2017 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语试题 江苏卷
试卷总评 2017 年高考英语江苏卷总体上难度适中，紧扣高中英语课程标准的教学要求，对考生在英语听力、词 汇、语法、英语知识综合运用、阅读理解、书面表达等知识和能力进行了全面、深入的考查。稳中有变， 重基础、重语境，贴近生活，将知识和能力的考查融为一体；难易结合，体现了英语高考改革的趋势。 听力： 听力部分沿用全国卷 I 的听力，除了 Text 10 部分语速稍快，前面 9 段材料语速比较正常，总体难度 不算大，和往年持平。主要考查常用的功能性用语，考查形式以事实细节题为主，辅以情感态度、主旨大 意、意图推测、推理判断等题型。 单项选择：难易分明 单选部分强调在语境中理解词汇的意思，侧重对词汇和词组的考查。考点为非谓语动词、定语从句、 名词性从句、状语从句、虚拟语气、动词、动词词组、形容词副词、情景交际等。重视语法基础的同时， 侧重熟词生义的考查；两道形容词题目 29 和 34 题较简单；第 25 题考查动词词组，难度较大；27 和 31 题 考查时态，侧重具体的语境，弱化了固定句型和时间状语的提示。 完形填空： 选材短小精悍，故事性强；首尾呼应，结构紧凑。文章围绕 Gabriel 对音乐的态度的变化展开，从不 喜欢学音乐到发现自己的兴趣所在，其中暗含了＂不怕吃苦，不在意他人的评价＂这样的道理。题目在具 体的语境中考查名词、动词、动词词组和形容词副词。对词汇的考查侧重单词的深层含义或近义词辨析。 像第 44 题的 transparent 和 obvious，47 题的 ear 和 taste。46 题考查句子之间的逻辑关系；53 题与 36 题是对应关系；54 题是原词复现；55 题较难把握，需要联系第一段的内容。这些题目需要考生对句意和句 子的逻辑关系有很好的把握。 阅读部分：题量设置沿袭过去两年，难度有所降低 阅读部分设题以细节理解题为主，推理判断题为辅。 A 篇介绍了一本历史书籍，文章难度不大，可读性强。第 57 题考查作者的写作手法，设题较为新颖， 不过难度不大。B 篇介绍自然界中，鸟类具有的胎教能力，题目有一定的难度。C 篇介绍在互联网科技发展 的背景下，数据对企业、政府和个人等的重要性。题目以推理判断题为主。D 篇介绍应对气候变化的方法， 细节题和推理题兼顾。 任务型阅读加大了难度，重点考查学生的概括能力。文章介绍了人口下降与经济发展的关系，同时也 提出了解决的范例。考查考生在信息检索、内容归纳、语言结构等方面的知识与能力。
书面表达：图表类作文 延续前两年＂读写任务型＂写作，总字数要求不变，凸显了考生分析材料的能力，写作便于考生写出 紧扣主题的个性化内容。要求概括图表包含的主要信息，一改往前概括短文的出题方法。另外，所给材料 作为参考，不至于无话可写。
注意事项： 1. 答题前，先将自己的姓名、准考证号填写在试题卷和答题卡上，并将准考证号条形码粘贴在答题卡上 的指定位置。用 2B 铅笔将答题卡上试卷类型 A 后的方框涂黑。 2. 选择题的作答：每小题选出答案后，用 2B 铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑，写在试题卷、 草稿纸和答题卡上的非答题区域均无效。 3. 非选择题的作答：用签字笔直接答在答题卡上对应的答题区域内。写在试题卷、草稿纸和答题卡上的 非答题区域均无效。 4. 考试结束后，请将本试题卷和答题卡一并上交。 第一部分 听力（共两节，满分 20 分）
做题时，先将答案标在试卷上，录音内容结束后，你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节 （共 5 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 5 分） 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有一个小题，从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最佳选项。听完每 段对话后，你都有 10 秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 例：How much is the shirt? A. ? 19.15. 答案是 C。 1.What does the woman think of the movie? A.It’s amusing. B. It’s exciting. C. It’s disappointing. B. ? 9.18. C. ? 9.15.
2. How will Susan spend most of her time in France? A. Traveling around. B. Studying at a school. C. Looking after her aunt. 3. What are the speakers talking about? A. Going out.
B. Ordering drinks. C. Preparing for a party. 4. Where are the speakers? A. In a classroom. 5. What is the man going to do? A. Go on the Internet. B. Make a phone call. C. Take a train trip. B. In a library. C. In a bookstore.
第二节 （共 15 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 15 分） 听下面 5 段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题，从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最佳 选项。听每段对话或独白前，你将有时间阅读各个小题，每小题 5 秒钟；听完后，各小题将给出 5 秒钟的 作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 听第 6 段材料，回答第 6、7 题。 6. What is the woman looking for? A. An information office. B. A police station. C. A shoe repair shop.
7. What is the Town Guide according to the man? A. A brochure. 听第 7 段材料，回答第 8、9 题。 8. What does the man say about the restaurant? A. It’s the biggest one around. for its seafood. 9. What will the woman probably order? A. Fried fish. 听第 8 段材料，回答第 10 至 12 题。 10. Where will Mr. White be at 11 o’clock? A. At the office. B. At the airport. C. At the restaurant. B. Roast chicken. C. Beef steak. B. It offers many tasty dishes. C. It’s famous B. A newspaper. C. A map.
11. What will Mr. White probably do at one in the afternoon? A. Receive a guest. B. Have a meeting. C. Read a report.
12. When will Miss Wilson see Mr. White? A. At lunch time. 听第 9 段材料，回答第 13 至 16 题。 B. Late in the afternoon. C. The next morning.
13. Why is Bill going to Germany? A. To work on a project. B. To study German. C. To start a new company.
14. What did the woman dislike about Germany? A. The weather. B. The food. C. The schools.
15. What does Bill hope to do about his family? A. Bring them to Germany. months. 16. What is the probable relationship between the speakers? A. Fellow-travelers. 听第 10 段材料，回答第 17 至 20 题。 17. When did it rain last time in Juárez? A. Three days ago. B. A month ago. C. A year ago. B. Colleagues. C. Classmates. B. Leave them in England. C. Visit them in a few
18. What season is it now in Juárez? A. Spring. B. Summer C. Autumn.
19. What are the elderly advised to do? A. Take a walk in the afternoon. B. Keep their homes cool. 20. What is the speaker doing? A. Hosting a radio program. weather. 1. C 11. B 2. A 12. C 3. C 13. A 4. B 14. B 5. A 15. A 6. C 16. B 7. A 17. C 8. B 18. A 9. C 19. C 10. B 20. A B. Conducting a seminar. C. Forecasting the C. Drink plenty of water.
第二部分：英语知识运用（共两节，满分 35 分） 第一节：单项填空（共 15 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 15 分） 请认真阅读下面各题，从题中所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上将该项涂 黑。 例：It is generally considered unwise to give a child ____________ he or she wants. A. however 答案是 B。 21. Many Chinese brands, ____________ their reputations over centuries, are facing new challenges B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever
from the modern market. A. having developed B. being developed C. developed D. developing
【名师点睛】 现在分词作状语，表示主动和伴随状况；与逻辑主语是主谓关系，或叫主动关系，即现在分词表示的 动作是逻辑主语发出的。现在分词的形式有一般式 doing/being done，完成式 having done/having been done。 当现在分词表示的动作和主句谓语表示的动作先后发生时，使用现在分词的完成式。 e. g. Having watered the vegetables, the farmer took a short rest. Having seen the film twice, he didn’t want to go to the cinema with his wife. Having done his homework, the boy began to watch TV. I didn’t feel surprised, having expected all this. Not having done it right, I tried again. 现在分词作状语，可以转换为一个状语从句。 1) 表示时间时，相当于 after, before, when, while 等引导的状语从句，现在分词动作发生在主句动作 之前或与主句动作同时发生。 Stepping carelessly off the pavement, he was knocked down by the bus.（发生在主句动作之前） Arriving at the station, he found the train had gone.（之前） He went out, shutting the door behind him.（之后） Walking through the park, she saw a flower show.（同时） Taking a key out of his pocket, he open the door.（一个简短动作一发生，另一个动作紧跟着发 生）之前。 Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. Be careful when crossing the street. While waiting for the train, I had a long talk with Jane. Her husband died in 1999, leaving her with two children. Lying under the apple tree, Newton was thinking and thinking. Thinking she must be late, Miss Smith decided to take a taxi.
There are a number of students waiting to be examined. He refused the offer, saying that this would be too expensive. The man feel and slipped, getting off the bus. 某一动作进行时，发生了另一个短暂动作或结果。 2) 原因（句首） Being short of money, I applied for the job. Not seeing John, I can’t tell you what he looks like. 3) 方式，伴随 Singing a pop song in a low voice, he came into the yard. He stood by the window, watching the children playing. She stopped as if expecting him to speak. His parents arrived late for one day, leaving their children being hungry for a whole day. 4) 结果（后置） She fell, only striking her head against the rock. He spread a rumor, leading to a great confusion in class. It rained heavily causing severe flood in that region. 5) 条件 If traveling north, I asked where he was. 6) 让步 Knowing all this, they still insisted on paying for the damage. Many boys, having had few advantages in their youth, have yet great contribution to their country later. Unless paying by credit card, he pays in cash. Though understanding no English, he was able to communicate with them. 考点：考查非谓语动词 22. ____________ not for the support of the teachers, the student could not overcome her difficulty. A. It were B. Were it C. It was D. Was it
在虚拟语气中， be 动词只能用 were； 虚拟条件句省去连词 if 时， 从句主谓部分倒装： Were/Had/Should+ 主语+谓语动词... e.g. Were I Tom, I would refuse. 如果我是汤姆，我会拒绝。 I will go, should it be necessary. 假若有必要，我会去的。 Had it not been for the bad weather we would have arrived in time. 若不是天气坏，我们就准 时到达了。 若条件从句为否定句，否定词 not 应置于主语之后，而不能与 were, should, had 等缩略成 weren’t, shouldn’t, hadn’t 置于句首。 考点：考查虚拟语气和倒装 23. Located ____________ the Belt meets the Road, Jiangsu will contribute more to the Belt and Road construction. A. why B. when C. which D. where
23. D 考查状语从句。be located in+地点名词，位于……，where 引导的地点状语从句在此相当于 in some place，故选 D。 考点：考查状语从句 24. The publication of Great Expectations, which ____________ both widely reviewed and highly praised, strengthened Dickens status as a leading novelist. A. is B. are C. was D. were
【名师点睛】 一、主语从句的主谓一致 单个从句作主语时看作单数，多个从句并列作主语时看作复数。 e. g. What we lack today steel and concrete.
what 从句作主语，如果主句的表语是复数，主句谓语动词用复数，否则用单数。 e. g. What he wants to get are some books. 二、定语从句的主谓一致 1. 一般情况下，关系代词作从句主语时，从句谓语动词应和先行词在数上保持一致。 2. 集体名词作先行词，被视作一个整体时，关系代词用 which，从句谓语用单数；被视作若干个体的组
合时，用 who 作关系代词，谓语动词用复数；常见的集体名词有：family, audience, class, club, government, union, staff, team, couple, committee, crow, firm, public, orchestra, company 等。 3. 先行词是＂one of 十复数名词＂时，从句谓语动词用复数。如果先行词是＂the right/ just the/ the only/ the very/ exactly +one of+复数名词＂时，谓语动词用单数。 4. 强调句型中，形式主语 it 后总是接单数 is/ was；强调主语时，从句谓语动词与被强调主语部分的数 保持一致。 考点：考查主谓一致 25. Working with the medical team in Africa has ____________ the best in her as a doctor. A. held out out 25. B 考查短语辨析。hold out 坚持；提供机会；伸出手； B. bring out 使显现，阐明，出版；C. pick out 使容易看见，找出精心挑选，认出来；D. give out 用完，停止运行，分发，发出，公布。句意：在非 洲同医疗队一起工作已经使她表现出了最好的一面。这里取＂使显现＂之意，故选 B。 考点：考查动词短语辨析 26. We choose this hotel because the price for a night here is down to $20, half of ____________ it used to charge. A. that B. which C. what D. how B. brought out C. picked out D. given
【名师点睛】 这里容易误判为定语从句的＂介词+关系代词＂结构，需要注意的是，half of 后面的价格是以前的价 格。如果是定语从句，那么 half of 后面的价格则是$20 的一半，即$10，再结合＂down to＂可知，原来的 价格高于$20，因此不是定语从句。介词 of 后跟宾语，因此这里是宾语从句，通过分析句子成分可知，宾 语从句缺少宾语，因此用 what 引导。 宾语从句 1. 动词后的宾语从句 1) that 引导的宾语从句
后常接 that 引导的宾语从句的动词有 admit, agree, answer, believe, decide, declare, expect, explain, feel, hear, hope, intend, insist, mean, notice, order, remember, reply, say, suggest, think, wish 等。 2) wh-，if 引导的宾语从句 后常接 wh-，if 引导的宾语从句的动词有 advise, ask, discuss, doubt, find out, imagine, inform, require, know, question, tell, understand, wonder 等。 3)＂动词+间接宾语+宾语从句＂ 常使用此类结构的动词有 advise, ask, inform, promise, question, remind, show, teach, tell, warn, assure 等。 4)＂动词+it+形容词／名词+that 从句＂ 常见的后接 it 作形式宾语的动词有 find, feel, think, believe, make, consider 等。 5) it 作形式宾语的特殊句型 常见的有：see to it that...；hate it that...；owe it to sb. that...；take it for granted that 2. 形容词后接宾语从句 后常接宾语从句的形容词有： anxious, aware, certain, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, pleased, content, proud, annoyed, convinced, confident 等。 3. 介词后接宾语从句 后常接宾语从句的介词有 on, about, in, but, except 等。 4. 宾语从句需要注意的问题 1)当主句是一般现在时或者一般将来时时，宾语从句可根据句子意思选择用所需要的时态。 2)当主句是一般过去时时，宾语从句必须用相应的过去时态。 3)但是当宾语从句表达的是普遍真理或客观规律时，宾语从句时态不受主句时态限制而用一般现在时。 4)当主句谓语是 thin, believe, suppose, expect, imagine 等时，宾语从句的意义是否定时，not 要 转移到主句中；但当从句有否定意义的 never, seldom, hardly, scarcely 等词时，否定词不转移。 5)主句中谓语是 think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine, guess 等，同时 wh-连词引导的表示疑 问的宾语从句，应将连词 wh-置于主句前面，主句若是疑问语序，从句语序不变。例如：When do you think he will come back? Do you think when he will come back?(错句）
6)当主句动词是 wish 时，从句的时态要用虚拟语气；当主句的动词是 suggest, demand, require 等词 时，从句要用可省略 should 的虚拟语气。 7)if 常可代替 whether，但是当从句作介词宾语时，只能用 whether。 8)引导宾语从句的 that 常可省略，但是当两个 that 从句由 and 或 or 连接时，第二个从句的 that 不能 省略。 考点：宾语从句 27. He hurried home, never once looking back to see if he ____________. A. was being followed C. had been followed B. was following D. followed
考点：时态和语态 28. In 1963 the UN set up the World Food Programme, one of ____________ purposes is to relieve worldwide starvation. A. which B. its C. whose D. whom
28. C 考查定语从句。先行词是＂the World Food Programme＂，＂世界粮食项目＂的目的之一是……， whose 在定语从句中作定语，这里限定 purposes，故选 C。 考点：考查定语从句 29. Only five years after Steve Jobs’ death, smart-phones defeated ____________ PCs in sales. A. controversial conventional 29. D 考查形容词辨析。 A. controversial 有争议的； B. contradictory 对立的，相互矛盾的； C. confidential 机密的，秘密的；D. conventional 传统的。智能手机在销量上打败了传统的个人电脑，故 选 D。 考点：考查形容词的辨析 30. A quick review of successes and failures at the end of year will help ____________ your year ahead. A. shape B. switch C. stretch D. sharpen B. contradictory C. confidential D.
考点：考查动词的辨析 31. He’s been informed that he ____________ for the scholarship because of his academic background. A. hasn’t qualified C. doesn’t qualify B. hadn’t qualified D. wasn’t qualifying
31. C 考查动词时态。句意：他已经被告知由于教育背景的原因而没有资格获得奖学金。qualify for sth 达标，获得参赛资格；由于条件不满足而没有资格做某事，是客观事实，用一般现在时。故选 C。 考点：考查动词的时态 32. Determining where we are ____________ our surroundings remains an essential skill for our survival. A. in contrast to C. in face of B. in defense of D. in relation to
32. D 考查介词短语。A. in contrast to 对比，截然不同；B. in defense of 为……辩护；C. in face of 面对；D. in relation to 与……有关。句意：根据周围的环境辨别方位仍然是我们生存的一项极其重要的 技能。故选 D。 考点：考查介词短语的辨析 33. —What does the stuff on your T-shirt mean? —It’s nothing. Just something ____________. A.as clear as day C. under my nose B. off the top of my head D. beyond my wildest dreams
33. B 考查习惯用语。A. as clear as day 显而易见，容易理解；B. off the top of my head 没有考虑； C. under my nose 就在我眼皮底下(都没有察觉)；D. beyond my wildest dreams 远远出乎意料，做梦都 没有想到。句意：——你 T 恤上的东西是什么意思？——没什么特别的意思。只是灵光一闪，随便写的。 故选 B。 考点：考查俗语 34. The disappearance of dinosaurs is not necessarily caused by astronomical incidents. But
____________ explanations are hard to find. A. alternative B. aggressive C. ambiguous D. apparent
考点：考查形容词的辨析 35. —Going to watch the Women’s Volleyball Match on Wednesday? —____________!Will you go with me? A. You there C. You got me B. You bet D. You know better
35. B 考查交际用语。A. You there 说你呢 (用于引起注意)； B. You bet 的确；当然； C. You got me 你把我问住了；D. You know better 不至于糊涂到。由＂Will you go with me?＂可知，＂我＂会去看女 子排球，答语应该是肯定的，故选 B。 考点：考查情景交际用语 第二节：完形填空（共 20 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 20 分） 请认真阅读下面短文，从短文后各题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上将 该项涂黑。 For a long time Gabriel didn’t want to be involved in music at all. In his first years of high school, Gabriel would look pityingly at music students, with their heavy instrument cases, 37 36 across the campus 38
at school for practice hours 39
anyone else had to be there. He swore to himself to school extra early. 40 , one day, in the music class that was
music, as he hated getting to
of his school’s standard 42 to pick out tunes.
curriculum, he was playing idly（随意地）on the piano and found it With a sinking feeling, he realized that he actually 44 pleasure from the music teacher, who had 46 45 43
doing it. He tried to hide his over to listen. He might not have done 47 and
this particularly well,
the teacher told Gabriel that he had a good
suggested that Gabriel go into the music store-room to see if any of the instruments there 48 him. There he decided to give the cello （ 大 提 琴 ） a 50 49 . When he began
practicing, he took it very
. But he quickly found that he loved playing this
instrument, and was reasonably well. This 52
to practicing it so that within a couple of months he was playing
, of course, that he arrived at school early in the morning, 54
heavy instrument case across the campus to the left 55 . B. marching B. coming up B. after B. accept B. However B. nature B. safe B. disliked B. obvious B. jogged B. but B. taste B. took to B. chance B. proudly B. used B. showed B. dragging B. pitying B. aside 41—45 ADCBD
looks of the non-musicians he had
36. A. travelling 37. A. rising up 38. A. before 39. A. betray 40. A. Therefore 41. A. part 42. A. complicated 43. A. missed 44. A. transparent 45. A. run 46. A. because 47. A. ear 48. A. occurred to 49. A. change 50. A. seriously 51. A. committed 52. A. proved 53. A. pushing 54. A. admiring 55. A. over 【答案】36—40 DDACB
C. pacing C. driving up C. until C. avoid C. Thus C. basis C. confusing C. enjoyed C. false C. jumped C. though C. heart C. appealed to C. mission C. casually C. limited C. stressed C. lifting C. annoying C. behind 46—50 AACBC 51—55 ADBBC
D. struggling D. turning up D. since D. appreciate D. Moreover D. spirit D. easy D. denied D. similar D. wandered D. so D. voice D. held to D. function D. naturally D. admitted D. meant D. rushing D. teasing D. out
【解析】文章大意：文章描述了主人公 Gabriel 从不喜欢音乐到喜欢的过程。每个人都应该发现自己的兴 趣所在，并为其投入时间和精力。
38. A【解析】考查介词。＂anyone else＂指不学音乐的学生，学习音乐的要比规定的到校时间早到几个 小时，before anyone else had to be there 比规定的到校时间早几个小时。这也是 Gabriel 不想 学习音乐的原因之一。 39. C【解析】考查动词。根据＂as he hated getting to school extra early＂可知，Gabriel 讨厌过早 到校，因此他对自己发誓＂不学＂音乐，A 背叛；B 接受；C 避免，避开；D 欣赏。故选 C。 40. B【解析】考查连词。此处是说，Gabriel 在一次音乐课上意外发现自己很喜欢音乐，此处所表达的含 义与上一段是转折关系，故选 B。 41. A【解析】考查名词。that was 41 of his school’s standard curriculum 是定语从句，音
乐课是学校标准课程的一部分，言外之意就是说，每个学生都得上这个音乐课。 42. D【解析】考查形容词。根据下句＂actually... tried to hide... pleasure＂等词或词组可以看出， Gabriel 在音乐中找到了乐趣， 并试图隐藏这份愉悦， 由此可知， 此处是说， 他发现演奏音乐很容易。 故选 D。 43. C【解析】考查动词。根据 actually 可知，Gabriel 对音乐的看法有了变化，他实际上是喜欢音乐的， 故选 C。 44. B【解析】考查形容词。Gabriel 不想让音乐老师看到自己表露出来的很明显的喜悦之情，transparent 指(谎言、借口)易看穿的；obvious 明显的，显然的；false 假的；similar 相似的。故选 B。 45. D【解析】考查动词。音乐老师在教室里来回走动，听到 Gabriel 弹奏乐器的声音，就走过来聆听。run 跑；jog 慢跑；jump 跳；wander 徘徊，游荡。wander over 漫步。 46. B【解析】考查连词。前句是说他弹得不是特别好，后句是说，老师告诉他他有良好的辨音能力，并且 建议他去音乐商店选适合自己的乐器。前后句间为转折关系。 47. A【解析】考查名词。老师认为 Gabriel 有着很好辨音能力，并建议他去挑一件称心的乐器。ear 辨音 力，灵敏的听力；taste 鉴赏力，欣赏力，指对作品的欣赏能力。由于 Gabriel 没有经过专业的训练， 不能说他有很好的音乐鉴赏能力，taste 不符合语境。 48. C【解析】考查动词短语。occur to sb.某人突然想起；take to 开始喜欢；appeal to 有吸引力，引
起兴趣；hold to 抓住。老师让 Gabriel 找一件自己喜欢的乐器。 49. B【解析】考查名词。Gabriel 准备试一下大提琴，给大提琴一次机会，即尝试演奏一下大提琴。change 改变；chance 机会；mission 任务；function 功能。故选 B。
52. D【解析】考查动词。本段与第一段呼应。学习音乐意味着早到学校，要把沉重的乐器背来背去，meant 在此意为＂意味着＂。 53. B【解析】考查动词。此处是说，Gabriel 也得早到学校练习拉琴，也要拖着沉重的乐器。drag 指吃力 地拖、拉某物，push 推；lift 举起；rush 冲。符合语境。 54. B【解析】考查形容词。根据＂non-musicians＂可知，这里指不学音乐的学生那种同情的表情，根据 第一段可得出答案，应该是 pitying。 55. C【解析】考查介词。leave aside 搁置一边；leave sb/sth behind 把……抛在后面，超过；leave out 遗漏，不提及。这里指 Gabriel 走过去之后，身后的学生对他投来同情的目光。 【名师点睛】 完形填空的首句往往开宗明义，是文章的主题。细读首句可启示全文。而尾句往往是对文章主题的总 结。所以，它们是了解文章大意的一个窗口，对我们理解全文有着重要的启示作用。因此，要充分利用首 句提供的信息，去挖掘文章的思路，寻找文章的脉络与线索。一般来讲，高考完形填空的首、尾句通常是 不设空的。先跳读这两句，便可判断体裁，猜想它要讲的内容。若首句交代了 when, where, who, what 即 四个 W， 那么就是记叙文， 很可能就是一个故事， 为了测试语篇的理解能力， 出题者特别注意选材的趣味性， 其结尾往往出人意料，耐人寻味。 本题而言，文章开头部分＂For a long time Gabriel didn’t want to be involved in music at all. In his first years of high school, Gabriel would look pityingly at music students...＂告诉了 我们一些很有价值的信息，比如：＂For a long time＂的暗示作用。Gabriel 一点也不想接触音乐，这种 想法已经存在很久了，暗示他可能会开始学习音乐。＂ look pityingly at music students＂同情地看着 学习音乐的学生，也为下文的转折做了铺垫。
另外，完形填空题中对词汇知识的考查，主要体现在习惯用法和同义词、近义词的辨析两方面。习惯 用法是英语中某种固定的结构形态，即所谓的＂习语＂，不能随意改动。所以，考生平时应掌握好习惯用 法。对词义辨析题的考查有加大力度的趋势。要做好这类题，需要有较大的词汇量和词语搭配能力、词语 辨析能力，特别是在特定的语境中能灵活运用的能力。本题的 44、47 就是考查了近义词的辨析，第 47 题 的 taste 误导性很大。 同时，信息的复现也是完形填空的一个特点。语篇复现的信息包括原词复现、同义词和反义词复现、 上义词和下义词复现、概括词复现和代词复现等。语篇中有词汇和结构同现的现象，如与语篇话题相关、 意义相关的词汇同时出现，结构同现，同义同现，修饰同现，因果同现等。因此，可以利用上下文寻找解 题信息，从而确定正确答案。 考点：考查记叙文阅读
第三部分：阅读理解（共 15 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 30 分） 请认真阅读下列短文，从短文后各题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上将 该项涂黑。 A
——The Unbelievable Years that Defined History DID YOU KNOW… In 105 AD paper was invented in China? When Columbus discovered the New World? The British Museum opened in 1759?
CHRONOLOGICA is a fascinating journey through time, from the foundation of Rome to the
creation of the Internet. Along the way are tales of kings and queens, hot air balloons…and monkeys in space. Travel through 100 of the most unbelievable years in world history and learn why being a Roman Emperor wasn’t always as good as it sounds, how the Hundred Years’ War didn’t actually last for 100 years and why Spencer Perceval holds a rather unfortunate record.
CHRONOLOGICA is an informative and entertaining tour into history, beautifully illustrated
and full of unbelievable facts. While CHRONOLOGICA tells the stories of famous people in history
such as Thomas Edison and Alexander the Great, this book also gives an account of the lives of lesser-known individuals including the explorer Mungo Park and sculptor Gutzon Borglum. This complete but brief historical collection is certain to entertain readers young and old, and guaranteed to present even the biggest history lover with something new!
56. What is CHRONOLOGICA according to the next? A. A biography. C. A history book. B. A travel guide. D. A science fiction.
57. How does the writer recommend CHRONOLOGICA to readers? A. By giving details of its collection. C. By telling stories at the beginning. 【答案】56. C 57. B B. By introducing some of its contents. D. By comparing it with other books.
57. B【解析】细节理解题。作者在文中以提问的方式提到很多与历史有关的人物或事件，像＂ from the foundation of Rome to the creation of the Internet. ...tales of kings and queens, hot air balloons…and monkeys in space...why being a Roman Emperor wasn’t always as good as it sounds, how the Hundred Years’ War didn’t actually last for 100 years and why Spencer Perceval holds a rather unfortunate record＂说明作者是在引用书中的内容。
【名师点睛】 推断文章出处是高考英语阅读中一个比较常见的考点。主要考查考生能否从内容特点、文体特点、语 言风格等方面判断出所读文章的具体出处。比如，如果所读材料具有较强的时效性或新闻性，则可能出自 新闻报道；如果所读材料侧重历史事实，且措辞严谨，则可能出自历史教科书；如果所读材料中涉及工作 要求、工资待遇、联系电话等，则可能出自招聘广告；如果所读材料轻松、休闲，则可能出自旅游杂志或 休闲杂志等。第 56 题属于这一类题目。根据文章中出现的历史事件不难推断出 CHRONOLOGICA 是一本历史 书。 考点：考查信息类短文阅读 B Before birth, babies can tell the difference between loud sounds and voices. They can even distinguish their mother’s voice from that of a female stranger. But when it comes to embryonic learning ( 胎教 ), birds could rule the roost. As recently reported in The Auk: Ornithological Advances, some mother birds may teach their young to sing even before they hatch (孵化). New-born chicks can then imitate their mom’s call within a few days of entering the world. This educational method was first observed in 2012 by Sonia Kleindorfer, a biologist at Flinders University in South Australia, and her colleagues. Female Australian superb fairy wrens were found to repeat one sound over and over again while hatching their eggs. When the eggs were hatched, the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers—a sound that served as their regular ＂feed me!＂ call. To find out if the special quality was more widespread in birds, the researchers sought the red-backed fairy wren, another species of Australian songbird. First they collected sound data from 67 nests in four sites in Queensland before and after hatching. Then they identified begging calls by analyzing the order and number of notes. A computer analysis blindly compared calls produced by mothers and chicks, ranking them by similarity. It turns out that baby red-backed fairy wrens also emerge chirping like their moms. And the more frequently mothers had called to their eggs, the more similar were the babies’ begging calls. In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most
closely imitated their mom’s voice were rewarded with the most food. This observation hints that effective embryonic learning could signal neurological ( 神经 系统的) strengths of children to parents. An evolutionary inference can then be drawn. ＂As a parent, do you invest in quality children, or do you invest in children that are in need? ＂ Kleindorfer asks. ＂Our results suggest that they might be going for quality.＂ 58.The underlined phrase in Paragraph 1 means＂____________＂. A. be the worst just as good 59. What are Kleindorfer’s findings based on? A. Similarities between the calls of moms and chicks. B. The observation of fairy wrens across Australia. C. The data collected from Queensland’s locals. D. Controlled experiments on wrens and other birds. 60. Embryonic learning helps mother birds to identify the baby birds which ____________. A. can receive quality signals C. fit the environment better 【答案】58. B 59. A 60. C 【解析】文章大意：文章介绍了鸟类在胎教方面的超凡本领。实验发现鸟儿在孵化时不停地鸣叫是为了教 会以后出生的雏鸟歌唱的本领，从而挑选出能够适应环境的雏鸟。 B. are in need of training D. make the loudest call B. be the best C. be the as bad D. be
60. C【解析】根据倒数第二段中的＂the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom’s voice were rewarded with the most food＂和最后一段＂Our results suggest that they might be going for quality.＂可知，模仿母鸟模仿得最好的雏鸟得到最多的食物，研究结果表明，母亲会选择质量
好的雏鸟。由此可知，胎教帮助母鸟辨别出那些适应环境较好的孩子。 【名师点睛】 猜测词义题概况 词义猜测是应用英语的重要能力，也是高考必考的题型。它不但需要准确无误地理解上下文，而且要 有较大的泛读量，掌握或认识较多的课外词汇。考生应学会通过构词、定义、同位、对比、因果、常识、 同义、反义及上下文线索等确定词义。 一、题型特点与命题方式： 此类题型有逐渐增加的趋势，尤其是猜测词组、句义题。因为猜测词组、句义题涉及题材背景、句子 结构、文章主旨、作者的观点态度等。联系主旨、整合上下文信息是解答这类题的关键。近几年阅读理解 的生词率略有上升，加大了猜测难度。命题者着重考查考生利用同义或反义关系、构词法、语法和语篇文 脉等理解生词的能力。 【命题趋势】 1. 要求根据阅读材料所提供的信息，结合中学生应有的常识和经验，正确判断生词词组的含义或成熟 词在特定语境中表达的具体含义以及一些句子的意思。 2. 要求猜测词义的词一般为实词及其词组，通过构词、定义、对比、因果、联想、上下文等线索确定 词义的具体内容。例如第 65 题。 3. 代词复指理解题也是猜测词义的常考类型。用＂逻辑关系梳理法＂、＂递向寻踪法＂理清人物及事 物之间的逻辑关系是关键所在。 【设问形式】 The underlined word ＂…＂ in the second(third…) paragraph refers to(means) ______. By saying that ＂…＂ in the first(second…) paragraph, the author means that ______. In paragraph …, ＂…＂ can be replaced by ＂______＂. The meaning of ＂…＂ in paragraph… is related to ______. Which of the following has the closest meaning to…in paragraph...? The underlined sentence in the … paragraph probably means that _____. 解题思路 做这种类型的题目，要根据词、词组、句子所在的语境上下文来判断其意义。因此熟练掌握一些猜词 技巧是做好这类题的关键。命题者在出这类题时惯用常规词义来麻痹考生，我们要特别注意熟词生义，切 不可脱离语境主观臆断。
考点：考查科普说明文阅读 C A new commodity brings about a highly profitable, fast-growing industry, urging antitrust （反垄断）regulators to step in to check those who control its flow. A century ago, the resource in question was oil. Now similar concerns are being raised by the giants（巨头）that deal in data, the oil of the digital age. The most valuable firms are Google, Amazon, Facebook and Microsoft. All look unstoppable. Such situations have led to calls for the tech giants to be broken up. But size alone is not a crime. The giants’ success has benefited consumers. Few want to live without search engines or a quick delivery. Far from charging consumers high prices, many of these services are free (users pay, in effect, by handing over yet more data). And the appearance of new-born giants suggests that newcomers can make waves, too. But there is cause for concern. The Internet has made data abundant, all-present and far more valuable, changing the nature of data and competition. Google initially used the data collected from users to target advertising better. But recently it has discovered that data can be turned into new services: translation and visual recognition, to be sold to other companies. Internet companies’ control of data gives them enormous power. So they have a ＂God’s eye view＂ of activities in their own markets and beyond. This nature of data makes the antitrust measures of the past less useful. Breaking up firms like Google into five small ones would not stop remaking themselves: in time, one of them would become great again. A rethink is required — and as a new approach starts to become apparent, two ideas stand out. The first is that antitrust authorities need to move from the industrial age into the 21st century. When considering a merger( 兼并 ), for example, they have traditionally used size to determine when to step in. They now need to take into account the extent of firms’ data assets(资 产) when assessing the impact of deals. The purchase price could also be a signal that an established company is buying a new-born threat. When this takes place, especially when a new-born company has no revenue to speak of, the regulators should raise red flags. The second principle is to loosen the control that providers of on-line services have over
data and give more to those who supply them. Companies could be forced to consumers what information they hold and how many money they make form it. Governments could order the sharing of certain kinds of data, with users’ consent. Restarting antitrust for the information age will not be easy. But if governments don’t want a data economy controlled by a few giants, they must act soon. 61.Why is there a call to break up giants? A. They have controlled the data market. C. They no longer provide free services. B. They collect enormous private data. D. They dismissed some new-born giants.
62.What does the technological innovation in Paragraph 3 indicate? A. Data giants’ technology is very expensive. B. Google’s idea is popular among data firms. C. Data can strengthen giants’ controlling position. D. Data can be turned into new services or products. 63. By paying attention to firms’ data assets, antitrust regulators could ____________. A. kill a new threat C. favour bigger firms B. avoid the size trap D. charge higher prices
64. What is the purpose of loosening the giants’ control of data? A. Big companies could relieve data security pressure. B. Governments could relieve their financial pressure. C. Consumers could better protect their privacy. D. Small companies could get more opportunities. 【答案】61. A 62. C 63. B 64. D 【解析】文章大意：本文主要讲的是信息时代的信息数据的垄断现象。一些科技巨头 Google, Amazon, Facebook, Microsoft 等对数据的垄断引来了有关部门的反垄断调查。
63. B 【解析】根据倒数第三段＂ The first is that antitrust authorities need to move from the industrial age into the 21st century. When considering a merger(兼并), for example, they have traditionally used size to determine when to step in. They now need to take into account the extent of firms’ data assets(资产) when assessing the impact of deals. ＂可知，在考 虑公司数据资产的基础上，反垄断监管机构会避免陷于规模陷阱。 64. D【解析】根据倒数第二段 Companies could be forced to consumers what information they hold and how many money they make from it. Governments... with users’ consent.＂可知，由于大公司 垄断数据信息，不利于小公司更好地服务消费者，也不利于政府开展工作。弱化这种垄断将会给小公 司带去更多的发展机会。 【名师点睛】 推理判断题 高考英语阅读理解所涉及的考点比较多，比如考查常识理解、细节理解、语义理解、主旨理解、推理 判断等。但比较而言，难度最大而且最容易出错的是推理判断题。因为推理判断题通常要求考生不仅要理 解原文的文字信息，而且还要进行一定的判断和推理，并以此推断出文章的隐含意义。推理判断题属于主 观性很强的高层次阅读理解题，做这类题目时，要严格依据作者所陈述的细节、事实以及作者的措辞、态 度和语气，找出能够表露作者思想倾向和感情色彩的词语，然后利用自己已获得的相关知识进行推理判断， 从而得出符合逻辑的结论。此时应特别注意：当问及作者的看法、意图与态度时，不要误认为是在问＂你＂ 的想法。 考点一 考查因果关系的推断 因果关系的推断是高考英语推断题中考得比较多的一类。因果关系的推断有时只涉及一个或几个细节， 有时涉及一个或几个段落，有时甚至涉及全文。一般说来，推断因果关系所涉及的内容越多，难度也就越 大，同学们越要仔细。
考点二 考查作者观点的推断 推断作者观点也是高考英语阅读中一个比较常见的考点。这类考题的命题特点是：命题者要求考生根 据阅读材料中的某些事实推断出作者所持的观点和态度。同学们在做这类题时，一定要注意作者在文中的 措辞，尤其是表达感情色彩的形容词、副词、动词及所举的例子（如有直接引语，也要特别注意） ，才能推 断出作者的弦外之音。 此类试题的干扰项通常具有以下特点：或是社会的一种普遍倾向，或是与本文无关的观点，或是与作 者相反的看法等。 考点三 考查作者意图的推断 这里说的＂作者意图＂至少包括两个方面：一是指作者直接在文中透露出的意图，如提及某个细节的 意图，列举某个例子的意图，等等；二是指作者写这篇文章的意图或所想达到的目的。同学们做这类题时 一定要结合文章主题进行推断，也就是说作者的意图原则上应与文章主题一致，而不能与之相悖。如： 考点四 考查读者对象的推断 推断读者对象的考题在高考中出现得不多，只在部分省、市的考题中偶尔出现。这类考题的特点是： 命题者要求先读一篇材料，然后要求考生根据所读材料推断出该材料的读者对象是什么。同学们做这类题 要注意的是，先读懂文章大意，然后比较所给四个选项的人群特点，再寻找其相关点，最后得出一个合情 合理的答案。例如第 64 题。 考点五 考查隐含意义的推断 对隐含意义的推测是阅读理解中难度较大的一类考点。所谓推断隐含意义，就是要求考生在理解原文 表面文字信息的基础上，做出合乎情理的推理与判断，从而得出文章的隐含意义和深层意义。对隐含意义 的推测属于主观性较强的高层次阅读理解，同学们在做这类题目时，一定要严格依据作者所陈述的细节、 事实以及作者的措辞、态度和语气，找出能够表露作者思想倾向和感情色彩的词句，然后利用自己的相关 知识进行推理判断，从而得出符合逻辑的结论。例如第 72 题。 考点六 考查特定结论的推断 简单地说，高考英语对阅读理解的考查主要是两大类：一类是细节理解；一类是推理判断。推理判断 题除前面分析的因果关系的推断、作者观点的推断、作者意图的推断、读者对象的推断、文章出处的推断、 隐含意义的推断等之外，还有许多结论性的推断，即要求考生根据所读文章对某种结论作出推断。因这类 考题涉及面比较广，出题形式比较灵活，所以一并归入＂特定结论的推断＂。 考点：考查科普说明文阅读 D
Old Problem, New Approaches While clean energy is increasingly used in our daily life, global warming will continue for some decades after CO2 emissions（排放）peak. So even if emissions were to begin to decrease today, we would still face the challenge of adapting to climate change. Here I will stress some smarter and more creative examples of climate adaptation. When it comes to adaptation, it is important to understand that climate change is a process. We are therefore not talking about adapting to a new standard, but to a constantly shifting set of conditions. This is why, in part at least, the US National Climate Assessment says that: ＂ There is no ‘one-size fits all’ adaptation.＂ Nevertheless, there are some actions that offer much and carry little risk or cost. Around the world, people are adapting in surprising ways, especially in some poor countries. Floods have become more damaging in Bangladesh in recent decades. Mohammed Rezwan saw opportunity where others saw only disaster. His not-for-profit organization runs 100 river boats that serve as floating libraries, schools, and health clinics, and are equipped with solar panels and other communicating facilities. Rezwan is creating floating connectivity（连体） to replace flooded roads and highways. But he is also working at a far more fundamental level: his staff show people how to make floating gardens and fish ponds prevent starvation during the wet season. Elsewhere in Asia even more astonishing actions are being taken. Chewang Norphel lives in a mountainous region in India, where he is known as the Ice Man. The loss of glaciers(冰川) there due to global warming represents an enormous threat to agriculture. Without the glaciers, water will arrive in the rivers at times when it can damage crops. Norphel’s inspiration came from seeing the waste of water over winter, when it was not needed. He directed the wasted water into shallow basins where it froze, and was stored until the spring. His fields of ice supply perfectly timed irrigation(灌溉) water. Having created nine such ice reserves, Norphel calculates that he has stored about 200, 000 m of water. Climate change is a continuing process, so Norphel’s ice reserves will not last forever. Warming will overtake them. But he is providing a few years during which the farmers will, perhaps, be able to find other means of adapting. Increasing Earth’s reflectiveness can cool the planet. In southern Spain the sudden increase of greenhouses (which reflect light back to space) has changed the warming trend locally, and actually cooled the region. While Spain as a whole is heating up quickly, temperatures near the greenhouses have decreased. This example should act as an inspiration for all cities. By painting buildings white, cities may slow down the warming process.
In Peru, local farmers around a mountain with a glacier that has already fallen victim to climate change have begun painting the entire mountain peak white in the hope that the added reflectiveness will restore the life-giving ice. The outcome is still far from clear. But the World Bank has included the project on its of "100 ideas to save the planet＂. More ordinary forms of adaptation are happening everywhere. A friend of mine owns an area of land in western Victoria. Over five generations the land has been too wet for cropping. But during the past decade declining rainfall has allowed him to plant highly profitable crops. Farmers in many countries are also adapting like this—either by growing new produce, or by growing the same things differently. This is common sense. But some suggestions for adapting are not. When the polluting industries argue that we’ve lost the battle to control carbon pollution and have no choice but to adapt, it’s a nonsense designed to make the case for business as usual. Human beings will continue to adapt to the changing climate in both ordinary and astonishing ways. But the most sensible form of adaptation is surely to adapt our energy systems to emit less carbon pollution. After all, if we adapt in that way, we may avoid the need to change in so many others. 65. The underlined part in Paragraph 2 implies ____________. A. adaptation is an ever-changing process C. global warming affects adaptation forms challenging 66. What is special with regard to Rezwan’s project? A. The project receives government support. each other. C. His organization makes the best of a bad situation. roads and highways. 67. What did the Ice Man do to reduce the effect of global warming? A. Storing ice for future use. melting. C. Changing the irrigation time. 68. What do we learn from the Peru example? D. Postponing the melting of the glaciers. B. Protecting the glaciers from D. The project connects flooded B. Different organizations work with B. the cost of adaptation varies with time D. adaptation to climate change is
A. White paint is usually safe for buildings. B. The global warming tread cannot be stopped. C. This country is heating up too quickly. D. Sunlight reflection may relieve global warming. 69. According to the author, polluting industries should ____________. A. adapt to carbon pollution C. leave carbon emission alone B. plant highly profitable crops D. fight against carbon pollution
70. What’s the author’s preferred solution to global warming? A. Setting up a new standard. C. Adapting to climate change. 【答案】65. A 66. C 67. A 68.D 69.D 70. B B. Reducing carbon emission. D. Monitoring polluting industries.
67. A 【解析】 根据第四段中的＂Norphel’s inspiration come from seeing the waste of water over winter, when it was not needed. He directed the wasted water into shallow basins where it froze, and was stored until the spring. ＂可知，把冰川融化后的水储存起来以备不时之需，是减少气 候变暖危害的方法之一。 68. D【解析】根据倒数第四段中的＂By painting buildings white, cities may slow down the warming process.＂和倒数第三段中的＂painting the entire mountain peak white in the hope that the added reflectiveness will restore the life-giving ice＂可知，将墙壁涂成白色是利用了光的 反射原理，这样可以缓解气候变暖。 69. D【解析】根据倒数第二段中的＂When the polluting industries argue that we’ve lost the battle to control carbon pollution and have no choice but to adapt, it’s a nonsense...＂可知， 作者不赞成＂我们已经在与碳污染的斗争中失败了＂这样的说法，说明作者建议污染企业行动起来。
70. B【解析】根据最后一段中的＂But the most sensible form of adaptation is surely to adapt our energy systems to emit less carbon pollution.＂可知，作者认为，最合理的方法仍然是减少二 氧化碳的排放。 【名师点睛】 词义猜测技巧 1、根据定义或上下文解释进行猜测 有时短文中出现一个需要猜测其意义的词或短语，下面接着出现其定义或解释，这就是判断该词或短 语意义的主要依据。例如： Annealing is a way of making metal softer by heating it and then letting it cool very slowly. 句子给予 annealing 以明确的定义，即＂退火＂。 2、根据同位关系进行猜测 阅读中出现的难词有时后面紧跟一个同位语，对前面的词进行解释，这时可利用同位关系对前面或后 面的词义或句意进行猜测。例如： They traveled a long way, at last got to a castle, a large building in old times. 同位语部分 a large building in old times 给出了 castle 的确切词义，即古时候的＂城堡＂。 We are on the night shift — from midnight to 8 a.m.— this week. 两个破折号之间的短语很清楚地表明 night shift 是＂夜班＂的意思。 The ＂Chunnel＂, a tunnel(隧道) connecting England and France, is now complete. 此句中 a tunnel connecting England and France 是 Chunnel 的同位语。因此，The＂Chunnel＂ 就是英法之间的海底隧道。 3、根据构词法(前缀、后缀、复合、派生等)进行猜测 在英语中，有很多词可以在前面加前缀，在后面加后缀，从而构成一个词，乍看起来，这个词可 能是新词，但掌握了一定的构词知识，就不难猜出它的词义。例如： ＂ Our parties are aimed for children 2 to 10, ＂ Anaclerio said, ＂and they’re very interactive and creative in that they built a sense of drama based on a subject.＂ 文中 interactive 是由前缀 inter-(相互的)和 active(活动的，活跃的)而构成的，同时根据上下 文的意思可以判断，该词的含义应是＂互动的＂。 Perhaps, we can see some possibilities for next fifty years. But the next hundred? possibility 是 possible 的同根名词，据此可以判断定 possibility 意思是＂可能性＂。
4、根据因果关系进行猜测 在一篇阅读文章中，根据原因可以预测结果，根据结果也可以找出原因。例如： The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken. Sometimes the weakness was permanent. So the player could never play the sport again. 从后面的结果＂永远不能再运动＂中，可以推测 permanent 的意思为＂永远的，永久的＂。 5、根据上下文的指代关系进行猜测 文章中的代词 it, that, he, him 或 them 可以指上文提到的人或物，其中 it 和 that 还可以指一 件事。有时代词指代的对象相隔较远，要认真查找；也有时需要对前面提到的内容进行总结，才能得出代 词所指代的事。例如： Like Schmid, the editors of several self-published art magazines also champion(捍卫) found photographs. One of them, called simply Found, was born one snowy night in Chicago, when Davy Rothbard returned to his car to find under his wiper(雨刷) an angry note intended for someone else: ＂Why’s your car HERE at HER place?＂ them 指的是前面出现的 self-published art magazines。 6、根据同义关系进行猜测 当词或短语之间有并列连词 and 或 or 时，其连接的两项内容在含义上是接近的或递进的，由此确 定同等关系中的某个生词所属的义域，由此可推知其大致意思。 7、根据转折或对比关系进行猜测 根据上下句的连接词，如 but, however, otherwise 等就可以看到前后句在意义上的差别，从而 依据某一句的含义，来确定另一句的含义。另外，分号也可以表示转折、对比或不相干的意义。例如： A child’s birthday party doesn’t have to be a hassle; it can be a basket of fun. 从前后两句的意思可以看出，hassle 和 a basket of fun 肯定是近乎相反的意义。所以不难判断 hassle 的意思是＂困难，麻烦＂。 考点：环保类短文阅读 第四部分：任务型阅读（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） 请认真阅读下面短文，并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个 最恰当的单词。 ．． 注意：请将答案写在答题卡上相应题号的横线上。每个空格只填一个单词。 Population Change Why is the world’s population growing? The answer is not what you might think. The reason for the explosion is not that people have been reproducing like rabbits, but that people have
stopped dropping dead like flies. In 1900, people died at the average age of 30. By 2000 the average age was 65. But while increasing health was a typical feature of the 20th century, declining birth rate could be a defining one of the 21st. Statistics show that the average number of births per woman has fallen from 4.9 in the early 1960s to 2.5 nowadays. Furthermore, around 50% of the world’s population live in regions where the figure is now below the replacement level (i.e. 2.1 births per woman) and almost all developed nations are experiencing sub-replacement birth rate. You might think that developing nations would make up the loss (especially since 80% of the world’s people now live in such nations), but you’d be wrong. Declining birth rate is a major problem in many developing regions too, which might cause catastrophic global shortages of work force within a few decades. A great decline in young work force is likely to occur in China, for instance. What does it imply? First, China needs to undergo rapid economic development before a population decline hits the country. Second, if other factors such as technology remain constant, economic growth and material expectations will fall well below recent standards and this could invite trouble. Russia is another country with population problems that could break its economic promise. Since 1992 the number of people dying has been bigger than that of those being born by a massive 50%. Indeed official figures suggest the country has shrunk by 5% since 1993 and people in Russia live a shorter life now than those in 1961. Why is this occurring? Nobody is quite sure, but poor diet and above all long-time alcoholism have much to do with it. If current trends don’t bend, Russia’s population will be about the size of Yemen’s by the year 2050. In the north of India, the population is booming due to high birth rates, but in the south, where most economic development is taking place, birth rate is falling rapidly. In a further twist, birth rate is highest in poorly educated rural areas and lowest in highly educated urban areas. In total, 25% of India’s working-age population has no education. In 2030, a sixth of the country’s potential work force could be totally uneducated. One solution is obviously to import foreign workers via immigration. As for the USA, it is almost unique among developed nations in having a population that is expected to grow by 20% from 2010—2030. Moreover, the USA has a track record of successfully accepting immigrants. As a result it’s likely to see a rise in the size of its working-age population and to witness strong economic
growth over the longer term. Population Change The birth rate in the 21st century may be much (71)______ than it was in the 20th. Decline of the birth rate It would be difficult for developed countries to maintain the (72)_________ of population.
The impact of dropping birth rate on developing countries may not be (73)____________ but disastrous.
To guarantee its economic growth, China needs to deal with the population issue properly, as its workers are getting (75)________.
The (76)__________ death of Russians may result in a shrinking Population and (74)________ pressure population, which would damage its economic future. It would be better if it can change people’s way of (77)________.
Leaving aside the birth rate issue, India’s economy may take off when the country achieves (78)___________ of educational opportunity.
The USA will increase, from 2010-2030, its population by 20% through American solution (79)_______. This will (80) _________ for the lack of young work force.
【答案】 71. lower 72. size/scale 73. immediate 74. economic 75. old/older 76. earlier 77. living/life 78. equality 79. immigration 80. compensate
72. 【答案】size/scale 【解析】根据第二段中的＂almost all developed nations are experiencing sub-replacement birth rate＂可知，发达国家人口出生率正在下降，即人口难以维持现有的规模，＂ maintain＂一词是做题的依 据，故填 size/scale。 73. 【答案】immediate 【解析】根据第二段中的＂which might cause catastrophic global shortages of work force within a few decades＂中的＂within a few decades＂可知，出生率的下降对发展中国家和全球的消极影响还没 有发生，由此联想到＂影响不是立即产生的＂。 74. 【答案】economic 【解析】接下来几段分别讲了中国、俄罗斯、印度的人口与经济问题，根据＂ economic development before a population decline hits the country＂可知答案。 75.【答案】old/older 【解析】根据＂A great decline in young work force is likely to occur in China＂可知，中国 可能会迎来年轻劳动力的危机，故填 older。 76.【答案】earlier
【解析】根据＂the country has shrunk by 5% since 1993 and people in Russia live a shorter life now than those in 1961...but poor diet and above all long-time alcoholism have much to do with it＂可知，俄罗斯人口由于缩短的寿命而急剧下降。 77.【答案】living/life 【解析】此处是说，如果俄罗斯人改变他们的生活方式，他们的情况可能会好一些。 78. 【答案】equality 【解析】根据倒数第二段中的＂but in the south, where most economic development is taking place, birth rate is falling rapidly＂可知，教育可以降低出生率，因此，可以通过普及教育来抑制人口增长。 79. 【答案】immigration 【 解 析 】 根 据 最 后 一 段 中 的 ＂ One solution is obviously to import foreign workers via immigration.＂可知，通过移民来引入外来工人是解决劳动力短缺的一种方法。 80. 【答案】compensate 【解析】根据最后一段中的＂ Moreover, the USA has a track record of successfully accepting immigrants. As a result it’s likely to see a rise in the size of its working-age population＂ 可知，美国的移民政策将会使劳动力有所增加。接纳移民可以弥补劳动力的短缺。 【名师点睛】 任务型阅读题中的阅读能力同样要求考生在有限的时间内快速领会文章的主旨大意，快速理解句段细 节意义和理清上下文的逻辑关系，要能够理解文章作者的观点、态度和意图，同时不能忽视对语篇的整体 把握和领悟。考查题型分为以下三类： 1. 信息筛选题：信息筛选题是基础题目，一般可以直接通过将表格和短文进行对照，边读文章边找出与试 题相关的句子信息，获取到相关单词，有时试题和原文句型句式不同，需进行简单的逻辑推理然后找到 相应单词，不需变化，直接填入。例如第 74、79 题。 2. 整合转换题：整合转换题是典型的二次加工题型，需要考生有基本的构词法知识，对句子成分和词性的 对应关系要明确。做题时不仅需要找到与试题相关的语句，还要根据词法和句法知识以及上下文的逻辑 关系进行加工，从而提炼出新词。可细分为如下两种情况： （1）词形整合转换。被考查单词在原文和试题中充当的句子成分不同，因而需要在名词、动词、形容词、 副词等之间进行转换。例如第 76、78 题。 （2）句型整合转换。试题中的被考查单词在原文中找不到同根词，无法获取单词进行转换，需根据原文中 相应句子的意义和上下文逻辑联系进行句型转换。例如第 71、72、73 题。 ①表格内词性、大小写和语法运用上要保持一致。同一单元格要注意在用词方面保持一致的格式。 ②善用同义词和反义词进行转换。
③正确使用构词法。 ④熟练运用语法句型转换。 3. 综合概括题：综合概括题要求考生对全文或段落进行总体语篇把握，通过观察表格的设置特点，从而归 纳和概括出所考查的单词。此类设题一般位于表格的第一行或第一列。为了更快捷地掌握概括能力，总 结和熟记一些概括性词汇及其固定搭配也是很有必要的。例如 75 题。 基本的概括性词汇有： 总结、概括：conclusion, summary 建议：suggestion, tip, advice, proposal, recommendation 影响：effect, influence, impact 印象：impression 因果：reason, cause, result, consequence 考点：考查任务型阅读 第五部分：书面表达（满分 25 分） 81.请认真阅读下面有关我国电影票房收入（box-office income）的柱状图及相关文字，并按照要求用英 语写一篇 150 词左右的文章。 Saturday Afternoon. In a Shopping Centre. Li Jiang: Hi, Su Hua. Which movie shall we see? Su Hua: Whatever. We’ve got so many choices, Kung Fu Yoga, Journey to the West…Each sounds great! Li Jiang: Yeah! And some movie stars are fantastic. Su Hua: And the high-tech!... Li Jiang: Perfect! Let’s get some food first. We only have 20 minutes left. Su Hua: No hurry. The cinema is on the same floor.
One Day in 2016. At Home.
Son: Mum, shall we go and see a film tonight? Mother: Why bother? We can stay at home and watch films online. It’s convenient with our new and faster network Son: But it feels good in a cinema.
Mother: And the price… We have to pay 50 yuan a ticket. Son: Only 10 yuan more than last year. Mother: But still we cannot get the money’s worth. Some films are just boring… 【写作内容】 1. 用约 30 个单词概述柱状图信息的主要内容； 2. 我国电影票房收入变化的原因有哪些，简要谈谈你的看法（上述对话仅供参考，原因不少于两点） ； 3. 谈谈你对我国电影票房收入走向的看法，并简要说明理由。 【写作要求】 1. 写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句； 2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称； 3. 不必写标题。 【评分标准】 内容完整，语言规范，语篇连贯，词数适当。 【参考范文】 Possible version one： The box-office income of Chinese movies witnessed a constant increase from about 17 billion
yuan in 2012 to over 40 billion in 2015. However, that increase slowed down in 2016.
The reasons behind this are various. The fast economic development before 2016 was probably the most powerful engine driving the constant growth in the box-office income. The application of new technologies and the wide appeal of movie stars could also account for the increase. However, China saw a decline in its economic growth rate last year. And the Internet increased options for movie lovers. Consequently, some viewers began to turn away from cinemas, leading to a slower growth. China’s economy is expected to grow at a medium speed in the coming years, so an increase is possible in the investment in the movie industry and the number of quality movies. Therefore, its box-office income will probably enjoy a slight increase. (150 words) Possible version two： As is indicated in the graph, the box-office income of Chinese films increased constantly from 2012 to 2015, but its growth, for one reason or another, slowed down in 2016.
The increase in the box-office income can be attributed to a number of factors. The quality of life has improved and watching films is regarded as a good means of entertainment. Besides, filming technology has advanced and more quality films are on offer. Moreover, the Internet plays an important part. On the Internet, people can seek information about their favorite stars and buy tickets at a discount as well, which is both time-saving and economical. However, the film market may witness a slowdown in the near future. Cinemas have gradually given way to the rise of the Internet and cellphones, and the ticket price is on the increase. Therefore, the film industry should make greater efforts to attract more viewers. (150 words) 【解析】考查任务型读写。此类作文对考生的能力要求极高。首先考生要以 30 词左右概述短文内容。接下 来要分析票房收入变化的原因并给出自己的看法，并谈谈自己对票房走向的看法。作文以第三人称和一般 现在时为主。 要点： 1. 概述： 中国电影票房在 2012—2016 年间呈现不断增长的趋势， 但是 2016 年的增长相比于前几年很缓慢。 2. 分析原因：票房增长与人们生活水平的不断提高息息相关，人们有了多余的钱，才可能消费、娱乐；另 一方面，电影的制作技术日臻成熟，许多优质的电影不断上映；再者，互联网的普及无疑起到了很大的宣 传作用。 3. 看法和理由：票房增速将会小幅上涨或有所回落。只要给出恰当的理由，对票房看涨或是看落皆可。 写 30 词的概述时，语言要简练、不拖沓。遣词造句要符合英语的表达习惯，尽量用上定语从句、状语从句 和非谓语动词与倒装句等语法和句型。同时注意语句的连贯性。 【名师点睛】 本篇范文很好地完成了题目要求的写作任务。文章结构合理、层次分明。第一段总结归纳柱状图所含 信息，提到了持续增长和增长放缓，内容概括全面。第二段提出个人观点并给出理由；第三段中提出自己 的合理看法并给出自己的理由，做到了有理有据。时态和人称运用准确无误，表达纯正。范文使用了较高 级的词汇和词组 account for, consequently, is expected to, indicated, constantly, be attributed to, as well, time-saving, economical, witness；还使用了定语从句 which is both time-saving and economical；现在分词作状语 leading to a slower growth 等；Besides, Moreover, However, Therefore 等词的使用，把文章衔接了起来，使文章显得有层次感。 考点：考查任务型书面表达
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