阅读理解 请认真阅读下列短文，从短文后各题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出最佳选 项。 A
We know the famous ones—the Thomas Edison and the Alexander Graham Bells —but what about the less famous inventors? What about the people who invented the traffic light and the windshield wiper(雨刮器)？Shouldn’t we know who they are? Joan Mclean thinks so. In fact, Mclean, a professor of physics at Mountain University in Range, feels so strongly about this matter that she’s developed a course on the topic. In addition to learning “who” invented “what”, however, Mclean also likes her students to learn the answers to the “why” and ”how” questions. According to Mclean,” When students learn the answers to these questions, they are better prepared to recognize opportunities for inventing and more motivated to give inventing a try.” So, just what is the story behind the windshield wiper? Well, Mary Anderson came up with the idea in 1902 after a visit to New York City. The day was cold and stormy, but Anderson still wa nted to see the sights, so she jumped aboard a streetcar. Noticing that the driver was struggling to see through the snow covering the windshield, she found herself wondering why there couldn’t be a built-in device for cleaning the window. Still wondering about this when she returned home to Birmingham, Alabama, Anderson started drafting out solutions. One of her ideas, a lever(操作杆)on the inside of a vehicle that would control an arm on the outside, became the first windshield wiper.
Today we benefit from countless inventions and innovations，It’s hard to imagine driving without Garrett A Morgan’s traffic light. It’s equally impossible to picture a world without Katherine J. Blodgett’s innovation that makes glass invisible, Can you picture life without clear windows and eyeglasses? ( ) 1. By mentioning “traffic light” and “windshield wiper”, the author indicates that
countless inventions are
A. beneficial, because their inventors are famous B. beneficial, though their inventors are less famous C. not useful, because their inventors are less famous D. not useful, though their inventors are famous ( ) 2. Professor Joan McLean’s course aims to_____. A. add color and variety to students’ campus life B. inform students of the windshield wiper’s invention C. carry out the requirements by Mountain University D. prepare students to try their own invention ( ) 3. Tommy Lee’s invention of the unbreakable umbrella was _________. A. not eventually accepted by the umbrella producer B. inspired by the story behind the windshield wiper C. due to his dream of being caught in a rainstorm D. not related to Professor Joan McLean’s lectures ( ) 4. Which 0f the following can best serve as the title of this passage? A How to Help Students to Sell Their Inventions to Producers? B How to Design a Built-in Device for Cleaning the Window? C Shouldn’t We Know Who Invented the Windshield Wiper? D A篇 第一篇文章是关于生活中离不开小发明，鼓励年轻人要善于把握发明的契机， 推动社会的进步。 56.观点态度题，根据第一段 but 处：but what about the less famous inventers? What about….windshield wiper? 可以得出结论。这些人的发明不是很有名，确实非 常有用的。答案为 B。 Shouldn’t We Develop Invention Courses in Universities?
57. 细节题。根据题干可以定位到原文第二段，However 处正是考点出题处， 引号当中的内容正是证明了 Mclean 的观点： when students learn the answers to these questions,….prepared to recognize…inventing a try.由此可以看出选项 D 正是原文的 同义替换。 58.细节题。根据题干中的人物 Tommy lee 可以定位到原文第三段，引号当中 正是他的观点：If I had not heard the story of the windshield wiper’s invention…..i never would have….，可以判断出答案 B 正确。
59.主旨题。文章一开头就点出文章主旨：shouldn’t we know who they are?并且 用了疑问句加强语气，可见 C 选项正确。其他三个选项都相对片面。
Passage Four (Examinations Exert a Pernicious Influence on Education)
We might marvel at the progress made in every field of study, but the methods of testing a person’s knowledge and ability remain as primitive as ever they were. It really is extraordinary that after all these years, educationists have still failed to device anything more efficient and reliab le than examinations. For all the pious claim that examinations text what you know, it is common knowledge that they more often do the exact opposite. They may be a good means of testing memory, or the knack of working rapidly under extreme pressure, but they can tell you nothing about a person’s true ability and aptitude. As anxiety-makers, examinations are second to none. That is because so much depends on them. They are the mark of success of failure in our society. Your whole future may be decided in one fateful day. It doesn’t matter that you weren’t feeling very well, or that your mother died. Little things like that don’t count: the exam goes on. No one can give of his best when he is in mortal terror, or after a sleepless night, yet this is precisely what the examination system expects him to do. The moment a child begins school, he enters a world of vicious competition where success and failure are clear ly defined and measured. Can we wonder at the increasing number of
‘drop-outs’: young people who are written off as utter failures before they have even embarked on a career? Can we be surprised at the suicide rate among students? A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt is rigidly laid down by a syllabus, so the student is encouraged to memorize. Examinations do not motivate a student to read widely, but to restrict his reading; they do not enable him to seek more and more knowledge, but induce cramming. They lower the standards of teaching, for they deprive the teacher of all freedoms. Teachers themselves are often judged by examination results and instead of teaching their subjects, they are reduced to training their students in exam techniques which they despise. The most successful candidates are not always the best educated; they are the best trained in the technique of working under duress. The results on which so much depends are often nothing more than a subjective assessment by some anonymous examiner. Examiners are only human. They get tired and hungry; they make mistakes. Yet they have to mark stacks of hastily scrawled scripts in a limited amount of time. They work under the same sort of pressure as the candidates. And their word carries weight. After a judge’s decision you have the right of appeal, but not after an examiner’s. There must surely be many simpler and more effective ways of assessing a person’s true abilities. Is it cynical to suggest that examinations are merely a profitable business for the institutions that run them? This is what it boils down to in the last analysis. The best comment on the system is this illiterate message recently scrawled on a wall: ‘I were a teenage drop-out and now I are a teenage millionaire.’
1.The main idea of this passage is[A] examinations exert a pernicious influence on education. examinations are ineffective. [C] examinations are profitable for institutions. [D] examinations are a burden on students. 2.The author’s attitude toward examinations is [A]detest. approval. [C] critical. [D] indifferent.
3.The fate of students is decided by[A] education. institutions. [C] examinations. [D] students themselves. 4.According to the author, the most important of a good education is [A] to encourage students to read widely. to train students to think on their own. [C] to teach students how to tackle exams. [D] to master his fate. 5.Why does the author mention court? [A] Give an example. For comparison. *C+ It shows that teachers’ evolutions depend on the results of examinations. [D] It shows the results of court is more effectise.
Vocabulary 1.pernicious 2.knack 3.embark 4.write off 5.syllabus 6.cram 7.duress 8.stack 9.scrawl 10.script 11.cynical 12.boil down 有害的，恶性的，破坏性的 窍门，诀窍 乘船，登记 勾销，注销。确认某食物已损失或无效 教 学大纲 塞入，把某物塞进，突击式学习（尤指应考） ，以注入方式教人 威胁，逼迫 堆，垛 写/画（的内容不工整，不仔细）潦草的笔迹，七扭八歪的字 讲稿，剧本，脚本，笔试答卷 愤世嫉俗的，自私得为人不齿的 熬浓，浓缩，归纳
For all the pious claim that examinations test what you know, it is common knowledge that
they more often do the exact opposite. 【参考译文】尽管所有那些虔诚的说法说考试能测定你所知道的东西，但其结果常常是适得 其反，这是众所周之的常识。 2. As anxiety-makers, examinations are second to none.
【结构简析】second to none 固定搭配，义：不亚于任何人或事物。 【参考译文】 （测）考试作为忧虑的制造者，真是出类拔萃。 3. induce cramming
诱人采用突击式学习方式。Cram 尽力塞入，应试突击学习。EX: cram for a chemistry test.为应 付化学考试而临时抱佛脚。Cram pupils 以填鸭式教学生。 4. Yet you have to mark stacks of hastily scrawled scripts in a limited amount of time.
【参考译文】他们不得不在限定的时间内，给一大堆匆忙涂写而成的笔试答卷批分。 5. And their word carries weight.
【参考译文】可他们的话/文字（这里指分数）有份量（有影响） 。 6. This is what it boils down to in the last analysis.
写作方法与文章大意 这是一篇类似分类写作的文章。罗列了考试种种恶果。作者首先指出考试难以测定人的真 正能力和水平，反而是适得其反。二是考试是忧虑的制造者，因为它决定了人的成败命运。 三是考试促使学校进行应试技巧教育，否定了教会人独立思考、扩大视野。四是教师或者说 测试人又累又饿，犯错误，还得在限定时间披阅成堆的试卷，他们的压力和考试者一样很大， 而他们的话――分数有份量，审判官的裁决，你有权上诉，而他们的裁决――一笔定终身。 最后引用“辍学者成为百万富翁”来点明测试这种形式对教育的坏影响。
答案详解 1. A 考试对教育具有有害的影响。文章第一段就点明：考试是测试记忆的好方法，是测
试在巨大压力下快速工作的技巧的好方法，却测不出一个人的真正能力和水平。第三段集中 指出：考试不是促进学生广泛阅读，反而限制其阅读；考试不能使学生追求更多的知识，而 是诱导学生进行应付考试的突击式学习。他们降低了教学水平，因为他们剥夺了老师的一切
自由。常常以考试结果而不是所教课程来评定老师，是他们不得不以他们所轻视的考试技巧 来培训学生。第二段和第四段也涉及其后果。 B.考试无效。这是考试后果的一个方面。C.考试对教育机构有利。这也是一个方面。D.考试对 学生是一种负担。 2. C 批评的。第一段中作者明确指出，考试方法依旧，不能测出人的能力和水平。第二段
点名，这种无用的考试决定人生的成败。第三段说考试最成功的考试者经常不是最佳的受教 育者，他们是在胁迫下最佳获得考试技巧者，而好的教育应能培养人的独立思考。第四段涉 及阅卷者又累又饿，常犯错误，不得不在限定时间披阅一大堆匆忙中七扭八歪写出的卷子。 最后一句“我过去是一个是来岁的辍学者，现在我是一个年轻的百万富翁”画龙点睛地指出，考 试指挥下的教育的失败。这一切都说明作者对考试的批评态度。 A.嫌恶，厌恶。此答案从意义上说是对的。但语法不通，因为这是个东西，而 is 后要求是名词 或形容词。B.赞成。D.漠不关心的。 3. C 考试。答案在第二段，考试是最终忧虑制造者，那是因为许多事情取决于考试：它们
是我们社会中成功或失败的标志。你的未来可能全取决于这决定性的一天。 A.教育。B.教育机构。D.学生自己。 4. 考。 A.鼓励学生广泛阅读。教学生如何应考。C.教学生如何应考。D.掌握自己命运。 5. B 作对比，答案在最后一段倒数第二句“审判官裁决后，你有权力上诉，而披阅考卷人 B 培养学生进行独立思考。 第三段第一句话点明： 好的教育应该是培养学生自己独立思
给分后， 学生可没有上诉权”后面又谈及“一想到考试只对进行考试的机构有礼， 未免太自私了。 这酒是最终分析归纳的东西。”所以作者呼吁，可定还有许多更简便，更有效的评估人真正能 力的方法。 A.给出一个例子。C.表示老师是由考试结果评定好坏。这是第三段讲的不分内容，教师他们自 己常由考试结果而不是所教课程优劣来评定。所以他们不得不对学生进行应试技巧教育，降 低教学水平。D.表明审判官裁决更有效。
1. Which of the following is discouraged by the Fri ends organization? A. To build massive complexes for public amusement. B. To prevent possible damages to the National Park.
C. To help protect and improve the Park for all to enjoy. D. To sponsor publications and projects in local school. ( ) 2. One of the benefits for members of Friends is to A. have Friends’ goods free of charge B. visit any place not open to the public .
C. take part in work parties if they want to D. give talks in their fields on current issues ( ) 3. The purpose of this poster is to invite more people to_______________. A. raise money for the F riends organization B. join the Friends organization and be members of it C. work as managers for Pembroke shire National Park D. enjoy the landscape of Pembroke shire National Park 第二篇是应用文，是一份海报，关于国家公园的介绍以及征募会员介绍，话题 和学生的生活有比较大的距离感，但是词汇未超出课标范围，学生完全可以通过 信息的提炼分析答案。 60.推理题。 要注意题目问的是 discouraged by…, 通过文章第三大标题 Activities 第二段第一句 we keep an eye on planning applications…such as massive leisure complexes 可以推断出选 A 是 Friends 所不支持的，为正确选项。 61.细节题。根据题干，定位到第四大标题 Benefits.从第五点”Satisfaction of participation in work parties, for those willing and able to involve.”可以看出选项 C 为 正确选项。 62.主旨题。 文章一开 头就抛出三个问题，可见这个组织的目的在于吸引更 多的人能够加入其中，B 为正确选项。由文章第二大标题 Aims 中的” we are a voluntary organization…”可见 A 选项错误。C，D 选项都是文章没有提到的。
第 11 组
阅读理解----A BORDER CROSSINGS While there are no restrictions on the amount of money that you can bring
across the border. You must report to both the US and Canadian border services amounts equal to or greater than $10.000. PERSONAL EXEMPTIONS（免税）ON PURCHASES AMERICANS RETURNING TO THE US Less than 48 hours: $ 200 US 48 hours or more: $ 800 US duty-free personal exemption. next $ 1.000 US at 3% Including up to 100 cigars and 100 cigarettes. CANADIANS RETURNING TO CANADA Less than 24 hours: $ 50 CAN 48 hours or more: $ 400 CAN Including up to 100 cigars and 200 cigarettes. 7 days or more: $ 750 CAN Including up to 100 cigars and 200 cigarettes. DOCUMENTATION NEEDED FOR BORDER CROSSING LAND OR SEA TO THE US(INCLUDING FERRIES) A valid passport or passport card, or a NEXUS card. (A NEXUS card is a Trusted Traveler Program that provides quick travel for pre-approved, low risk travelers through special lanes.) A recent Washington State, New York or BC driver’s license. Note: Children 15 years of age and younger require only a birth certificate or copy. (Certified copies are not required but are advised.) AIR TRAVEL TO THE US A valid passport, an Air NEXUS card, or a U.S. Coast Guard Merchant Marine Document. ( ) 1. If a Canadian who is on a 7-day trip to New York buys $ 800 CAN worth of goods, how much should he pay tax on when returning home? A. $ 800 CAN B. $750 CAN C. $ 400 CAN D. $ 50 CAN
选 D。 根据文中 Canadians Returning To Canada 的要求$750 CAN 是免税的，所 以只需交$50 CAN 的关税 ( ) 2. For an American citizen on a 2-day tour of Canada, how much tax does he have to pay on $ 1.600 US worth of purchases when returning to the US? A. $ 24 US B. $ 48 US C. $52 US D. $ 200 US
选 A. 根据文中 Americans Returning To the US 的要求 $800 US 免税，而 next $1000US at3% 得知除 800 以外的 800 到 1000 以内需交 3% 800 乘以 3%=24 ( ) 3. What documentation should a couple with a 7-year-old child carry when they drive a car from Canada to America? A. A BC driver’s license, an Air NEXUS card, and a birth certificate. B. An Air NEXUS card, a U.S. Coast Guard Merchant Marine Document, and a birth certificate. C. Two valid passport cards and a certified copy of a birth certificate. D. A NEXUS card, a U.S. Coast Guard Merchant Marine Document, and a certified copy of a birth certificate. 选 C 根据题目中 they drive a car from Canada to America， 用排除法可排除两项 A,B, 而 D 错在 a certified copy
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