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虚拟语气论文


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虚拟语气送给你

---虚拟语气教学之我见 黄冈中学广州学校 孙香山

摘要:虚拟语气在中学英语语法学习中,通常以抽象,复杂,广博著称, 但在日常英语文章阅读、会话表达、交际理解和各种考试中常常被运用。教学 界普遍认为,虚拟语气难教,难学和难考。它涉及动词时态,动词短语,情态 动词,非谓语动词,关联词,主从复合句,it 句型,倒装句型等多个语法学 习项目。我们自编一些学习诗,在学习诗的编纂、吟颂、解读中理解运用虚拟 语气,往往会起到事倍功半,举一反三的效果。 关键词:虚拟语气 学习诗: 我们学习虚语气, 理解关键几个词; 状从句首多 If, 句中 were 就代表 be. If 如果被省略, 从句必用倒装式;三种相反要分清, 四种时态多分析. 主从时间若不同, 时间时态各一致;命令要求与建议, 句中使用动原词. 从句短语要分清, 各自用法各相异;Wish 千万要管住, 与时俱进在从句. Would 短语与时进, If only 跟一起;it 若连名形时, 时间过去余原形. 虚拟本是表假设, 介动短语要顾及;虚拟关注语境意;分析理解很容易。 学习诗

英语里的有一句话“If there were no subjunctive mood, English would be much easier?”(意为“如果没有虚拟语气,英语就会容易的多”)。 由此可见,虚拟语气对中学生学习者来说是多么难。究其原因,一是虚拟结构 形式繁杂,二是虚拟时间变化复杂,再者许多语法书上没有很好的归类,只是 一种罗列其形式,致使授课者与学习者晕头转向,难以掌握。经过多年的教学 实践积累与思考, 我认为虚拟语气大体上是有规律的。 如果我们借助于中文自 编诗,宏观上概括虚拟语气的基本组成形式,构建特点,变化规律,以及注意 事项,微观上对虚拟语气进行相关具体的解读,对学习者来说能起到化复杂为 简单,化繁杂为条理和化抽象为具体的效果。
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解读一:理解关键几个词: (1) 虚拟语气从句的引导词――If、even if/even though, as if/as though. Eg: If I had studied hard, I would have passed the test. If I should have time, I would call on her. If I were you, I would study hard. The boss considers me as if I were his brother. She talked about china as if he had been there. Even though you had given me two tickets for the film, I couldn't have seen it. (2) 情态动词的过去时――should, would, could, might. (3) 特殊动词――一坚持、二命令、三建议、四要求、五情形(提议、推荐、喜爱、渴 望、决定)。 主 Insist order/command advise/suggest/propose ask/demand/require(request)/urge move/recommend/prefer/desire/decide (4)某些形容词、名词后的主从句型: A: It be necessary/important/strange/nature/better/eager/ anxious/wonderful ---that sb (should) do sth B: It be a pity/shame---that sb (should) do sth that sb(should) do sth 句 从 句

解读二:状从句首多 If, 句中 were 就代表 be,If 如果被省略, 从句必用倒装式。 Eg: 1、If I had met her, I wouldn’t have come here. 2、Had I met her, I wouldn’t have come here. 3、If I were you, I would go to university. 4、Were I you, I would go to university. 5、If he were to finish the homework, he should turn to me. 6、Were he to finish the homework, he should turn to me

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解读三:三种相反要分清,四种时态多分析,主从时间若不同,时间时态各一致。 表述原因 与时间事实相反 状语从句(if) 主 句 陈述事实 But, so, because 过去完成时 与过去事实相反 Had done 过去将来完成时 Should/would/could/might have 一般过去时 与现在事实相反 Did,were done 一般过去时

过去将来时 Should/would/could/might do 一般现在时

一般过去时 与将来事实相反 1)Did,were 2)were to do 3)should do

过去将来时 Should/would/could/might do 一般现在/将来时

注:1:如果主从句时间不一致,主从句时态分别与各自的时间时态一致。 2:But, so, because 等表述原因或陈述事实,应使用相对应的时间时态。 Eg: 1、If I were a bird, I could fly in the air. 2、If I had met Li Hua, I could have told him.

3、If it should rain /were to rain/rained, we would stay at home. 4、If they had studied hard, they could do it easily now. 5、If he had not taken my advice, he wouldn’t do it much better like this 6、He should have finished the project on time, but it rained. 解读四: 命令要求与建议,句中使用动原词,从句短语要分清, 各自用法各相异. 1、某些动词后的宾语从句――that sb(should) do sth: Insist/ order, command/ advise, suggest, propose/ ask, demand, require, request/ move, recommend, refer, desire,Urge, decide-----that sb(should) do sth Eg: The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class. He ordered that the students (should)wash the clothes every week by themselves. 短语搭配:(1)Insist on doing (2) Decide/move/refer to do

(3)Command/order/advise/propose/ ask/urge/recommend sb to do (4)Suggest/desire/demand/require/request doing sth 注:以上动词引导其他从句基本使用 that sb(should) do sth
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1. It is suggested that sb (should) do sth. 2. What sb suggests is that sb (should) do sth. 3. The suggestion is that sb (should) do sth.

(主从) (表从) (表从)

4. The suggestion that sb (should) do sth is reasonable. (同从) 特注:suggest,insist 不同的意思,应采取不同的语气。 Suggest:(1)主语为“物”――表明,暗示。用陈述句。动作已发生状态。 (2)主语为“人”――建议。虚拟语气句。动作将发生。 Eg: His smile suggested that he had achieved. Lucy suggested that she be given another one thousand yuan. Insist: (1)坚称,坚持说. 陈述事实。动作已发生,状态。 (2)坚持,主张。 表示观点。虚拟语气。动作将发生。 Eg: The boy insisted that he didn’t pick Tom’s pocket, and that we search the room Jim lived in. 解读五:Wish 千万要管住,与时一致在从句。 Eg:1、I wish he had come to the party yesterday. 2、We wish that the girl winning the gold medal were our friend. 解读六:Would rather 与时进,If only 紧跟在一起; Eg: 1、I would rather (that) you walked to school now. 2、Jim would rather his father had gone to Beijing last month. 3、If only I were a foreigner. 4、If only I had passed the examination.

5、If only I could have watched the game. 省略虚拟:省略部分为 it would be fine. 解读七:It 若连名形时, 时间过去余原形. (1)It be time that 从句(过去时) Eg: It is time(that) we went home now. (2)某些形容词、名词后的主从句型: A: It be necessary/important/strange/nature/better/eager/Anxious/wonderful ---that sb (should) do sth B: It be a pity/shame---that sb (should) do sth 解读八:虚拟本是表假设,介动短语要顾及. 如果句中有表示假设的介词短语或非谓语动词短语,主句也用虚拟语气。 如:Supplied with/given/ provided / left/ ----等非谓语短语 With/without---等介词短语 Eg:1、 Without your help, I wouldn’t have passed the exam last term.
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2、Given more time, I would do it better than Tom. 特殊状态:“六本”“十曾”虚拟: 1、“六本”虚拟,表示事实相反: ① I should/ ought to/ am supposed to/might have done sth; ② I could have done sth ③ I need have done sth ④ I would rather have done sth ⑤ I would like to have done sth ⑥ I was to have done sth Eg: I would like to have seen the film, but my father was ill. 2、“十曾”虚拟:某些动词的过去完成时不定式, 时,表示一种未完成的愿望、计划、目的、打算…… 1.Sb had Attempted /planed/ wanted/ wished /intended/ thought /meant expected/ supposed/ hoped to see you 2.Sb Attempted /planed/ wanted/ wished /intended/ thought /meant/expected/ supposed / hoped to have seen you Eg: 1、I had wished that I would you. 3、I had wished to see you。 总之,虚拟语气学习要从时间时态和语气语境去掌握。我相信,借助于中文自编诗, 对虚拟语气进行宏观上总结与概括;微观上解读并分类,我们的学生学习虚拟语气就会条 理清晰,记忆明朗,琅琅上口,理解虚拟知识点,解答虚拟的练习应该是没有问题的,效 果很不错。以上是我对虚拟语气教学的一点体会,愿与诸位分享。 2、I had wished that I had seen you. 从句或动词不定式过去时的现在完成 本应该去干…… 本能够做…… 本必要去做…… 本愿意去做……… 本想要去干…… 本将要去做…….

参考文献: 1、朗文英语语法及用法词典练习册 图书出版公司。 2、牛津高阶英汉双解词典 3、朗文英汉双解词典 4、中学生英汉双解大词典 5、中学英语惯用法词典 6、薄冰中学英语词典 主编: (英)霍恩比/李北达译 2002 年 4 月 商务印书馆。 外研社。 主编:甘石益,刘铮翻,金舫,1999 年 8 月,世界

(美) Arley Gray/(英)Della Summers 著 主编:典子 主编: 刘强 主编:薄冰 2003 年 6 月 2005 年 7 月 2010 年

2003 年

中国大百科全书出版社。 九州出版社。

商务印书馆国际有限公司。

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