D. had we got to; when 28. —Where is your brother? —There ______. A. he is coming B. he comes C. comes he D. does he come 29. _____ earlier you would have met him. A. If you came B. If you did come C. Did you come D. Had you come 30. Not only ____ polluted but ____crowded. A. was the city; were the street B. the city was; were the street C. was the city; the streets were D. the city was; the streets were 31. She is a teacher and works at the college. _______. A. So is Li Ming B. So does Li Ming C. So is it with Li Ming D. So it is with Li Ming 32. Now ___ Tom’s turn to rec ite the text. 33. Hearing the cat coming, off_____. A. fled all the mice B. away fled the mice C. all the mice fled away D. fleeing all the mice 34. _______ reading and speaking English every day, he would speak it well enough now. A. Had he practiced B. Did he practice C. Should he practice D. Were he to practice 35. Nearby _____ in which they had spent their summer vacation. A. was two houses B. two houses were C. were two houses D. are two houses 36. Not only a writer but also ______ here. A. an actor was wanted B. was an actor wantedC. an actor were wanted D. were an actor wanted 37. So tired ____ after a whole day’s heavy work that I ____ stand on my feet. A. was I; could hardly B. was I felt; could hardly C. was I; couldn’t hardly D. I was; hardly couldn’t 38. Only in this way_____expect to get over so many difficulties. A. we are sure to B. can we C. that we can D. that can we 39. After that we never saw her again, nor ________ from her. A. did we hear B. we heard C. has we heard D. we have heard 40. Look,________. A. here the bus comes B. here is the bus coningC. here comes the bus D. here the bus is coming
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A. there is B. is going C. has come D. comes

41. —Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? —I don’t know, _____. A. nor don’t I care B. nor do I care C. I don’t care neither D. I don’t care also 42. You can’t imagine ______ when they received these nice Christmas presents. A. how they were excited B. how excited they were C. how excited were they D. they were how excited 43. Not until all the fish died in the river _____ how serious the pollution was. A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized C. the villagers did realized D. didn’t the villagers realize 44. Little _____ about his own safety, though he was in great danger himself. A. does he care B. did he care C. he cares D. he cared 45. —David has made great progress recently. —_______, and _______. A. So he has; so you have B. So he has; so have you C. So has he; so have D. So has he; so you have 46. —It was careless of you to have left your clothes outside all night. A. So did I B. So I did C. So were you D. So did you 47. Not a single song ________ at yesterday’s party. A. she sang B. sang she C. did she sing D. she did sing 48. _____ the people have become masters of their own country that science can really serve the people. A. Only the n B. It is only then C. Only when D. It is only when —My God! ______.
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49. Not only _______ difficult to understand, but it was too long. A. it was B. it made C. did it make D. was it 50. Only when the rain stopped _____ again. A. the match started B. does the match startC. did the match start D. the match had started 51. ______ had I finished my translation when the class was over. A. Never B. No sooner C. Hardly D. How 52. In _______ and the lesson began. 53. On the wall ______ two large pictures. A. hangs B. hang C. hanged D. are hangi ng 54. Such ______ the results of the experiments. 55. —They have done a good job. —________.
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A. he came B. came he C. he comes D. comes he

A. is B. was C. are D. as be

A. So they have done B. So they have C. So have they D. So is it 56. ______ he realized it was too late to return home. A. No sooner it grew dark than B. Hardly did it grow dark when C. It was not until dark that D. It was until dark that 57. _____, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together. A. However late is he B. However he is late C. However is he late D. However late he is

58. _____ hot is the sun that we cannot go out at present. A. Very B. Too C. So D. Such

答案: 1-10 CADCC BBDBB 21-30 ADCAB DDBDC 41-50 BBABB BCDDC 11-20 ADCCA BDDBA 31-40 DDAAC AABAB 51-58 CABCB CDC

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