英语划分句子成分 （一）句子成分的定义：构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分 有主要成分和次要成分；主要成分有主语和谓语；次要成分有表语、宾 语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 （二）主语：主语是一个句子所叙述的主体，一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句（当主语不疑问词时）和倒装句中，主语位于谓语、助 动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、 名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。例如： During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.（名词） We often speak English in class.（代词） One-third of the students in this class are girls.（数词） To swim in the river is a great pleasure.（不定式） Smoking does harm to the health.（动名词） The rich should help the poor.（名词化的形容词） When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. （主语从 句） It is necessary to master a foreign language.（it 作形式主语，真正的主语 为后面的不定式） （三）谓语：谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句
中作谓语，一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下： 1、 简单谓语： 由一个动词或动词短语构成。 如： He practices running every morning. 2、复合谓语： （1）由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如：You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. （2） 由系动词 加表语构成。如：We are students. （四）表语：表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态，它一般位于系动 词（如※以肯定的语气叙述主语状态时，要用系动词 be※表示说话人所 感知的主语的特征或状态时，系动词用 look, feel, sound, taste, smell※表 示主语状态变化时， 系动词用 become ,get, grow, come , turn (若跟名词不 加冠词) ，fall (asleep, ill, silent)等，后面大多数接形容词作表语。但 become, turn 亦可接名词作表语等※表示主语的持续时， 系动词用 remain, stay , keep, continue ※从印象的角度说明主语所处的状态和特征时，系 动词用 appear to be (常用于书面)， seem (to be )☆1、 其后要求接形容词， 而不是副词作表语。要特别注意的是有些动词既可以作系动词，又可作 实意动词的用法。遇到这种情况时，只能先根据其意思判断清楚到底是 前者还是后者，然后再对后面的词性和词义作出判断和选择。 2、 这 类词不用进行时。 3、系动词无被动式)。 表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、动名词、介词 短语、 副词及表语从句表示。 例如： Our teacher of English is an American.
（名词） Is it yours?（代词） The weather has turned cold.（形容词）The speech is exciting.（分词） Three times seven is twenty one?（数词） His job is to teach English.（不定式） His hobby（爱好）is playing football. （动名词） The machine must be out of order. （介词短语） Time is up. The class is over.（副词） The truth is that he has never been abroad.（表语从句） （五）宾语：宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者，一般位于及物动词和介词 后面。例如： They went to see an exhibition（展览）yesterday.（名词） The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.（代词） How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.（数词） They helped the old with their housework yesterday. He pretended not to see me.（不定式短语） I enjoy listening to popular music.动名词短语） I think （that） he is fit for his office.（宾语从句） 宾语种类： （1）双宾语（间接宾语+直接宾语） ，要求双宾语(直接宾语 和间接宾语)的动词，直接宾语提前，动词后加 to 或 for，现归纳如下。 ①后面加 to 的动词：give 给 tell 告诉 bring 带来 send 寄，送 hand 交 给 read 读 pass 递给 return 把……还给……lend 借给 throw 扔…… 给……leave 留给 promise 许诺，答应 refuse 拒绝
②后面加 for 的动词：get 得到 make 制造，做 buy 买 do 做 play 演奏 order 命令 sing 唱歌 pay 为……而付钱 （2）复合宾语（宾语+宾补） ，例如：They elected him their monitor. （六）宾语补足语：英语中有些及物动词，除有一个直接宾语以外，还 要有一个宾语补语，才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句 型为：某些及物动词+宾语+宾补。※宾语+名词”常用于改结构的动词 有：call, name, make, find, choose, think, leave※宾语+形容词”常见的动 词有 think, believe, leave, drive, make, keep, turn, wish, want▲“宾语+副 词” 。 ▲“宾语+介词短语” 。 ▲“宾语+不定式” 。充当宾补的不定式 有三种： A 要求带 to 的不定式 B 要求不带 to 的不定式 let, make, have，see, , watch, , look at, hear, listen to, feel 等，用不定式作宾语补语 时，要省去“to”。但用于被动语态时，还要 加上“to 等 C 单词 help 后 可加 to 或不加 to▲ “宾语+现在分词” see, , watch, , look at, hear, listen to, feel▲“宾语+过去分词” ▲ 形式宾语＋形容词▲宾语+what 从句 +※主补：对主语的补充。 例如： His father named him Dongming. （名词） They painted their boat white. （形容词） Let the fresh air in.（副词）You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. （不定式短语）
We saw her entering the room. （现在分词） We found everything in the lab in good order.（介词短语）We will soon make our city what your city is now. （从句） （七）定语：修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。定语可由以 下等成分表示： Guilin is a beautiful city.（形容词） China is a developing country; America is a developed country.（分词） There are thirty women teachers is our school.（名词） His rapid progress in English made us surprised.（代词） Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.（不定式短语） The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.（动名词） He is reading an article about how to learn English.（介词短语） （八）状语：修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子，说明动作或状态特 征的句子成分， 叫做状语。 可由以下形式表示： Light travels most quickly. （副词及副词性词组） He has lived in the city for ten years.（介词短语） He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination. （不 定式短语） He is in the room making a model plane.（分词短语）Wait a minute.（名 词）
Once you begin, you must continue.（状语从句） 简单句的五种基本句型口诀 英语句子万万千， 五大句型把线牵。 句型种类为动词， 后接什么是关键； vt.又可分三类，单宾双宾最常见；还有宾语补足语，各种搭配记心间。 注意：带特殊疑问词的不定式短语作直接宾语是一种很常 用的形式， 基本句型是：S+V+O(间接)+疑问词+不定式 简单句的五个基本句型 主语 ＋ 不及物动词 主语 ＋ 及物动词 ＋宾语 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋表语 She came．/ My head aches. She likes English. She is happy． She gave John a book．
主语 ＋ 双宾动词 ＋间接宾语 ＋直接宾语 She bought a book for me. 主语 ＋ 宾补动词 angry． The teacher asked me to read the passage. （ There +be 练习一 一、指出下列句子句子成分： There lies a book on the desk. ＋ 宾语 ＋
宾语补语 She makes her mother
1. The students got on the school bus.2. He handed me the newspaper. 3. I shall answer your question after class.4. What a beautiful Chinese
painting!5. They went hunting together early in the morning. 6. His job is to train swimmers.7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing.8. There is going to be an American film tonight.9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow.10. His wish is to become a scientist.11. He managed to finish the work in time.12. Tom came to ask me for advice.13. He found it important to master English.14. Do you have anything else to say?15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good.16. Would you please tell me your address?17. He sat there, reading a newspaper.18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy.19. He noticed a man enter the room.20. The apples tasted sweet.21. When you cross a main road, you must be careful. 22 He went out to play football after he had finished his homework. 23 Wait until you are called.24 I can't recognize you. You are so changed since last we met.25 He didn't go to school until he was eleven.26.You can use my house as long as you are careful.27.He is so terrible once he is drunk.28 I listen to the radio while I walk every evening.29.Put it where you found it. You'll be late, unless you hurry.30I did just as you told me。 31.They are such wonderful players that no one can beat them. 32.We arrived early, so that we got good seats.33.He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.34.His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born.
35.This is the house which we bought last month. 36.Whether he will come is not clear. It is not important who will go. 37.I want to know what he has told you. 38. The question is whether she should have a low opinion of the test? 39.It looks as if it is going to rain .40.It's a pity that you should have to leave 41.· He is young but he works hard. 42..He works hard ,so he is a top student of class.42.Hurry up,or we'll be late. 44.We rarely stay in hotels, for we can’t afford it.45. Some new computers were stolen last night. 46.The bikes are made?by them?in the factory.47. It should be done at once. 48.He was seen to come in.49. Lily was given a sticker by Jack 50. Is a car being driven now? 二、用符号划出下列短文各句中的主语（—） 、谓语（＝） 、宾语（～） ： I hope you are very well. I'm fine, but tired. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm. August is the hottest month here. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. We have a lot of machines on the farm. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. But he employs more men for the harvest. My brother takes care of the vegetable
garden. It doesn't often rain in the summer here. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden. Every evening we pump water from a well. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden. 三、用符号划出下列短文各句中的定语（—） 、状语（＝） 、补语（～） ： Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time. These parties often make us very happy. We cook meat on an open fire outside. It's great! Americans eat a lot of meat — too much in my opinion. Some of my friends drink beer. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States. There are five different time areas in the States. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time. How many different time areas do you have in China? Well, I must stop and get some sleep. Please give my best regards to your parents. 四、1That morning we talked a great deal.2The meeting will last two hours. 3Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years. 4This box weighs five kilos.5 I lived in Beijing five years ago. 6I want to talk with you this afternoon.7.They have carried out the plan successfully. 8You must finish reading these books in two weeks. 9.Jim cannot dress himself. 10.All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy.11.He did not know what to
say. 12Mrs Brown looks very healthy. 13At the age of fifteen he became a famous pianist. 14Her job is to look after the children in the nursery. 15The report sounds interesting. 15 Mr Johnson taught us German last year16Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 17Would you please pass me the dictionary?18 He showed the ticket to the conductor. 19We call her Alice. set the thief free. 20All of us considered him honest. 21They have
22We will make our school more beautiful.23He
asked us to join in the game 24Tomorrow I’ll have someone repair the machine.25Every morning we hear him read English aloud. . 26 ’ ll get my recorder mended. 28He felt it very difficult to
27She is listening to someone telling stories. talk with you.
29I consider it possible to work out the problem in another way. 30The school made it a rule that the students should stand up when class begins. There be 句型
1There isn’t going to be a meeting tonight. 5The weatherman says there’ll be a strong wind in the afternoon. 6 6The light is on. There must be someone ion the office. 7There used to be a cinema here before the war.8There happened to be nobody in the room. 9Once, there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea.10There comes the bus. 11There remained just twenty-eight dollars. 12In front of the cave, there stands(grows) a tall pine tree. 13There goes the bell.14There are twenty-eight days in February
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