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副词用法详解-适合高三和大学生


Unit4 副词 一:副词的意义和用途: 1. 修饰动词 Paganini played the violin beautifully. 2. 修饰形容词 very good; awfully hungry. 3. 修饰其它副词 very soon; awfully quickly 4. 修饰介词短语 You’re entirely in the wrong. 5. 修饰完整的句子 Strangely enough, I won first prize. 6. 修饰名词 The man over there is a doctor. 副词可以是单个的词(slowly)也可以是词组(in the garden)往往用“状语”这个 术语来称呼。它不是构成句子的必需成分,但往往会影响句子的意思。 I have finished work. I have nearly finished work. (快完成了) 有时,副词是完成一个句子所必需的。如 lie down, sit over there, put the car in the garage. 7. 如何识别副词: ⑴以-ly 结尾的单一副词 patiently/usually/nearly,许多观点副词也以-ly 结尾,如 fortunately. ⑵不以-ly 结尾的副词,包括与形容词形式一样的方式副词,如 fast, there, then, often, perhaps(观点副词), however(连接副词)。 ⑶副词短语, 表示方式、 地点和时间的副词短语常用介词+名词构成, in a hurry/ 如 in the garden/ at the station; 其它的副词还有 again and again (频度), hardly at all (程度副词), very much indeed (thank you very much indeed), as a matter of fact, in that case。 ⑷副词小品词,有些介词如 in, off, up 也可以做副词小品词 The children are in the house. The children have just gone in. 二:副词比较级/最高级:只有可分级副词才有比较级和最高级。 Daily/extremely/only/really/then/there/uniquely 等不可以分级,所以没有比较级。 副词 比较级 最高级 1. 与形容词同形 fast faster fastest 2. 以-ly 结尾的方式副词 easily more easily most easily 3. 某些频度副词 rarely more rarely most rarely 4. 例外 badly worse worst far farther farthest further furthest late later latest little less least much more most well better best 说明: 1. 频度副词用 more/most/less/least 构成比较级和最高级,如 more seldom/most seldom; often 可用 more often 也可用 oftener(不常用)。 2. latest/last: 都可以做形容词

I bought the latest (most recent) edition of today’s newspaper. (最近的) I bought the last (final) edition of today’s newspaper. (最后的) 但是一般只有 last 能做副词: It was a difficult question, so I answered last. 也可以把 last 放在主要动词之前: It last rained eight months ago. (= The last time rained was ---- .) 3. farther/further 都可以指距离: We drove ten miles farther/further than necessary. 但只有 further 能够表示“此外” We learnt, further, that he wasn’t a qualified doctor. 三:如何用副词比较 1. as --- as Sylvia sings as sweetly as her sister. not as/so --- as I can’t swim as well as you (can). She can’t jump (quite) so high as Billy (can). 3. --- than The rain cleared (停止) more quickly than I expected. 4. the --- the --- (越---,越 ---) The faster I type, the more mistakes I make. 5. --- and --It rained more and more heavily. 6. 比较级 Dave drives faster than anyone I know. 7. 最高级 I work fastest when I am under pressure. Tim tries the hardest of all the boys in the class. 我们常用比较级+than ever// than anyone// than anything Magnus concentrated harder than ever // than anyone. 四:方式副词 1.构成: ⑴在形容词后加-ly: bad-badly; careful-carefully ⑵以辅音+y 结尾时。 y 变为-ily: happy-happily; busy-busily; funny-funnily; 但是 把 dry-drily/dryly; sly-slyly ⑶ 以 -le 结 尾 时 , 去 掉 -e, 改 为 -ly: noble-nobly; able-ably; nimble-nimbly; possible-possibly; 但 是 whole-wholly , 其 它 的 以 -e 结 尾 的 则 保 留 -e 加 -ly: extreme-extremely; tame-tamely; 但 due-duly; true-truly 除外。 ⑷ 形 容 词 结 尾 为 -ic 时 , 须 加 上 -ally: fantastic-fantastically; basic-basically; systematic-systematically;但是 public-publicly 是例外。而且,有些以-ly 结尾的 副词(与方式/频度有关)与形容词同形,如 daily/weekly/quarterly/yearly I receive quarterly bills. I pay my bill quarterly. Early 既是形容词也是副词 I hope to catch an early train. I want to arrive early. ⑸以-l 结尾需要双写 l: beautiful-beautifully; 其它后缀,如 backwards, forwards, northwards, upwards (都表示方向); crossways, lengthways(=lengthwise 纵向地), sideways; clockwise, lengthwise, moneywise (-wise

构成“与 –有关地”副词) How do you manage taxwise? (税收方面你怎么处理?) The smoke curled upwards. Take a step sideways. The tables were laid lengthways. 大多数方式副词修饰动作动词 laugh loudly; perform badly; drive carefully,但是, 较少量的方式副词也可以修饰状态动词 understand perfectly; know well. 注意:以下-ly 都是形容词:brotherly/sisterly/cowardly/elderly(稍老的 an elderly man)/(un)friendly/heavenly(The sun, moon and stars are heavenly bodies)/likely(the likely outcome//She is very likely to ring me tonight; 也可 adv: not likely//as likely as not 说 不 定 )/unlikely/lively/lovely/manly (looked manly)/womanly(a truly womanly woman)/motherly/fatherly/sickly(多病的 a sickly child)/silly/ugly 这些词常 与 way, manner, fashion 等连用 She always greets in a friendly manner/way/fashion. 2. 具有两种形式的副词,二者可能: ⑴意义相同:I bought this car cheap/cheaply. ⑵意义不同,如 hard: I work hard and play hard. I did hardly any work today. 3. 意 义 上 不 同 于 相 应 形 容 词 的 副 词 , 如 express( 快 的 )/expressly( 清 楚 地 ); ready/readily(毫不迟疑地、欣然地:answer questions readily//容易地:the sofa can be readily converted into a bed//): If it was urgent, you should send it by express mail. You were told expressly to be here by seven. 有 些 副 词 , 如 coldly/coolly/hotly/warmly 可 以 表 示 感 情 和 行 为 , 可 以 和 act/behave/react/speak 等表示行为的动词连用,试比较: It is a cold day today. --- The whole queue stared at me coldly. It was a warm/cool day. --- Emily greeted me warmly/coolly. It was a hot day. --- Edward hotly(断然地) denied the accusation。 五:副词的位置: 1.方式副词一般放在宾语或者动词后面 -放在宾语后面:She watched the monkey curiously. -放在动词后面:It snowed heavily last nigh. -在副词小品词后面:He took the picture down very carefully. -重要的是不要把副词放在动词和其宾语之间 不能说 He speaks well English. 但是,如果宾语较长,则可以这样做: We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us. 2. 单一的方式副词可以放在主语和动词之间,强调主语。但是短语副词一般不 这样做: Gillian angrily slammed the door behind her. 当 well/badly 评估以行动时,只能放在句子或者从句的末尾: Mr Gradgrind pays his staff very well/badly. 有 些 方 式 副 词 , 包 括 bravely, cleverly, cruelly, foolishly, generously, kindly,

secretly,simply 变换了位置,强调的方面也不同,试比:较 He foolishly locked himself out. (=It was foolish that ---.) He behave foolishly at the party. (=in a foolish manner)(聚会上,他举止可笑。) 还有一些副词,包括 badly, naturally,改变其位置,也会改变其意义和功能: You typed this letter very badly. (这封信打得很糟糕。方式副词) 3. 在叙述文中, 但一般不在讲话中, 方式副词, gently, quietly, slowly, suddenly 如 可以放在句子开头,以引起悬念或者达到戏剧性的效果。一般用逗号隔开 Oscar held his breath and stood still. Quietly, he moved forwards to get a better view. 六:地点副词 1.地点的含义 ⑴方位: He is in Beijing. 方位状语回答 where。常与位置动词 live/be/stay/work 这样的“位置动词”连用。方位状语可以放在句子开头:In Beijing Larry stayed at Grand Hotel. ⑵方向(去,离开) :Larry went by plane to Beijing.方向状语用于回答 “where to” 和 “where from”,常与 go 这类“动作动词”连用。 2. 地点副词的位置:从不位于主语和动词之间。 ⑴用在方式副词之后,时间副词之前。 Barbara read quietly (方式副词) in the library (地点副词) all afternoon. 然而,方向副词却可以在动词之后,其它副词之前 I went to London (方向副词) by train (方式) next day (时间副词)。 一连串的地点副词,应该由小到大: She lives in a small house in a village outside Reading in Berkshire, England. 3. 如果要强调方位(比如为了对比) ,可以把表示方位的副词放在句首,特别是 在叙事文中。 Indoors it was nice and warm. Outside it was snowing heavily. 当有一个以上的地点副词时,为了避免歧义,将地点副词置于句首是常有的: On many large farms, farm workers live in tied (出租给雇工的) cottages. 七:时间副词 1. 表示确定时间的副词。 ⑴ 表示确定时间的副词,用来回答 when,一般用于过去时或者将来。 I started my job last week. I will ring you tomorrow. 表示时间的词,如 today, tomorrow, yesterday 等能被 early/earlier/late/later 修饰: Earlier today; late/later this year. 在口语中,当指一周中的具体的某一天时,我们不用“on” Let’s meet Monday. (formal: Let’s meet on Monday.) He was born on a Monday. (at Christmas) ⑵ 表示确定时间的副词一般放在句尾。 We checked in at the hotel on Monday/yesterday. 表示确定时间的副词也可以置于句首: This morning I had a telephone call from Tom. ⑶ 多个时间副词的顺序也是由小到大 Gilbert was born at 11.58 on Monday November 18th 1986. 2. 表示非确定时间:afterwards, already, another day, another time, at last, at once,

early, eventually, formerly(以前), immediately, just, late, lately(最近, 近来=recently), now, nowadays, once, one day(过去或者将来), presently, some day(指将来某一天), soon, still, subsequently, these days, ultimately, then, yet 等。 这些时间副词一般用在句尾,动词之前,be 之后 I went to Berlin recently. = I recently went to Berlin. I was recently in Berlin. 还可以用于句首引起兴趣或对比: Recently, I went to Berlin. It was very interesting --- . Early 和 late 一般用在句尾 We went to the airport too early/late for our flight. Another day/time; one day; some day 可用于句首或者末尾: Some day I will tell you. I will tell you some day. 有些表示非确定时间的词可以被 only, very 修饰, only just, only recently; very 如: early, very recently. Still 的用法:表示时间的延续,主要用于肯定句和疑问句,常在助动词之后,完 全动词之前。 Mr Mason is still in hospital. Tom still works for the British Council. 为了表示强调,也可以在助动词之前: Martha still is in hospital, you know. 在否定句中,still 用在否定结构之前,表示不满和惊奇, I still haven’t heard from her. (比较 I haven’t heard from her yet. 后者无感情色彩) I still cannot do it. Already 助动词之后,完全动词之前,也可用在句尾。一般不用在否定句中。 The machine is already out of date. --- It is out of date already. I have already seen the report. --- I have seen the report already. Tom already knows the truth. --- He knows it already. 为了强调也可以出现在助动词前: You’d better lock up. --- I already have (locked up). 放在句尾还可以强调比“预想的来得快些”: Don’t tell me you have eaten it already. Yet 的位置和用途: 一般用在否定句和疑问句的末尾。 Have the new petrol prices come into force yet? Haven’t the new petrol prices come into force yet? The new petrol prices haven’t come into force yet. 在否定句中,yet 可以用在主要动词之前: The new petrol prices haven’t yet come into force. Yet 常用在否定简略回答中 not 的后面: Has the concert finished? – No, not yet.

在不定式前,yet 几乎和 still 同义: Who will be appointed? – It yet/still to be decided. 比较 yet 和 already: 两者都常用于完成时,但在美国英语中,却常用于过去时。 Have you seen the movie yet? – I have already seen it. Did you see the movie yet? – I already saw it. 当我们想得到信息时,在问句中用 yet. Have you received your invitation yet? (我不知道你是否受到邀请) 当我们想得到证实时,有时则可以用 already. Have you already received your invitation? (想证实一下) Just 的位置和用途:和非确定频度副词的位置一样。 -用于完成时,表示“在现在或当时之前的一小段时间内”。 I have just finished reading the paper. Would you like it? Mrs Mason had just come out of hospital. -用于过去时,特别是美国英语,表示“很短一段时间之前” I just saw Selina. She was going to the theatre. -用于进行时或者与 will 连用,指不久的将来。 Wait, I am just coming. I’ll just put my coat on. -Just 还表示“只需” How do I work this? – You just turn on the switch. 3. 表示持续时间 (即一段时间) 的状语, ago, all day long, not any more, not any 如 longer, no longer, no more 和起状语作用的介词短语(像由 by, during, for, from---to, till, since, throughout 等开头的介词短语)。 ⑴since 和 ago: since 常与现在或者过去完成时连用, I have seen Tom since last year/ January. I met John last week, I had not seen him since 1986. Since 可以单独作副词用: I saw your mother last month, but I haven’t seen her since. Ago 与过去时连用:I started working five months ago. ⑵for 与一段时间连用:表示过去,将来或者现在的一段时间: The Kenways lived here for five years. The Kenways have lived here for five years. 在“持续动词”的肯定句中,如 be, live 等,如果动词是现在或者过去完成时,for 可以省略: Patricia has been (has lived/has worked) (for) a year. 在将来时中,for 也可以省略: I’ll be (stay/work) in New York (for) five years. for 在否定句中,或用在句子或者从句的开头则不可以省略: I haven’t seen her for six months. For six years, he lived abroad. ⑶from---to/till/until 指一段明确的时间: The tourist season runs from June to/till October. ⑷ by; till/until; not --- until

当我们用表示一段时间的“持续动词”时,如 stay, wait 时,只能用 till/until,不能 用 by. I’ll stay here till/until Monday. (我要在这儿呆到周一) I won’t stay here till/until Monday. (我在这儿呆不到周一) 当所用动词是非延续性动词,如 finish/leave 时,只能在否定句中用 till/until. I won’t leave till/until Monday. (我要到周一才离开) 我们只将 by 与表示时点的动词连用,因此可以说: I’ll have left by Monday. (到周一我就已经离开了) I won’t have left by Monday. (我周一前不会离开) ⑸during; in; throughout During 后须跟一个名词,表示整个一段时间: It was very hot during the summer. He’s phoned four times during the last half hour. 在上述例句中皆可用 in 代替 during; 强调不明确的时间,可用 some time + during,这时候,during 不能用 in 代替: I posted it some time during (不能用 in) 他和 week. 当指“一个事件或者行动”时,也不能用 in: I didn’t learn much during my teacher training. (my teacher training 不是“时间”,而 是“事件”) 如果我们强调“从开始到结束的整个一段时间”,可用 throughout 代替 in 或者 during. There were thunderstorms throughout July. 可将 during 或 throughout(不可以用 in)与 the whole; the entire 等连用,强调整段 时间内发生的事情。 During the whole/entire winter she never saw a soul. All (day/night) long: 表示时间的持续: It rained all night (long). Not --- any more; no more; not --- any longer; no longer: Not---any more; not---any longer; no longer 表示“持续动作”已经停止或者必须停 止,用在句子和从句的末尾。 Hurry up! I can’t wait any longer/more. No longer 用在完全动词之前或者句子的末尾,但用在词尾有时显得比较正式。 Professor Carrington no longer lives here. (不在这里居住了) 区别:no longer 与 no more No longer 中的 longer 是副词 long 的比较级,long 有 after a certain point of time, 着重表示时间不再延续,no longer 等于 not---any longer. No more 中的 more 是 many/much 的比较级,more 有 again 得意思,着重表示数 量或程度的减少,no more 等于 not---any more. Not --- any longer 和 not ---any more 没有区别,如上面提到的例子: Hurry up! I cannot wait any longer/more(朗文语法例句). Not --- any longer/no longer 常与延续性动词连用; not --- any more/ no more 常 而

与非延续动词连用(如果实在要区别的话) 。 Time and opportunities lost will return no more. (no longer 常置于动词前,no more 常置于动词后) 而 no more 可以做定语或者宾语。 No more excuses. (定语) I have no more to say. (宾语) No more than: 只不过。 It will take no more than five days to read the book. It is no more than a misunderstanding. 八:频度副词:用于回到 how often 问句。 1. 确 定 频 度 副 词 , 如 once/twice/three times/several times (a day/a month/a year)/hourly/weekly/fortnightly/every(day/month/year)/on Monday 等,一般出现在 句尾。 有时放在句首,避免歧义: Once a month we visit our daughter who is at Leeds University. 这可以避免以下句子的歧义: We visit our daughter who is at Leeds University once a month. (once a month 可以 是 visit 也可以是 is,所以有歧义) 2. 按频度由大到小的非确定频度副词 -always -almost always/nearly always -generally/usually/normally/regularly -frequently/often -sometimes/occasionally -almost never/hardly ever/scarcely/seldom -not ever/never Very occasionally 表示“不经常” 还有 again and again; at times(有时); every so often(不时,偶尔);(every) now and then(=every so often); from time to time; (every) now and again(sometimes) 还有一些以-ly 结尾的副词,constantly/continually/continuously/repeatedly 非确定频度副词一般在助动词之后,完全动词之前: I was never very good at maths. You can always contact me on this number. Gerald often made unwise decisions. 这种副词出现在 had to/used to/ought to 之前: We never used to import so many goods. 也可以出现在有 to 的不定式前,但这是正式用法: You ought always to check the facts before you write essays. 在疑问句中,通常出现在主语之后: Do you usually have cream in your coffee? 频度副词在否定句中时,not 要出现在频度副词之前: Public transport is not always reliable. We don’t usually get up before nine on Sundays. 否定句中频度副词的使用:

⑴Not 必须出现在 sometimes/frequently 之后: Debbie is sometimes not responsible for what she does. Almost always/ nearly always/ occasionally 一般不用在否定句中。 ⑵频度副词用在句尾: ①“肯定副词”在句尾: 我们可以把 often 用在疑问句和否定句句尾: Do you come here often? I don’t come here often. Always 可以出现在句尾,但表示“永远” I’ll love you always. ②否定副词 rarely/seldom 有时可以出现在句尾, 特别是被 only 或 very 所修饰时: Nowadays, we drive down to the coast only rarely. ⑶表示强调或者对比时,下列副词可以用在句子开头: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, ordinarily, sometimes, 和 usually. Sometimes we get a lot of rain in August. 当 often 放在句首表强调时,一般有 quite 或者 very 修饰: Quite/Very often the phone rings when I am in the bath. Always 和 never 在祈使句中可以用在句首: Always pay your debts. Never borrow money. 注意:否定副词放在句子开头时,会影响词序。 ⑷ever 和 never Ever 表示“任何时候”, 用在疑问句中, 否定句以及 if(表示“at any time”)条件句中。 Have you ever thought of applying for a job abroad? Nothing ever bothers Howard. If you ever need any help, you know where to find me. 还可以用 hardly ever, scarcely ever, barely ever 之后 He’s barely ever at home. Not---ever 常用来取代 never: He won’t ever trouble you again. = He will never trouble again. 3. 说话中助动词常常要重度,这时,可将非确定程度副词置于助动词之前: It’s just like Philip. He always is late when we have an important meeting. You never can rely on him. (菲利普就是这样----) 这种语序经常出现在简略回答中,特别是用于表示“同意”或者“反驳”刚才过说的 话: -Philip is late gain. – Yes, he always is. 注意:do, did, does 代替完全动词的用法: -Your son never helps you. – No, he never does. - Yes, he always does. 这种回答也可以作为单个陈述句的一部分: Joan promised to keep her room tidy, but she never did. 同样,也可以强调一个以上的动词: George never should have joined the army. 正常语序应该是频度副词放在第一个助动词之后: George should never have joined the army.

九 : 程 度 副 词 : 最 普 通 的 有 almost/altogether/barely/a bit/enough/fairly/hardly/nearly/quite/rather/somewhat/too 等 1. quite ⑴与可分级形容词和副词连用时,表示“不到最好程度”也表示“比预想的好” 不 与否定词连用。 The lecture was quite good. He lectured quite good. ⑵与不可分级形容词(如 dead, perfect(ly), unique(ly) )以及“强语势的”可分级形 容词 amazing(ly), astound(ly)连用时,表示“绝对地”“完全地”。 The news is quite amazing. She plays quite amazingly. Not quite “不完全地”一般只与不可分级的词连用: quite dead; not quite perfect. not Quite 不能与比较级连用。但可以修饰少数几个动词: I quite enjoy mountain holidays. I quite forgot to post your letter. 注意:She is quite better. (她完全好了) ⑶quite a/an; quite some; quite the Quite a/an 表示“值得注意的” Madelein is quite an expert on Roman coins. Quite some + 不可数名词,表示“客观的” It is quite some time since we wrote to each other. Quite a/an +adj+n 具有积极的修辞效果: It is quite an interesting film. = It is a quite interesting film. Quite the + 最高级:It is quite the worst play I have ever seen. (这确是---) Quite the + noun :Wide lapels(翻领) is quite the fashion this spring. (确实很---) 2. fairly 表示“不到最好程度”,常与表示事物处于好的状态的形容词/副词连用, 如 good, nice, well。 但其“赞赏”程度不及 quite。 The lecture is fairly good. He lectured fairly well. Fairly 不与比较级连用。与动词连用,表示 very nearly,但情况较为有限 You fairly drive me mad with your nagging. A fairly + adj + n: He is a fairly good speaker. 3. rather: 比 fairly/quite 语势强些,可与表示优势和劣势的形容词连用,如 good, nice, clever, well // bad, nasty, stupid, ill 等: The jacket is getting rather old. 与副词连用:I did rather badly in the competition. 用在动词前,表示“有些”:I rather like raw fish. I rather suspect we are making a big mistake. 与比较级连用:Olive earns rather more than his father. Rather a/an // a rather (都可+adj) : Old Tom is rather a bore. It is rather a sad story. = It is a rather sad story. 4. much/far/a lot: Much/far 可与比较级和最高级连用:much bigger// far better//far the best. Much(类似 very/any)能和少数几个形容词原级连用,而且一般都用在否定句中:

I don’t think is much good/different(非常好/很不一般). A lot 只能和比较级连用:a lot more expensive. 5. a bit; a little bit; a little; somewhat: 这四个都可与: -形容词连用:It is a bit//a little bit//a little/somewhat expensive -副词连用:He arrived a bit//a little bit//a little//somewhat late. -比较级连用:You’re a bit//a little bit//a little//somewhat taller than him. -动词连用:I have turned up the oven up a bit//a little bit//a little/somewhat. Not a bit 用作很强的否定强调: He wasn’t even a bit upset when she heard the news. 6. enough 和 fairly: enough 用在 adj 或 adv 之后,有“为了某个目的”的含义: The water in the pool is fairly warm. (陈述事实:相当暖和) The water in the pool is warm enough (to swim in). (够暖和:可以游泳) 7. hardly, scarcely, barely -和形容词连用:The soup is hardly/scarcely/barely warm. -和副词连用:He plays hardly/scarcely/barely well. Hardly/scarcely (表示否定)可以动词连用: It might stop raining, but I hardly/scarcely think it likely. barely(表示“勉强”),连用的动词较少: Tom barely knows multiplication tables(九九口诀表) yet. 8. very -形容词:He is very ill. -adj+n: Tom is a very nice person. -adv: The wheels of bureaucracy run very slowly. very 本身不能用在比较级之前,但是 very much 则可以 very much good/better. very 也不可以用在 alone 等表语形容词之前,但 very much 可以: Mr Kay is very much alone. very much/so much/much 都可修饰动词,而且可以放在句子中间,单独的 much 不能放在句子后面: I admire him very much. = I very much//so much// much admire him. I enjoy your party very much//so much. the very (my very)可以用在最高级前 the very best// the very first to arrive//the very beginning. 但是只有 very much//so much 能修饰比较级 very much better. 用带-ly 后缀的副词可以取代 very,如 extremely, particularly, really 以及口语中的 awfully, frightfully 和 terribly. Gerald is extremely helpful. (adj) Dawson works really slowly. (adv) I am terribly confused by all this information. (过去分词) The information is terribly confusing. (现在分词) Dawson is a particularly good worker. (+ adj+n) 用 jolly(非常地,极为),pretty, dead 在正式场合中代替在形容词和副词前的 very: She is a jolly good player. The traffic is moving pretty slowly. pretty well 意为“将近”:

The movie was pretty well over by the time we got to the cinema. dead 常 在 非 正 式 英 语 中 与 下 列 形 容 词 ( 不 是 副 词 ) 连 用 : dead certain/drunk/level/quiet/straight/tired/wrong. 9. indeed 和 not --- at all: 在肯定句中,very 可用 indeed 来加强语气,so 则不可以。 That is very good. = That is very good indeed. (可以 so good; 不能 so very good.) I enjoyed it very much indeed. not---at all 可与 very much 连用: I didn’t enjoy the play (very much) at all. 10.-ly 的副词保留其基本意义的强调作用: greatly 只能和动词连用而不能和形容词连用(源自过去分词的形容词除外): Many people greatly admired English garden. I want to cooperate with you greatly. a greatly increased risk. 许多-ly 副词常与过去分词连用: Completely mistaken//horribly injured//perfectly planned. He was unexpectedly delayed//delayed unexpectedly. 有些-ly 副词只与有限的词连用:badly needed; deeply suspicious; highly respected; be utterly destroyed 等. 11. even 和 only 的位置很灵活,句子意义也会随着位置变动发生变化: Even Tom knows that 2 and 2 makes 4. Tom even knows than 2 and 2 make 4. Only Tom knows the answer. Tom knows only haft of the answer. even 和 only 置于动词之前常产生歧义,我们可把它们放在所修饰的词之前。在 口语中则不必要。我们可以依靠重读和语调: I only asked Jim to lend me his ladder. (即没有借别的东西。) only too 有“非常”的意思: I am only too glad to be of help. only 在动词之前有解释和道歉的意思: I don’t know why you are so angry. I only left the door open. 11. too; as well; not --- either; also too; as well 一般放在肯定句末尾。 I like Tom and I like his wife, too. I like Tom and I like his wife as well. 否定句中 too; as well 要用 either 代替: I don’t like John and I don’t like his wife either. also:(否定句不用 also,需用 not --- either) -有助动词时,放在之后:Sue is an engineer. She is also a mother. -无助动词,主要动词之前:I play squash (壁球) and I also play tennis. 注意:also 一般指其后动词,比如 I also play tennis. 是指网球不是我仅会得一种 运动。 试比较 I too play tennis. too 指的是主语 (=My friend plays tennis and I play tennis as well. //, too) 12. 观点副词修饰说话的内容:

clearly/evidently 来表示他要做出结论; frankly/honestly 强调其诚恳; generally/normally 表示其概括; briefly/in short 表示其不想赘述。 Frankly, I am not satisfied with your work. Hopefully, I’ll see you some time tomorrow. 13. 连 接 副 词 : however/on the contrary/at the same time/meanwhile/as a result/consequently/furthermore/moreover(此外)。 连接副词可以出现在句首, 后面 用一个逗号。 Penrose gambled heavily and, as a result, lost a lot of money. 十:副词的倒装: 1. here, there 等地点副词和 down, up, back, off 等一类副词小品词放在句首, 主语 放在动词之后,这类词常与 come, go 等转移动词连用: Here comes a taxi. There goes the last train. (不可以用进行时) Down came the rain and up went the umbrellas. Here’s a cup of tea for you. There is Johny Smith. 主语如果是代词,不能倒装: Here he comes. There she goes. Up it went. Here you’re There she is. 2. 地点状语后面如果是表示位置的动词(如 lie, live, stand, sit 等)或转移的动词 (如 come, go, rise 等) ,用作主语的名词可放在动词后,这种情形主要出现在 描写文中。 At the top of the hill stood a tiny chapel (small church). In the field lay the dying soldiers. In the distance could be seen the purple mountains. 主语如果是代词,则不能倒装: At the top of the hill it stood out against the sky. 3. 否定副词之后的倒装。有些副词用在句首,必须用“副词+助动词(be, do, have, must, can 等)+主语+句子的其它成分”的结构,是典型的正式修饰和正式文体。 ⑴否定副词(seldom, never, rarely 等)和近似否定副词(little, on no account) Never/Seldom has there been so much protest against atomic bomb. Little does he realize how important this meeting is. He little realizes how important this meeting is. () On no account must you accept any money if he offers it. (他如果给你钱,你可绝不 要接受) ⑵与 only 构成的词组(only if; only then)(在英语中也被看做否定) Only then did I realize how dangerous the situation had been. Only if I get a job will I have enough money to go to school. ⑶ so + adj (+that ) 和 such (+that)

So sudden was the attack (that) we had no time to escape. Such was his strength that he could bend iron bars.


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