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议论文论证结构


议论文论证结构
Argument
Some people think that… Others believe that… Discuss and give your opinion. 题目特点:题目当中包含着针锋相对的两种观点。要求讨论并且提出你自己的观点。 平衡式 交代双方观点 观点一及其理由 观点二及其理由 我的观点(倾向性---一或二或折中) 注意:中心思想常在末段首句 Some people believe that money spent on space research benefits all of humanity. Others take the opposite view and say that money for this type of research is wasted. Discuss these views and give your opinion. Sample Answer: : For over fifty years, a number of nations have been involved in the exploration of outer space. This research has been very costly, of course. Has this money been well spent or wasted? Some people believe that all or most space research should be eliminated because of its incredible expense, not only in terms of money, but also in terms of scientific and human resources. These people point out the fact that it cost billions of dollars to send astronauts to the moon, but all they brought back were some worthless rocks. These people say that the money and effort now being wasted in outer space could be spent on more important projects right here on earth, such as providing housing for homeless people, improving the education system, saving the environment, and finding cures for diseases. However, other people believe that space research has provided many benefits to mankind. They point out that hundreds of useful products, from personal computers to heart pacemakers to freeze-dried foods, are the direct or indirect results of space research. They say that weather and communication satellites, which are also products of space programs, have benefited people all over the globe. In addition to these practical benefits, supporters of the space program point to the scientific knowledge that has been acquired about the sun, the moon, the planets, and even our own earth as a result of space research. I agree with those people who support space research and wish to continue. Space research, as shown, has already brought many benefits to humanity. Perhaps it will bring even more benefits in the future, ones that we can not even imagine now. Moreover, just as individual people need challenges to make their lives more interesting, I believe the human race itself needs a challenge, and I think that the peaceful exploration of outer space provides just such a challenge.
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Successful sports professionals can earn a great deal more money than people in other important professions. Some people think this is fully justified while others think it is unfair. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. 题解: 题解: 和从事其他重要职业的人士相比, 成功的职业运动员能挣多得多的钱。 一些人认为这是完全 合理的,而其他人认为不公平。讨论这两种观点并提出你的看法。 范文: As a result of constant media attention, sports professionals in my country have become stars and celebrities, and those at the top are paid huge salaries. Just like movie stars, they live extravagant lifestyles with huge houses and cars. Many people find their rewards unfair, especially when comparing these super salaries with those of top surgeons or research scientists, or even leading politicians who have the responsibility of governing the country. However, sports salaries are not determined by considering the contribution to society a person makes, or the level of responsibility he or she holds. Instead, they reflect the public popularity of sport in general and the level of public support that successful stars can generate. So the notion of “fairness” is not the issue. Those who feel that sports stars’ salaries are justified might argue that the number of professionals with real talent are very few, and the money is a recognition of the skills and dedication a person needs to be successful. Competition is constant and a player is tested every time they perform in their relatively short career. The pressure from the media is intense and there is little privacy out of the spotlight. So all of these factors may justify the huge earnings. Personally, I think that the amount of money such sports stars make is more justified than the huge earnings of movie stars, but at the same time, it indicates that our society places more value on sport than on more essential professions and achievements. 译文: 译文: 由于媒体的不断关注, 我所在的国家的职业运动员成了明星和名人, 那些顶级的选手得到高 额收入。如同电影明星那样,他们过着奢华的生活方式,住豪宅,开名车。 许多人觉得职业运动员的报酬不公平, 尤其是把他们的高薪和顶级医生或研究性科学家的收 入加以对比的时候,或者和拥有治理国家职责的出色政治家比较的时候。但是,运动员的收 入不是由他们对社会的贡献所决定, 也不和他们承担的职责高低相关。 他们的收入反映的是 体育总体上的公众流行度和成功的体育明星所获得的公众支持度。 因此, 公正与否的概念在 此不适用。 那些觉得体育明星的高收入是合理的人认为拥有真正才干的职业运动员数量稀少, 他们挣的 钱体现了对于为成功而必须拥有的技能和贡献的认可。 在运动员相对短暂的职业生涯里, 竞
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争无处不在,选手每一次的表现都会经受考验。媒体的压力很大,几乎没有什么隐私。所以 这些因素可以解释高收入的合理性。 我个人认为和影星的巨额收入相比,这些体育明星挣的钱更合理,但与此同时,这个现象表 明我们社会重视体育甚于其他更重要的职业。 分类式 交代双方观点并指出其复杂性,进行分类 情形一及做法 情形二及做法 总结 The costs of medical health care are increasing all the time. Governments are finding it difficult to balance the health care budget. Should citizens be totally responsible for their own health costs and take out private health insurance, or is it better to have a comprehensive health care system which provides free health services for all? Discuss. Sample Answer: A much debated issue these days is whether citizens should take out private health insurance or not. The cost of providing free medical care for both the wealthy and the poor is far too great for any government, and most people agree that if you can pay for insurance, you should. In this essay, I will argue that all who can afford it should be insured, but free medical care must be made available for those too poor to do so. The most important reason for encouraging people to take out private health insurance is the cost to the government of health care. Free health cover for people who are able to pay for it is a waste of public money. Of course, people will only pay health insurance premiums if they know that they are getting good value for their money. If they get sick, they should pay very little or nothing at all. In addition, the privately insured are entitled to special benefits such as having the choice of their own doctors, and being able to avoid long waiting lists for hospital beds. On the other hand, those who really cannot afford to pay private insurance premiums, which are often very high, are still entitled as citizens to the best medical care available - they cannot be expected to pay their own medical bills. However, if they are working, they should still pay a percentage of their wage (say 1 to 2%) as a tax which pays towards the cost of providing ‘free’ medical services. In conclusion, most people should privately insure their health, but it is unreasonable to suppose that all citizens can afford it. Therefore, a safety net in the form of a basic free health care system must exist for the very poor and the unemployed.

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