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人教版英语必修一第一单元知识要点预览
短语归纳 词语辨析 词形 词汇 部分 部 重点 单词 重点 词组 变化 对写作有帮助的短语 1. ignore / neglect / overlook 1. ignore vt. 忽视 2. dusk n. 黄昏; 傍晚 3. add v. 添加; 增加 2. concern v. 担忧; 涉及; 关系到 2. cheat / fool 3. calm / quiet / silent / still4. join / join in / take part in / attend ignorant adj.无知的

ignorance n. 无知 dusky adj.昏暗的; 黑暗的 addition n. 加, 附加 n. 担心,关注;(利害)关系 5. disagree vt. 不同意

additional adj. 添加的;附加的

1. upset adj. 心烦意乱的,不安的;不适的 vt. (upset, upset) 3. settle vt. 安家; 定居;停留 vt. 使定居,安家;解决 4. suffer vt.& vi.遭受;忍受;经历 1. add up 合计 2. go through 经历;经受 3. on purpose 故意 5. in order to 为了……

4. get along with 与某人相处;(工作的) 进展

1. Mother asked her if / whether she was very hot with so many clothes on. 重点句子 2. I don’t set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do … 3. … it was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face. 重点语法 拓展练习 直接引语和间接引语 (见语法部分 p88),练习巩固 自测含详细答案

语言要点(模块) 一、短语归纳
1. 做个好朋友 to be a good friend 2. 做下列调查 make the following survey 3. 合计总分 add up the score 4. 得分 get points 5. 心烦意乱地来到学校 come to school upset 6. 不理睬铃声 ignore the bell 7. 使你那个德国朋友平静下来 calm down your German friend 8. 关心你朋友 be concerned about your friend(s) 9. 松开了 get loose 10. 不得不去户外遛狗 have got to walk the dog outdoors 11. 帮他期末考试作弊 help him cheat in the end-of-term exam 12. 列出理由 make a list of reasons / list the reasons 13. 记下一连串的请求 set down a series of requests 14. 根据问卷调查 according to the questionnaire 15. 根据编辑的忠告 according to the editor’s advice 16. 为了分担你的困难 in order to share your difficulties / troubles 17. 与老板相爱 fall in love with the boss 18. 与我的同桌相处融洽 get along / on well with my deskmate 19. 关心青少年 be concerned about teenagers 20. 为了和老板面对面地交流 in order to communicate with the boss face to face 21. 信任政府 trust / believe in the government 22. 经历了太多的战争 go through too many wars 23. 相邻的城镇 neighboring towns 24. 相邻的国家 neighboring countries

二、.词语辨析
1. ignore / neglect / overlook 【解释】 neglect ignore 通常指有意不顾,或不理会显而易见的事物。 overlook 指因匆忙而疏忽或视而不见。 侧重指有意的忽略或忽视,也可指粗心与疏忽。

【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 1)We could not afford to _________ such a serious offence. 3). Don’t ________ paying him a visit now and then. 2. cheat / fool 【解释】 cheat fool 主要指盈利的买卖中或游戏竞赛中欺骗人,骗取人的钱等。 答案: “愚弄”,指利用人缺乏常识,心理脆弱来欺骗人。 1). cheated 2). fool 2). He can’t __________ her. She sees through him every time. 答案: 2). He utterly ________ my warnings and met with an accident. 1). overlooked 2). ignored 3). neglect

【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 1). You may get _________ in that shop.

3. calm / quiet / silent / still 【解释】calm quiet silent still 天气、水、水面(表风平浪静);(指人时)表示镇定自如。 表“宁静”、“安静”、“寂静”,侧重没有响声,没有噪音和没有动静。指人时侧重性格温和,文静。 表“沉默”、“不发言”、“不说话”,常常表示人不爱说话,沉默无语。 “不动的”,指人时侧重一动不动,;指物时指完全没有声音,突出静止不动

【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 1). Please stand __________ while I take your photo. 4). He remained ___________ in the face of the enemy. 2). Why do you keep __________? 答案: 1). still 3). Everything was ___________. 3). quiet 4). calm

2). silent

4. join / join in / take part in / attend 【解释】join join in 表示参加组织、党派、团体、军队、俱乐部等 表示参加游戏、活动等;join sb. (in sth.) 表(和某人一起)做某事 主要指出席、参加会议、婚礼;听讲座、课、报告、音乐会等;上学、教堂

take part in 表示参与、参加讨论、游行、比赛、战斗、斗争、运动、庆祝等 attend

【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 1). Can I ___________ the game? 2). Did you ____________ the fighting? 答案: 1). join in 3). He __________ the army last year. 3). joined 4)attended

4). A lot of people __________ her wedding.

2). take part in

三.词性变化 (旨在提供语法填空所需材料)
1. ignore vt. 忽视 2. dusk n. 黄昏; 傍晚 3. add v. 添加; 增加 ignorance n. 无知 dusky. adj.昏暗的; 黑暗的 addition n. 加, 附加 additional adj. 添加的;附加的 ignorant adj.无知的

【练习】用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空 1) I can't __________ his rudeness any longer. (ignore) 2) To say you were ________ of the rules is no excuse. ( ignore) 4)There is ____________ light inside the cave. (dusk) )

3)We are in complete ___________ of your plans. (ignore)

5)The street lights come on at ____________ and go off at dawn. (dusk 6) 7)

Many words have been ____________ to this edition of the dictionary. (add) They've just had an ____________ to the family. (add) 答案: 1) ignore 2)ignorant 3) ignorance 4) dusky 8) There are _____________ charges. (add) 5) dusk 6) added 7) addition 8) additional

四.重点词汇
1. upset adj. 心烦意乱的,不安的;不适的 vt. (upset, upset) [典例] 1). Our arrangements for the weekend were upset by her visit. 她一来把我们周末的安排给打乱了。 2). Don't upset yourself -- no harm has been done. 不要难过--并没有造成伤害。 3). He was horribly upset over her illness. 他为她的病而忧心忡忡。 4). The students really upset her. 学生们着实让她烦恼。 [重点用法] 1.be upset by… 被…… 打乱 [练习] 用 upset 的适当形式填空 1). Is it ______ you, dear? OK. 2). She felt rather ______ on hearing the news. 2). upset 3). upsetting n. 担心,关注;(利害)关系 3). Is it an ______ message? 4).upset 4). Don’t be ______. It will be 答案: 1). upsetting upset oneself about sth 为某事烦恼

2. concern v. 担忧; 涉及; 关系到

[典例] 1). The news concerns your brother. 这消息与你兄弟有关。 2). The boy's poor health concerned his parents. 那男孩健康状况不佳,使他的父母亲忧虑。 3). That's no concern of mine. 那不关我的事。 [重点用法] as / so far as … be concerned be concerned about 关心 [练习] 用 concern 的适当形式填空 1). There is an article that _______ the rise of the prices. 2). The children are rather _____ about their mother’s health. 关于;至于;就……而言 be concerned in sth. 牵涉到,与……有关,参与 be concerned at / over sth. 为某事忧虑

3). Officials should ______ themselves _______ public affairs. 答案: 1). concerns 3. settle vt. 安家;定居;停留 vt. 使定居,安家;解决

2). concerned

3). concern … with

[典例] 1). He settled his child in a corner of the compartment. 他把孩子安顿在车厢的一个角落里。 2). The family has settled in Canada. 这家人已定居加拿大。3). Both wanted to settle their scores. 双方都愿意捐弃前嫌。 [重点用法] settle down 镇定下来 [练习] 中译英 1). 都十一点了,她安不下心来工作。2). 题目这么难,谁能解决? 答案: 1). It’s eleven o’clock now, but she cannot settle to work. 2). Since it is so difficult, who can settle this problem? 4. suffer vt.& vi.遭受;忍受;经历 [典例] 1). Do you suffer from headaches? 你常头痛吗? 2). She's suffering from loss of memory. 她患有遗忘症。 [重点用法] suffer from/with/for sth 感到疼痛﹑ 不适﹑ 悲伤等; 受苦; 吃苦头: [练习] 中译英 答案: 1).我们在金融危机中损失惨重。2).他的脚痛得不得了。 2). He suffers terribly with his feet. settle in 在…定居

1). We suffered huge losses in the financial crisis.

5. disagree vt. 不同意 [典例] 1). Even friends sometimes disagree with each other. 即便是朋友也有时意见不一。 2). We disagreed on future plans. 我们对未来的计划产生了分歧。 [重点用法] disagree with sb/what sb says/sb's decision 不同意某人的观点[某人的话/某人的决定] [练习] 中译英 1). 罗马的报道与米兰的不符。2). 他不同意让我早些回家。 Key: 1). The reports from Rome disagree with those from Milan. 2). He disagreed to let me go home early.

五.重点词组
1. add up 加起来

(旨在提供综合运用所需材料)

[典例] 1). Add up your scores and see how many points you can get.把你的得分加起来,看看你能得几分。 2). Tom, what do ten, twenty and five add up to?汤姆,10,20 和 5 加起来是多少? [短语归纳] add (…) to …. (把什么)加入…中 [练习] 用 add 的适当形式或构成的词组填空 1). Will you _____ some more students to this project? 2). Small numbers _____ a large one. 3). 50 _______ 50 equals 100. 答案: 1). add 2). add up to 3). added add up to … 加起来是

2. go through 经历;经受 [典例] 1). The country has gone through too many wars. 这个国家经历了太多的战争。 2). She's been through a bad patch recently. 她最近经历了一段困难时期。 [短语归纳] go after 追求,追赶 go ahead 前进;请说(做)吧

go by 走过,(时间)过去 go along with 向前,(与……)一起去 go in for 爱好,从事 go out 外出;(灯,火)熄灭 go over 越过;复习 go up 爬上,(价格等)上升 [练习] 用 go 构成的词组填空 1). It is wise not to ____ with this plan. 2). Prices ______ a little now. People are happy. 3). Anyway, don’t always_______ at night by yourself. 4). I am tired. I want to _____ now. 3.on purpose 故意,有目的地 [典例] The boy broke Jack’s window on purpose. He wanted to frighten Jack.那男孩是故意打破杰克的窗玻璃的,他想吓一下杰克。 [短语归纳] do sth. on purpose: 故意做某事 on purpose 表示故意地、有企图、有目的地 [练习]用 purpose 的相关词汇填空 1). He didn’t do it ______. 2). What was your ____ ?答案: 1). on purpose 2). purpose 4. get along with 与某人相处;(工作的) 进展 [典例]1). He is not easy-going. It’s very hard to get along with him 他不是个随和的人,很难相处。 2). How are you getting along with your work? 工作进展如何? [短语归纳] get along/on well/ nicely/ badly with 与……相处得好/不好,……进展顺利/不顺利 逃离 get down 下来;写下,取下 get down to (doing)开始认真干…… [练习] 中译英 1). 你现在和同事相处得好不好? 2). 她已重新获得从前那份工作。 through 通过,做完 get get away 离开, get over 克服,摆脱 get together 聚集 答案: 1). go on with 2). go up 3). go home 4). go to bed

答案: 1). Are you getting along well with your colleagues? in order to… 为了……(可置于句首或句中)

2). She's got her old job back.

5. [典例]

1). She arrived early in order to get a good seat. 她到得很早, 图的是得个好座位。 so that…以便……(后跟句子)

2). I agreed to her suggestion in order not to upset her. 我同意她的建议是为了不让她伤心。 [短语归纳] in order that… 以便……(后跟句子) [练习] 中译英 so as to 为了……(只能置于句中,不能置于句首) 1. 他早早动身好按时到达。 2. 她拼命干以便能到 6 点时把一切都准备好。 答案: 1.He left early in order to/so as to/in order that/so that he should/would/might arrive on time. 2. In order to get everything ready by 6 o'clock, she worked hard.

六.重点句子 (旨在提供句子结构等所需材料)
1. Mom asked her if (whether) she was very hot with so many clothes on.妈妈问她穿那么多衣服是不是很热。 [解释] with 复合结构: with + 宾语+ v. –ing / v. –ed / to do / adj. / adv. / prep. phrases 由“介词 with+宾语+宾语补足语” 构成的复合结构在句中通常作为状语,表示背景情况,为方式,原因或条件等,另外,该结构也可 以作为定语使用。下面简述几种情况: 1) 如果在该结构中的分词表示的动作是由前面的名词或代词发出的,构成主谓关系,该分词用现在分词形式。 2) 如果分词表示的动作与前面的名词或代词构成动宾关系,该分词用过去分词形式。 3) 宾语补足语也可以使用介词短语,形容词或副词来充当。 [典例] 1.with + 宾语 + 副词,如: The square looks more beautiful with all the lights on (= while all the lights are on).

With his parents away (= As his parents are away), Tom becomes more naughty. 2.with + 宾语 + 介词短语,如: 3.with + 宾语 + 现在分词,如: 4.with + 宾语 + 过去分词,如: 5.with + 宾语 + 不定式,如: The teacher came in with a book in his hand (= while a book was in his hand).

The girl looked up with tears in her eyes (= while tears were in her eyes). With summer corning (= As summer is corning), the weather is becoming hotter and hotter.

With the teacher standing beside (= As the teacher was standing beside),she felt a bit uneasy. With the work done (= As the work had been done), she felt greatly relieved.

With his hair cut (= As his hair has been cut), he looks much younger. With her to go with us (= As she will go with us), we're sure to have a pleasant journey.

With Mr Smith to teach them English next term(= As Mr Smith will teach them English) , they will be greatly improved in spoken English. [练习] 中译英: 1. 那房子昨晚发生火灾,结果里面的东西都烧光了。2. 下学期史密斯先生教他们英语,他们的口语会大有提高。 3. 随着冬天的到来,天气越来越冷。答案:1. The house caught a big fire last night , with nothing left in it. 2. With Mr Smith to teach them English next term , they will be greatly improved in spoken English. 2. I don’t set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do … 我不愿意像大多数人那样在日记中记流水帐…… [解释] as 引导的从句为比较状语从句,意为“像大多数人那么做”。 as 用作连词,可引导下列状语从句: 1). 引导状语从句,强调主句谓语动词与从句谓语的同时性 As he grew older he lost interest in everything except gardening. 随着他年纪越来越大,他失去了对所有事物的兴趣,除了园艺。
2). 引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管,虽然,即使”(从句需倒装)Cold as it is, my brother wears only a shirt. 尽管天气冷,我哥只穿了一件衬衫。

3). 引导方式状语从句,表示“以……方式”。 Why didn’t you take the medicine as I told you to? 为什么你没有按我说的服这药?
4). 引导原因状语从句 (=since; because),“由于,因为”。 As you were not there, I left a message. 因为当时你不在那,所以我给你留了便条。

5) 引导比较状语从句。She is as tall as you. 她和你一样高。 [练习] 中译英 1. 随着年龄的增长我越来越对科学感兴趣。2. 由于雨下得很大,你最好穿上雨衣。3. 他学习很努力,但考试还是没 及格。 答案: 1. As l get older l get more interested in science. 3. Hard as he worked,he failed in the exam. 3. It is/was the…time that… ……第几次…… 1). It is the first time that he has heard this song. [解释] that 从句中的谓语动词一般用完成时态。 2. As it is raining hard,you'd better put on your raincoat.

[练习] 中译英 1 这是他第二次来中国。2.这是我第一次举办画展。 答案: 1. It is the second time that he has come to China. 2. It was the first time that I had held an art exhibition.


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