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一. 介词加关系代词
1.[1983] The doctor _____ is leaving for Africa next month. A. the nurse is talking to him B.whom the nurse is talking C. the nurs is talking to D. Who the nurse is talking 2. [1985] He didn’t know which room _____. A. they lived B. they lived in C. did they live D. did they live in 3. [1992] In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help. A. That B. who C. from whom D. to whom

注意1. 含介词的引导词,其介词可放在引导词whom, which前或在从句原来的位置上。介词不提前, 其在从句中作宾语的引导词who, whom, that, which可省。 但含有介词的短语动词一般不能拆开,如 look after, be made of, take part in, look forward to 例:The babies (who/whom) the nurses look after look strong and happy. 2. where = at/in/to… + which when = at/in/on/during + which why = for which 例:This is the school where/at which I used to teach. They stood at the window, from where they could see what was happening in the street. whose book = the book of which = of which the book

二. 在下列情况下只用that,不用which
① 先行词是all, everything, nothing, anything, little, much, the one等不定代词时 There is nothing ( that ) I can do. I mean the one that was brought yesterday. ② 先行词被all, any, every, no, some, little, much等词修饰时 I have read all the books (that) you gave me. You may take home any of these books that you like. ③ 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时 This is the first composition (that)he has written in English. This is the best novel (that) I have ever read.

④先行词被the only, the very(正是,恰是), the same, the last修饰时 The white flower is the only one ( that) I really like. This is the very book (that) I want to find. The last place( that) we visited was the hospital. This is the same watch that I lost yesterday. ⑤ 当先行词有两个或两个以上时,既有人又有物,定语 从句用that 引导 (that既可指人也可指物) He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited. 词作定语从句中系动词的表语时,或先行在主句中作表语 reat changes! It is not the city (that) it was ten years ag

that 不能引导非限制性定语从句 that不能置于介词之后(介词后指物用 which,指人用whom)

1. 无关系代词 that ,只有which who whom

2. most of + which/whom引导的定语从句属非限定性 定语从句,从句前应有逗号与主句分开,除most外, 还有many, some, any, all, none, several, few, both, half, the majority, a number, the youngest, three(数词) in front of, in the middle of, at the back of, at the bottom of, on the top of, at the foot of + which等。 例:He works in a middle school, in front of which there is a river.
3. 在非限制性定语从句中的as, which

1). the same…as, such…as, so…as, as…as 等 结构中,只用as This is not such a book as I expected. I live in the same building as he (lives in). Here is so big a stone as no man can lift. As many children as came here were my father’s pupils. 2). as 的这种用法通常出现在一些固定短语之中如: 1.as has been said before 如上所述 2.as may be imagined 正如可以想象出来的那样 3.as is well known 众所周知 4.as was expected 正如预料的那样 5.as has been already pointed out 正如已经指出的那样 6.as we all can see 正如我们都会看到的那样

3). as 替代一句话即可放句首也可放句末, 而which只能放句末。
The man died last night, which is a lie.


定语从句中的谓语动词的人称和数与先行词保持一致。 例如: 1. Here are such sentences as are often used by the students. ( as指代sentences,谓语动词用are)。 2. I, who am a Party member, should work hard for our country.( who指代I, 谓语用am.)。 3. He was one of the students who were praised for it. ( who指代the students) 他是被表扬的学生之一。 4. He was the only one of the students who was praised for it. ( who 指the only one) 他是唯一被表扬的学生。

五. 易与定语从句混淆的其他复合句

1.定语从句与同位语从句 定语从句与前面的名词是修饰与被修饰的关系“…的”。 而同位语从句是用来说明前面名词的内容。与that从句 同位的名词必须是一些表事实或概念的抽象名词, 如fact, news, belief, truth, reply等。that在定语从句中 作成分,可用which 或who/whom代替;而that在同位 语从句中不充当任何句子成分,只起连接作用。试比较: ① We all have heard the news that our team won. (同位语从句,that从句表示news的内容,that 在从句 中不作任何成分) ② We don’t believe the news that/which he told us yesterday. (定语从句,that 作told 的宾语)

2. 定语从句与状语从句。 试比较: ① He left the key where he had been an hour before. (where引导地点状语从句,相当于in the place where) ② He left the place where he lived for many years. (where 引导定语从句,修饰the place) ③ He is such a good teacher as all of us love and respect. (as 引导定语从句) ④ He is such a good teacher that we all like him. (that引导结果状语从句,such…that… “如此…以致…”)

3.定语从句与主语从句。 试比较: ① As is known to us all, paper was first made in China. (as 引导定语从句,指代整个主句内容,可置于句首) ② It is known to us all that paper was first made in China. (it 做形式主语,代替that 引导的主语从句) 4.定语从句与强调结构。试比较: ① It is the house where I met the young man. (where 引导定语从句,修饰house,where在定语 从句中作地点状语) ② It was in the house that I met the young man. (本句为强调结构,可还原为 I met the young man in the house.)

1. It is the young man _______ looked for _______ caught the murderer. A. that …who B. that …they C . they …that D they…which

2. Is this factory _______ we visited last year? A. where B in which C the one D at which 3. The book, the cover _______ is broken, is not mine. A. of it B for C whose D of which 4. This is Mr Smith, _____ I think has something interesting to tell you. A . who B whom C. that D. x 5. Who _______ has seen the TV film doesn’t admire it? A . that B who C which D as 分析:先行词是who,到是指人,可为了避免重复, 不用who,而用能指代 人的that。答案是A。

6. You can never imagine what great trouble I have had____ the patient who received a serious wound. A. treat B. to treat C treating D treated 注:have trouble (difficult) doing sth 7. This is the last time ____ I shall give you a lesson. A. when B that C which D in which 分析:答案是B。这里的time不指时间,而是次数。 且先行词time 被the last 所修饰,所以用that引导。 8. I don’t like the way _____ you laugh at her. A . that B on which C which D as 9. ____ have plenty of money will help their friend. A.Those who B.He who C.That who D.You who 10. I shall never forget those years _____ I lived in the farm ____ you visited last week. A.when,where B.which,which C.when , which D.which , where

1、 缩略为分词短语 有些定语从句可直接略去作主语的 关系代词(who, which,例如: 1)I know the men(who are )sitting in that car.(IME 2) The boys helped the people (that were )hurt in the accident. ( ib ) . 3) The problem (which is) bothering everybody is the lack of money. (ib) 4) The book (that has been) given to him is an English novel.(NEC)语小说。 有些定语从句不能按上述方法直接缩略,而需变动词 为这类定语从句一般缩略为现在分词短语,且在缩略 时要考虑现在分词的时态和词态特征。 例如:

5) The man who owns that car will be fined for illegal parking →The man owning that car will be fined for illegal parking . 6) Bill, who had taken chemistry in high school , offered to help him . → Bill, having taken chemistry in high school , offered to help him. 7) Now, however, the furniture which they are carrying down to the truck feels very heavy. →Now, however, the furniture being carried down to the truck feels very heavy.

2、缩略为形容词短语 若定词从句为主体表结构,且表语由形容短词充当, 可直接略去作主词的关系代词和连系动词,从而使 定词从句缩略为形容词短语作后置定语。 例如: 1)The men (who were ) responsible for the administration of the school refused to consider the matter . 2).We said goodbye to Mrs. Long, (who was) still busy at her chores. 3).The puppy, (which was) too excited to be calmed , barked furiously.

3.缩略为名词短语 由名词短语作表语的非限制性定语从句略去作 主语的关系代词和连系动词便成为名词短语作同位语。 例如: 1)The company commander, (who was) Captain Madison, assembled his men and announced their mission. 连长,墨迪逊上尉,把战士们集合起来宣布他们的 战斗任务。 2)You should have a talk with Mr. Worth , (who is )the adviser to students. 你应该和沃斯先生-学生顾问谈一谈。 3) We finally reached Rio, (which was) the end or our journey.

若定语从句为主系表句型,且表语为介语短语,可略去 主语关系代词和连系动词,使之缩略为介词短语作 后置定语。 例如:He spoke to the girl (who was) from New York 此外,若定语从句中含“有”动词(has, have, had), 用介词with / without 取替定语从句中主语关系代词 和“有”动词,使定语从句缩略为介词 with / without 短语作后置定语。With 适用于肯定的定语从句; without 适用于否定的定语从句。

例如: 1).The company wants men who have experience. →The company wants men with experience. 2) My father went up to the woman who had a book under her arm. → My father went up to the women with a book under her arm. 3)The teacher was looking for a rule that did not have an exception . → The teacher was looking for a rule without an exception.

某些含情态动词或助动词的定语从句可缩略为动词 不定式短语作后置定语。 例如: 1)You need someone who can look after you. 2) The way you should start the machine is to press the button . 3) There are still many obstacles that must be overcome. 4) The question which will be discussed tomorrow is whether income tax should be increased.

5) There are plenty of toys with which the children can play .



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