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非谓语动词解析及习题


非谓语动词解析及习题(附答案)
非谓语动词是高中三年乃至以后的英语学习中都非常重要的内容,在高中阶段 性考试和重要考试中占较大分值的比重。小编在这里为同学们总结了这些非常 非常重要的知识点,希望能够帮到同学们,加油哦!

非谓语动词是指分词 (包括现在分词和过去分词) 、 不定式、 动名词等三种形式, 即:doing , done , to do , doing 。

当然它们有各自不同的变化形式,如:

现在分词 doing : 有 being done (被动式) ; having done (完成式) ; having been done (完成被动式) 不定式 to do : 有 to be done (被动式); to have done (完成式); to be doing(进行式) 动名词 doing : 有 having done(完成式); being done(被动式) ; having been done (完成被动式) 非谓语动词的特点: 三种非谓语动词都具有动词的特征,虽然它们没有人称和 数的变化,但是它们都能带自己的状语或有时跟宾语。具体来讲:分词在句子中 可以做定语、表语、状语或补足语等;动名词在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语、 定语等;不定式在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语、定语、补足语或状语。 下面分别对三种非谓语动词进行讲解:

一、动词不定式

先看几个例句,判断不定式在句中的成分。

1.To learn a foreign language is difficult .作主语 2. His wish is to be a driver . 作表语 3.Tom wanted to have a cup of beer .作宾语 4.The teacher told us to do morning exercises . 作宾语补足语 5.I have nothing to say .作定语 6.They went to see their aunt . 目的状语 7.It’s easy to see their aunt.作真正主语,it 做形式主语 8.I don’t know what to do next .带有连接代词的动词不定式作宾语 9.I heard them make a noise .不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语

掌握动词不定式应注意的几个问题: 1.“to” 是不定式符号还是介词,下列短语中的 to 都是介词。 agree to object to close to , come to , lead to , refer to , equal to , familiar to , point to , thank to , devote to , next to , belong to , be used to , look forward to

2. 带 to 还是不带 to

I have no choice but to give in I cannot do anything but give in I saw him enter the classroom . 但是: He was seen to enter the classroom .(被动语态中必须还原 to)

3. 动词不定式逻辑主语是由 for 作为标记的。但是有时用 of . It’s necessary for you to study hard 。表物的特征 It’s foolish of him to do it . 表人的特点

4.后接不定式作宾语的动词有: want , hope , wish , like , begin , try , need , forget , agree , know , promise , teach , refuse , help , arrange , dare , decide , determine , fail , manage , offer , prepare , continue , ask , mean , choose , expect etc.

需要宾语补足语的动词不能用动词不定式直接做介词的宾语,而要用 it 做形式 宾语。 例如:通常不说 We think to obey the laws is important . 而说 We think it important to obey the laws .

5.不定式的省略。下列短语中,如果意义明确常常省略到 to 。 want to , wish to ,hope to , like to , hate to , plan to , try to , love to , have to , ought to , need to , used to , be able to

6.不定式作定语,应注意两种关系: 1)动宾关系: He has a lot of meeting to attend . Please lend me something to write with . He is looking for a room to live He is looking for a room to live in . He has no money and no place to live ( in ) . I think the best way to travel ( by ) is on foot . There is no time to think ( about ) .

2)主谓关系: She is always the last ( person) to speak at the meeting . ---I’m going to the post office , for I have a letter to post . ( 逻辑主语是 I) ---Thank you. But I have no letters to be posted now (逻辑主语不是 I )

7.不定式作状语,可以有以下几种意义:

1) 原因 He is lucky to get here on time . 这种结构中常用的形容词有: happy , glad , delighted , pleased , sorry , eager , anxious . lucky , fortunate , proud , angry surprised , frightened , diappointed , ready , clever , foolish , worthy 2) 目的 He came to help me with my maths .

3) 结果 I hurried to get there only to find him out . He is old enough to go to school .

8 . 不定式作补足语 I saw him play in the street just now . 能跟不带 to 的不定式作补足语的动词有: 五看: see , look at,watch, observe, notice 两听: hear , listen to 三使: let , have make, 一感觉: feel I saw him enter the classroom .

注: 当这些词为被动式时,不定式必须要带 to , He was seen to enter the classroom .

二.动名词 Learning English is very difficult .作主语 学英语非常困难。 His job is driving a bus . 作表语 他的工作是开车。 I enjoy dancing .作动词宾语 我喜欢跳舞。 I have got used to living in the country .作介词宾语 我已经习惯了住农村。

注意以下几种结构: 1.There's no telling what will happen . 2.It's no use talking with him . 3.It's no good speaking to them like that . 4.There’s some difficulty ( in ) doing … 在此句型中,difficulty 可以由以下单词替换: trouble , problem , fun , pleasure , a good time , a hard time

注意以下几个问题: 1.下列动词后跟不定式与跟动名词作宾语意义有区别, forget to do … 忘记要做某事 forget doing… 忘记做了某事 remember to do…记住要做某事 remember doing …记着做了某事 mean to do … 有意要做某事 mean doing … 意味着做了某事 regret to do … 对要做的事表示后悔 regret doing … 对做过去的事后悔 can’t help to do…不能帮助做某事 can’t help doing … 情不自禁做某事 try to do … 尽力去做某事 try doing 试着做某事 learn to do … 学着去做某事 learn doing … 学会做某事 stop to do … 停下来去做(另一件事) stop doing … 停止做某事 go on to do … 接着做(另外一件事) go on doing … 继续做某事 used to do … 过去做某事 be used to doing … 习惯做某事

2.动名词作定语与现在分词作定语意义有区别 动名词作定语表达: n+ for doing 的含义 现在分词作定语表达: n+which(who) be doing 的含义 如:a sleeping car = a car for sleeping a running horse = a horse which is running 前者是动名词 , 后者是现在分词 又如: drinking water , walking stick running water , sleeping boy

3. 动名词的逻辑主语: 动名词的逻辑主语为代词或名词的所有格形式。 例如:His coming made us very happy .

4.动名词的语态和时态

5.动名词主动形式表被动的情况: need doing , want doing , require doing This room needs painting . 这个房间需要粉刷。

6.只能跟动名词作宾语的动词:

admit , avoid , advise , consider , delay , deny , enjoy , escape , excuse , fancy , finish , complete , forbid , imagine , mind , miss , permit . practise , require , suggest , risk ,keep, take to , look forward to , get down to , feel like , can't help , can’t stand , be used to ,insist on , succeed in , set about, give up , include ,

三. 分词 1 The story is interesting . I’m interested in it . 这个故事有兴趣,我对这个故事感兴趣。 2 . This is a moving film . 这是一部动人的电影。 3. The secretary worked late into the night , preparing a long speech for the president . 秘书工作到深夜,为主席准备一篇长篇演讲稿。 4. Given more time , I’ll do it well . 如果给我多一点时间,我会做的更好。 When he passed the back of the street , he saw the thief stealing some money from the bank . 当他后街时,看到小偷正从银行偷钱。 应注意的几个问题:

1.现在分词与过去分词的区别 Do you know the woman talking to Tom ? = Do you know the woman who is talking to Tom ? The soldier wounded in the war has become a doctor. = The soldier who was wounded in the war has become a doctor. China is a developing country and America is a developed country.

2.分词作表语 The news sounds encouraging . They got very excited .

1)现在分词与过去分词作表语的区别: The news is interesting . He is interested in the news . doing 作表语,主语与表语是主谓关系,即主动关系 ;done 作表语,主语与 表语是动宾关系,即被动关系。

2)表语与被动式的区别: The blackboard was broken by Xiao Ming .(强调动作) The blackboard is broken . You'd better have it repaired.(强调状态)

3)常作表语的过去分词: amused , injured , covered , known , dressed , lost , broken , gone , delighted, excited , pleased , satisfied , married , worried , surprised , interested , burnt , shut , crowded , wounded , drank , done

4).注意的四种结构: have something to do 有某事要做 have something done 使某事被做 have somebody do something 使某人做某事 have something doing 让某事一直做着

5). 需要跟反身代词作宾语的动词: seat , prepare , hide , dress 如:I seated myself on the chair . I was seated on the chair .

6).分词做状语与不定式的区别: 分词做状语表示时间、原因、让步、 条件、方式、伴随等;而不定式表示目的 和结果。 Having finished the homework , I went home . ( 时间) Being a Party member , I should work hard . (原因)

Given more time ,I can do my work better . ( 条件 ) He ran out of the classroom ,shouting at the boy. ( 伴随) To get more knowledge , we must work harder and harder . ( 目的 ) He is old enough to join the army . ( 结果)

7).分词、动名词和不定式作定语的区别 a running horse 现在分词 = a horse that is running a fallen leaf 过去分词 = a leaf that has already fallen a walking stick 动名词 = a stick for walking something to do 不定式 = something that I should do

8).不定式被动式、分词的被动式和过去分词的区别: I have a problem to be discussed at the meeting . ( 将来) The building being built on the river is the Science Museum . (正在进行)

非谓语动词习题小练 1.Passeagers are permitted only one piece of hand

lugage onto the plane.

A.to carry B. carrying C. to be carried D. being carried

2. On hearing a phone call call from his wife _____ she had

a fall, Mr.Gordon immediately rushed home from his office. A. says B.said C.saying D.to say

3. ______ into English, the sentence was found to have an

entirely different word order.

A. Translating B. Translated

C. To translate D. Having translated

4. It’s important for the figures regularly.

A. to be updated B. to have been updated

C. to update D. to have updated

5. Ladex doesn’t feel like abroad.Her parents are old.

A. study B. studying C. studied D.to study

6. Simon made a big bamboo box the little sick bird till

it could fly.

A.keep B.kept C.keeping D.to keep

7. an important role in a new movie,Andy has a chance

to become famous.

A.Offer B.Offering C.Offered D.To offer

8. Sarah pretended to be cheerful,_____ nothing about the

argument.

A. says B.said C. to say D. saying

key:1~5 ACBAB 6~8 DCD


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