当前位置:首页 >> 英语考试 >> Chapter

Chapter


English Lexicology (III)

Contents
5. Word Meaning

To be continued
English lexicology (III) 2

Chapter 5 Word Meaning
5.1 Types of Word Meaning 5.2 Grammatical Meaning 5.3 Lexical meaning 5.4 Conceptual meaning 5.5 Associative meaning

5.1 Types of Word Meaning
Word Meaning Grammatical Meaning Lexical Meaning Associative Meaning

Connotative meaning Stylistic meaning Affective meaning Collocative meaning

Conceptual Meaning

English lexicology (III)

4

5.2 Grammatical Meaning
Grammatical meaning(语法意义 语法意义)refers to that 语法意义 part of meaning of the word which indicates grammatical concept or relationships such as the word class, singular and plural forms of nouns, tense meaning of verbs and their inflectional forms (forget, forgets, forgot, forgotten, forgetting).

English lexicology (III)

5

5.3 Lexical meaning
Lexical meaning(词汇意义 is the meaning of an 词汇意义) 词汇意义 isolated word in a dictionary. This component of meaning is identical in all the forms of the word.
E.g. ‘go, goes, went, gone, going’ possess different grammatical meaning. But they have the same lexical meaning expressing the process of movement.

Lexical meaning itself has two components: conceptual meaning and associative meaning.

English lexicology (III)

6

5.4 Conceptual meaning
Conceptual meaning(概念意义 (also known as 概念意义) 概念意义 denotative meaning) is the meaning given in the dictionary and forms the core of word meaning. Conceptual meaning forms the basis for communication as the same word has the same conceptual meaning to all the speakers of the same language.
Sun: a heavenly body which gives off light, heat,and energy Mother: a female parent

English lexicology (III)

7

5.5 Associative meaning
Associate meaning(关联意义 is the secondary 关联意义) 关联意义 meaning supplemented to the conceptual meaning. It differs from the conceptual meaning in that it is liable to the influence of such factors as culture, experience, religion, geographical region, class background, education,etc. Associative meaning comprises four types: connotative meaning, stylistic meaning, affective meaning, and collocative meaning.

English lexicology (III)

8

5.5 Associative meaning
(内涵意义 内涵意义) Connotative meaning (内涵意义)
In contrast to denotative meaning, connotative meaning refers to the overtones or associations which a word suggests or implies.
Mother (a female parent) is often associated with ‘love’, ‘care’, ‘tenderness’, ‘forgiving’, etc. Home (a dwelling place) may suggest ‘family, warmth, safety, love, convenience’, etc. ‘East or west, home is best’. Statesman implies ‘loyalty, devotion to public welfare’; politician implies ‘deceit, power-drunk, bragging, villainy’.

English lexicology (III)

9

5.5 Associative meaning
Connotative meaning
For people with different cultural backgrounds, a word might evoke different associations.
China magpie Good luck, good will owl red Britain wordiness

bad luck, malignance composure, wisdom happiness, good luck, unfavoured state success ‘red-light district’ ‘red flags’ ‘in the red”

English lexicology (III)

10

5.5 Associative meaning
meaning(文体意义 文体意义) Stylistic meaning(文体意义)
Words may have stylistic features, which make them appropriate for different contexts. This stylistic difference is especially true of synonyms. It is observed that there are few words which have both the same conceptual meaning and stylistic meaning.

English lexicology (III)

11

5.5 Associative meaning
Stylistic meaning
Degrees of formality
Formal Neutral/Common Informal/ Colloquial

Examples
male parent, father, daddy residence, home, pad

English lexicology (III)

12

5.5 Associative meaning
Stylistic meaning
bodily----corporal brotherly---fraternal tooth----dental blood----sanguinary hereby, thereby, therefore, however, moreover, furthermore

English lexicology (III)

13

5.5 Associative meaning
meaning(情感意义 情感意义) Affective meaning(情感意义)
Affective meaning indicates the speaker’s attitude towards the person or thing in question. Words that have emotive values may fall into two categories:
Appreciative or commendatory(褒义): words of commendatory(褒义 褒义): positive overtones used to show appreciation or approval. Pejorative or derogatory(贬义 words of negative 贬义): 贬义 connotations imply disapproval, contempt or criticism.

English lexicology (III)

14

6.5 Associative meaning
Affective meaning
Appreciative
love, cherish, prize, treasure, admire, worship, charm, fascinate, attract

Pejorative
hate, detest, loathe, abominate, vicious, good-for-nothing

English lexicology (III)

15

5.5 Associative meaning
Affective meaning
This affective difference is especially true of synonyms.
Appreciative gathering senior citizen slender,slim unique Neutral crowd old person thin unusual Pejorative mob fossil skinny bizarre

English lexicology (III)

16

5.5 Associative meaning
meaning(搭配意义 搭配意义) Collocative meaning(搭配意义)
Collocative meaning consists of the associations a word acquires in its collocation. In other words, it is that part of the word meaning suggested by the words before or after the word in discussion.

English lexicology (III)

17

5.5 Associative meaning
Collocative meaning
‘A bit or a little’ collocates with words of negative connotations: drunk, jealous, gloomy, tired, worried… ‘Highly’ collocates with words of positive connotations: important, significant, intelligent, sensitive…

English lexicology (III)

18

5.5 Associative meaning
Collocative meaning
wide awake, fully awake, sound asleep, far apart (‘Very’ is inappropriate here) tremble with fear, quiver with excitement

English lexicology (III)

19

Chapter 6 Sense Relations
6.1 Sense Relations 6.2 Hyponymy 6.3 Synonymy 6.4 Antonymy 6.5 Homonymy

6.1 Sense Relations
relations(语义关系 语义关系)? What are sense relations(语义关系)?
Words are arbitrary symbols and are independent identities so far as heir outer facet--spelling and pronunciation, is concerned. But semantically, all words are related in one way or another, hence sense relations. In light of sense relations, words can be classified semantically.

English lexicology (III)

21

6.1 Sense Relations
Types of sense relations
Hyponymy(上下义关系 上下义关系)---semantic inclusion 上下义关系 Synonymy(同义关系 同义关系)---semantic similarity 同义关系 Antonymy(反义关系 反义关系)---semantic opposition 反义关系 Homonymy(同形或同音异义关系 同形或同音异义关系) 同形或同音异义关系

English lexicology (III)

22

6.2 Hyponymy
The definition of hyponymy
Hyponymy deals with the relationship of semantic inclusion. It refers to the relationship which obtains between the genus (general lexical item)and the species(specific lexical items).
The general lexical item is called the superordinate(上义词 上义词). 上义词 The specific words are known as hyponyms(下义词 下义词). 下义词

English lexicology (III)

23

6.2 Hyponymy
literature prose fiction drama poetry

novel

novelette

short story

English lexicology (III)

24

6.2 Hyponymy
sports
swimming weight-lifting ball games wrestling running long-distance race sprinting athletics running race gymnastics boxing

hurdle race relay

English lexicology (III)

25

6.2 Hyponymy
theory(语义场理论 语义场理论) The semantic field theory(语义场理论)
The vocabulary of a language is not simply a listing of independent items, but is organized into areas or fields, the members of which are joined together by some common semantic component. The whole vocabulary can be divided up into fields. Words in each field are semantically related and define one another. Vocabulary is seen as ‘ an integrated system of lexemes interrelated in sense’. ------Jost Trier (a German linguist)

English lexicology (III)

26

6.2 Hyponymy
The semantic field theory
Most languages share same semantic fields.
Time Space Age Kinship Food Color Emotion ………

English lexicology (III)

27

6.2 Hyponymy
The semantic field theory
The semantic field of the same concept may not have the same members in different languages, thus lexical gaps(词汇空缺 occur. 词汇空缺) 词汇空缺

English lexicology (III)

28

6.2 Hyponymy
The semantic field theory
The semantic field of kinship
Members in English: 13----father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece, cousin, husband, wife. Members in Chinese: ……….

The semantic field of food
hot dog, sandwich, hamburger 豆腐, 豆腐 馒头

English lexicology (III)

29

6.2 Hyponymy
The semantic field theory

emotion
joy hate fear grief love

English lexicology (III)

30

6.2 Hyponymy
Implications of semantic field for vocabulary learning character/ virtue
easy-going, aggressive, arrogant, self-conceited, modest,considerate, sympathetic, extrovert, introvert, amicable, ambitious, honest, loyal, obedient, strong-willed, Iron-willed, trustworthy, obstinate, stubborn, unyielding, confident

English lexicology (III)

31

6.3 Synonymy
Types of synonyms
Absolute or perfect synonyms: words which are identical in meaning in all its aspects, I.e. both in grammatical and lexical meaning, including conceptual and associative meaning. Such synonyms are rare in natural languages.
compounding and composition; word building and word-formation; malnutrition and undernourishment

English lexicology (III)

32

6.3 Synonymy
Types of synonyms
Relative or partial synonyms: words which are similar or nearly the same in denotation, but embrace different shades of meaning or different degree of a given quality. It is this type of synonyms we shall deal with here.

English lexicology (III)

33

6.3 Synonymy
Sources of synonyms
Borrowing Native room foe help leave bodily Borrowed chamber enemy aid depart corporal

English lexicology (III)

34

6.3 Synonymy
Sources of synonyms
Borrowing Native time belly fire ask French age stomach flame question Latin epoch abdomen conflagration interrogate

English lexicology (III)

35

6.3 Synonymy
Sources of synonyms
Dialects and regional English lift tube petrol call box charm elevator subway gasoline telephone booth glamour (ScotE)

English lexicology (III)

36

6.3 Synonymy
Sources of synonyms
Figurative and euphemistic of words occupation dreamer drunk lie walk of life star-gazer elevated distort the fact

English lexicology (III)

37

6.3 Synonymy
Sources of synonyms
Coincidence with idiomatic expressions pick up give up go on with put off win hesitate choose abandon continue postpone gain the upper hand be in two minds

English lexicology (III)

38

9.3 Synonymy
(同义语义场 同义语义场) Semantically synonymous field (同义语义场)
Base on semantic similarity, synonyms are usually arranged into synonymic groups or sets. Within this groups there is the most general term known as “synonymic dominant”(主导同义词 主导同义词). 主导同义词 The synonymic dominant is the common denotational component that brings two or more words together into a synonymic group(同义词 同义词 群), which can be called a semantically synonymous field.

English lexicology (III)

39

6.3 Synonymy
Semantically synonymous field
synonymic synonymic group dominant
Leave Look depart, quit, retire, withdraw, exit… stare, gaze, eye, peep, glance… painting, photo, drawing…

Picture

English lexicology (III)

40

6.3 Synonymy
Implications of Semantically synonymous field
General------specific
Say/speak: murmur, scream, retort, argue, protest, claim, state, declare

Monotony----vividness
We have but one aim and one single, irrevocable purpose. We are resolved to destroy Hitler and every vestige of the Nazi regime. From this nothing will turn us, nothing. We will never parley, we will never negotiate with Hitler or any of his gangs. -------Winston Churchill Barbie doll’s fashion: fashions, costumes, outfits, apparel, dress…..

English lexicology (III)

41

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
Difference in denotation ------look: stare, gaze, eye, peep, glance ------laugh: chortle, chuckle, giggle(傻笑), guffaw (傻笑) 狂笑) (狂笑), snicker/snigger, titter 窃笑 ------extend, increase, expand -------make one’s way: thread one’s way, dig one’s way, break one’s way, push one’s way, shoulder one’s way, elbow one’s way, worm one’s way

English lexicology (III)

42

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
Difference in denotation -----let, allow, permit -----want, wish, desire -----rich, wealthy -----big, large, huge

English lexicology (III)

43

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
Difference in denotation ------chilly, frigid, icy, cold, frosty, cool Cool-----chilly-----cold-----frosty-----frigid-----icy

English lexicology (III)

44

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
Difference in connotation
Differ in emotional coloring Differ in stylistic coloring

English lexicology (III)

45

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
Difference in collocation
-----empty (box, street, room), vacant (seat, chair, apartment), blank (check, a blank sheet of paper) ------a large (not big) amount/number/quantity of… ------great courage/confidence/wisdom ------make efforts, take measures

English lexicology (III)

46

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
Difference in collocation
-----accuse….of, charge…with, rebuke…for, reproach…with/for -----a lump of sugar, a sheet of paper, a slice of meat/bread, a cake of soap, a chunk of wood -----a flock of sheep/goats/birds, a herb of cows/elephants/zebras/antelopes, a school of fish/whales/dolphins, a swarm of ants/bees/wasps/locusts, a stable of horses, a pride of lions

English lexicology (III)

47

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
Difference in distribution Pre-modifier VS post-modifier ---He is the greatest living novelist in England. ---He is the greatest novelist alive in England. ---Don’t disturb the sleeping old man. ---Don’t disturb the old man asleep.

English lexicology (III)

48

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
abolish, cancel, extinguish, eliminate The losing team was eliminated from further competition. Firefighters extinguished a big fire. The meeting has been cancelled because of the flu. The government abolished the tax on alcohol.

English lexicology (III)

49

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
abstract, outline, summary outline of ideas she wanted to She made an present in her talk. I have read the abstract of his book. The chemistry book had a summary at the end of each chapter.

English lexicology (III)

50

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
absurd, ridiculous, silly It is ridiculous to judge a foreign culture only by its food. absurd There was an idea that the earth was flat and motionless. silly You were very to trust him.

English lexicology (III)

51

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms accommodate, afford, furnish
Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge, it is thinking that makes what we read ours. This hotel can accommodate up to 500 guests. afford that expensive sports car. We can't The company accommodated the customer's wish and sent the delivery overnight. affords The tall building a beautiful view of the ocean.

English lexicology (III)

52

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
accuse, charge, rebuke 指责 The boss negligence The police The police rebuked accused charged him strongly for his him of theft. him with murder.

English lexicology (III)

53

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms
acute, critical, crucial, urgent
acute An lack of food brought hunger to the Iraqi people. It is critical that you study hard for the exam or you will fail it. crucial Improved consumer confidence is to an economic recovery. urgent We have an need for help; we are running out of water.

English lexicology (III)

54

6.3 Synonymy
Discrimination of synonyms ambiguous, obscure, vague, unclear, dim
It is unclear whether the economy will get better. His changes of recovery from illness are . dim He has some ideas about what to do, but vague nothing specific. His ambiguous directions confused us; we did not know which of the two roads to take. The poetry of Ezra Pound is sometimes difficult to understand because it contains so many ------------ - ------ references. obscure

English lexicology (III)

55

6.4 Antonymy
The definition of antonymy
Antonymy is concerned with semantic opposition. Antonyms can be defined as words which are opposite in meaning. They are a variety of “oppositeness”. They can be classified into three major groups.

English lexicology (III)

56

6.4 Antonymy
Types of antonyms
Contraries Complementaries Conversives Semantic incompatibles

English lexicology (III)

57

6.4 Antonymy
Contraries(相对反义词/两极反义词) Contraries(相对反义词/两极反义词) 相对反义词
Antonyms of this type are best viewed in terms of a scale running between two poles or extremes. The two opposites are gradable.
hot, warm, cool, cold beautiful, pretty, good-looking, plain, ugly old-young, open-close, big-small, poor-rich

English lexicology (III)

58

6.4 Antonymy
(绝对反义词 互补反义词) 绝对反义词/ Complementaries (绝对反义词/互补反义词)
These antonyms truly represent oppositeness. They are so opposed to each other that they are mutually exclusive and admit no possibility between them (non-gradable).
dead-alive, present-absent, male-female, true-false, approval-disapproval, capableincapable Prefixes: dis-, in-, il-, ir-, im-, un-……

English lexicology (III)

59

6.4 Antonymy
(换位反义词 关系反义词) 换位反义词/ Conversives (换位反义词/关系反义词)
This third type consists of relational opposites.
Husband-wife, fiancé-fiancée, employeremployee, debtor-creditor Above-below, in front of-behind, up-down Buy-sell, give-receive, go-come, gain-lose

English lexicology (III)

60

6.4 Antonymy
(多项不相容词 多项不相容词) Semantic incompatibles (多项不相容词)
North, south, east, west Spring, summer, autumn, winter January, February, March,……December Sunday, Monday, ….Saturday

English lexicology (III)

61

6.4 Antonymy
A word can have more than one antonyms
Fresh bread------stale bread Fresh air-----stuffy air Fresh flowers-----faded flowers Fresh look----tired look

English lexicology (III)

62

6.4 Antonymy
Stylistic purpose of the use of antonyms
To achieve emphasis by putting contrasting ideas together, to express economically the opposite of a particular thought.

English lexicology (III)

63

6.4 Antonymy
Stylistic purpose of the use of antonyms
United we stand, divided we fall. Hope for the best and prepare for the worst. Visible darkness, a victorious defeat, a clever fool, an open secret, painful pleasure, cruel kindness.

English lexicology (III)

64

6.4 Antonymy
Stylistic purpose of the use of antonyms
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the epoch of belief, it was the era of incredulity; it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness; it was the Spring of Hope, it was the Winter of Despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing before us; we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way. (Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities)

English lexicology (III)

65


赞助商链接
更多相关文档:

计算机专业英语Chapter004

计算机专业英语Chapter004 - Chapter 004 System Software Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the follow...

计算机专业英语Chapter008

计算机专业英语Chapter008_工学_高等教育_教育专区。Chapter 008 Communications and Networks Multiple Choice Questions 1. One of the most dramatic chang ...

计算机专业英语Chapter003

计算机专业英语Chapter003 - Chapter 003 Application Software Multiple Choice Questions 1. This type of s...

计算机专业英语Chapter007

计算机专业英语Chapter007 - Chapter 007 Secondary Storage Multiple Choice Questions 1. Hard disks store ...

2015 Chapter 2 answers

2015 Chapter 2 answers_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。Chapter 2Exercises Name 1. Terms interpretation source jurisdiction Student ID withholding tax per ...

鹅妈妈英文童谣 Chapter1 1-19

鹅妈妈英文童谣 Chapter1 1-19_少儿英语_幼儿教育_教育专区。廖彩杏书单-My Very First Mother Goose 53 首 Chapter 1 1-19 01 Jerry Hall He is so small ...

Chapter1 Starting School

课题教学目标教材分析和安排 课时 教具 重点 难点 Chapter1 Starting School 课型 New Using a common pattern to introduce oneself I’m? Use formulaic ...

经济学基础Chapter2

Economics, 11e, Global Edition (Parkin) Chapter 2 The Economic Problem 1 Production Possibilities and Opportunity Cost 1) The production possibilities frontier...

Computing Essentials Answer(Chapter1-10) (1)

Computing Essentials Answer(Chapter1-10) (1)_电脑基础知识_IT/计算机_专业资料。Computing Essentials Answers 1. Chapter One...Computing Essentials Answers 1....

Chapter-3Process-a

Chapter-3Process-a_工学_高等教育_教育专区。计算机学院 计算机科学与技术专业 基础课程操作系统 期末试题Chapter-3 I. 1. Process Choose the best answer for ...

更多相关标签:
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com