定语从句在从句中起定语作用，修饰句 中的某一名词或代词，被定语从句修饰 的词叫先行词(Antecedent)。定语从句需 用关联词(relative pronouns and adverbs)：
指代人 who, whom, that, as 指代事物 which, that, as 所属关系 whose 指地点 where（=介词+which） 关 指时间 when (=介词+which） 不可省 系 指原因 why (=for+which） 副 词 关 系 代 词
归 纳 总 结
Relative pronouns used in attributive clauses
Antecedent Subject persons Object Possessive whose Note A relative pronoun can be omitted when it is used as the object in an attributiv e clause
whom/ who/that who/that
关系词在从句中充当成分 主 语 who/ that which/ that 宾 语 定 语 状 时间 状语 地点 状语 语 原因 状语 方式 状语
先 行 词
指 人 指 物
who / whose / that/whom of whom which / that which / of which when/ where / why / that / in 介词 介词 介词 +which +which +which which
限定性定语从句是句中不 可缺少的组成部分，主句 和从句之间不用逗号隔开
非限定性定语从句是对 主句先行词的补充说明， 没有这种从句不影响主 句意思完整.一般用逗号 把主句和从句分开 引导词： who,whom,whose,which, of which,when,where等， 不用that,不能省略
引导词：关系代词和关系 副词，作宾语时一些关系 代词可以省略
用法与区别 “限”是先行词不可缺少的 定语.如果省去，主句意思 不完整或不明确；“非限” 只是附加说明。 限制性定语从句 All the people were talking about the wonderful cloth The emperor had ordered to be woven 非限制性定语从句 They set up a state of their own,where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves.
She is the nurse who “限”于主句之间不能用逗 号隔开；“非限”与主句之 looks after the children. 间要用逗号隔开。 “限”可以用that引导； “非限”不能用that引导 “限”的关联词作宾语时可 省；非限则不可 That is the very tool that we are looking for I will never forget the day （that ）we spent together there
The letter is from my sister,who is working in Beijing. I saw a good film, which was about the Long March His dog,which he liked very much, died yesterday. He suddenly fell ill, which prevented him from going
“限”一般只修饰先行词； I have finished the 非限既可修饰先行词，也可 novel that you lent me
考 点 难 点
1.that与which 2.对the way的考查 3.介词+关系词 4.as的使用 5.对where的考查 6.综合考查
that 1) Do you have anything ______ you don’t understand? that 2) The only thing _____ we can do is to give you some advice. 3) Who is the man that is standing there? _____ 4) Her bag, in ________ she put all her which money, has been stolen. which 5) She heard a terrible noise， ______ brought her heart into her mouth.
考点1：that 与 which
1:先行词是everything, nothing, anything, something, much, little, none等不定代词或 由不定代词any, some, no, much, few, little, every, all等修饰时, 引导定语从句用that不用 which。 2：先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰且指物时, 1. 指物，介词后。 引导定语从句用that 。 3: 先行词中既有人又有事物时，引导定语从句用 that 2. 用于非限制定语从句中 。 4:先行词被the very, the only等修饰且指物时,引导定 语从句用that。 5：当先行词前面有who/which等疑问代词时，只用 that。
填上合适的关系词并分析原因： 缺状语 1.The way that/in which/不填 _________________he explained the sentence to us was not difficult to understand. that/ which/不填 2.The way _________________he explained to us was quite simple. 缺宾语
3. What surprised me was not what he said but _____ he said it. （04湖北） A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which
1. Do you know the boy __ whomyour mother to ____ is talking? with which 2. He gave me some novels _____ ______ I am not very familiar. 3. I still remember the day ___ whichI first got on ____ to Paris. 4. 译：这是我要照顾的小孩。 This is the child whom/ that I will look after. 5. (06浙江) I was given three books on cooking, the first ______I really enjoyed. A. of that B. of which C. that D. which
结论: 介词﹢关系代词引导的定 语从句,关键是判断介词的选择,方 法一是看从句谓语部分缺少什么 介词(习惯搭配),再则可以通过整 个句子整体含义来判断,结合生活 实际来判断.
as\that\which as 1. It is such a big stone _____ nobody can lift. that 2. It is such a big stone _____ nobody can lift it. As 3. ______ is known to all, he is the best student. 4. Jim passed the driving test, which surprised _____ everybody in the office.
归纳：as引导限制性定语从句先行词前常被such, the same, so, as 修饰，即构成such…as , the same …as, so…as, 结构，做题时容易忽略。as在定语从句中应充 当成分如：主语、宾语或表语。 as 与which引导定语从句都能指代整句内容，但定语从 句位于句首时，只能用 as, 意为“正如、恰如”。
1. He is such a lazy man_____ nobody wants to work with______. （04 模拟训练） A. as; him B. that; / C. as; / D. whom; him 2. Mrs. Black took the police back to____ place ____ she witnessed the robbery. A. the same; as B. the same; where C. the same ; that D. as the same; as
1. I’ve come to the point where I can’t stand him. 我已经到了无法容忍他的地步了。 2. The country is in the situation where a war will break out at any time.
解析：如果定语从句分别修饰point, situation, part, condition和case等表示抽象意义的词，常用where 引 导，意思是“到了某种地步，在某种境况中” 。 where引导的定语从句先行词大多数情况下是 表示地点的名词，但也有特殊情况。
1.We are trying to reach a point ____ both sides
will sit down together and talk. （06山东）
A. which B. that C. where
2. ---Do you have anything to say for yourself?
---Yes, there’s one point ____ we must insist
on . （06江西）
A. why B. where C. how D. /
近年来，高考对定语从句和其它从句如：强调句、 名词性从句和状语从句等的综合考查越来越多，这就要 求考生有扎实的基础知识和较强的综合分析能力。
where\that 定语从句 where 1.This is the library_____I borrowed the book. that 2.It is from this library____I borrowed the book.
3. ---Where did you last see Mr. Smith? 强调句型 ---It was in the hotel____ I lived. A. that B. which C. where D. when
综合考查二：定语从句与同位语从句 that/which that 1. We all have heard the news_____ our team won. that/which 2. We don’t believe the news _________ he told us yesterday. 综合考查三：定语从句与表语从句 ◆ The place ____ the bridge is supposed to be built should be_____ the cross-river traffic is the heaviest. （05 江苏） A. which; where B. at which; which C. at which; where D. which; in which
1. We should go to the place_____ B we are most needed. C 2. We should go to the place_____ needs us most. A. it B. where C. that D. what C 3. It was October_____we met in Damiao for the first time. A 4. It was in October_____we met in Damiao for the first time. A. that B. which C. when D. while
5. He is such a good teacher_____ B we all like him. C 6. He is such a good teacher_____ we all like. A. whom B. that C. as D. which 7. The news came____ the British Queen’s mother celebrated her 101th birthday in good health, ____ isn’t surprising, because she lives an easy life and gets the best medical care. A. that; which B. which; which C. that; that D. when; as
8. He left the key ____he had been an hour
before. He left the place ____ he lived for many years. A.which B where C the place which D.the place
(where引导地点状语从句，相当于in the place where) (where 引导定语从句，修饰the place)
1.By nine o'clock, all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, ___________ appeared a rare rainbow soon. （2008福建） A. of which B. on which C. from which D. above which 解析：原句应该是这样的：A rare rainbow soon appeared . __________. 这里显然应该填上“above Mount Qomolangma”。我们可以 将它改写为above which并用来连接这两个句子
2.The man pulled out a gold watch, __________ were made of small diamonds. (2008陕西卷) A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of C. which the hands of D. the hands of which 解析：“表的指针”是用钻石造的。这里涉及到了所有关系。 在定语从句中，对于事物的所有关系我们可以使用whose + 名 词，the + 名词 + of which 或of which the + 名词这三种形式。 D项符合 the + 名词 + of which 结构，所以是正确的。
3. I'll give you my friend's home address, _________ I can be reached most evenings. （08北京卷） A. which B. when C. whom D. where 4. All the neighbor admire this family, _________the parents are treating their child like a friend. （2008安徽卷） A. why B. where C. which D. that 这两道题非常相似。两句的先行词分别为address和family， 后面的从句缺少地点状语，所以要用in which 或where作 为关系词连接。 第3题稍微有些难度。首先，有些同学没有理解这句话 的意思，“我会给你我朋友的家庭住址。在这个地址， 大部分的晚上你都可以找到我”。后面的句子如果改写 为“you can reach me most evenings”则更容易理解。
5. Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity ________ sight matters more than hearing. [ 2007 天 津卷] A. when B. whose C. which D. where 6. We shouldn’t spent our money testing so many people,most of _____are healthy[2007 北京卷] A. that B.which C. what D. whom
7. By serving others, a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself, ___________ can be very eye-opening and rewarding. [2007 湖南卷] A. who B. which C. what D. that
8. The thought of going back home was kept him happy while he was working abroad．[2007 上海春] A．that B．all that C．all what D．which
9. Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, ______ used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. [2007 浙江卷] A. that B. which C. who D. where 10. Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree ______ they can be controlled on purpose. [2007 重庆卷] A. with which B. to which C. of which D. for which
Our class is a big family ; It consists of 12 girls and 50 boys. Most of them are mainly from the countryside. Zhao Qiang is a kind-hearted boy. He is always ready to help others. He is such a good boy that we all like him. Our class is a big family which consists of 12 girls and 50 boys, most of whom are mainly from the countryside. Zhao Qiang is a kindhearted boy, who is always ready to help others. He is such a good boy as we all like.
This is the teacher who teaches us English; The girl who is sitting beside her is her daughter , whose name is Zhang Anning. This picture was taken in Nanjing, which is a beautiful city that used to be the capital of six dynasties, as is known to us all. The new year is coming, when/by which time she will visit it again.
A letter to Tom
我收到了你上周的来信.谢谢你寄的照片. 我常常想起我们一起度过的时光.那座顶 上有只海鸥的纪念碑真漂亮.你还记得那 个湖吗?我们在那还照过一张相呢.和我们 一起玩的那些小朋友还好吗?另外,我有一 本绿色封面的书丢在你那了.请帮我寄来.
I have received the letter you posted last week. Thanks for the photos you sent. I often think of the time we spent together. The monument on top of which there is a seagull is really beautiful. Do you still remember the lake where we had a picture taken? How are the children who played with us? Besides, I had a book left in your house the cover of which is green. Please send it to me.
Dear Tom, I have received the letter that you sent to me last week.Thanks for the photoes which are in the letter sent by you.I always think of the happy time that we spent together.T he roof which there is memorial that a sea gull on it is really very beautiful.Do you remember the lake which we took a photo there?And how is the children with whom we enjoyed the wonderful time .Besides,I left a book with the green cover in your home ,which could you send for me.
众所周知，2008年北京成功的举办 了奥运会。英语作为一种国际语言， 在交流中起着重要作用。作为一名高 三学生，我们应抓住现在的学习机会 努力学好它。只有这样，才能为祖国 贡献自己的力量。 注意：要使用定语从句.
As is known to all, Beijing hosted the 2008 Olympic Games . English, which is an international language , plays an important part in communicating with foreigners. We Senior Three students should seize this opportunity to learn it well, by which we can make our contributions to our motherland.
Do more exercises about the Attributive Clause.
Practice makes perfect!
May you succeed in your studies!
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