选修六 Unit 5 Grammar
不能单独作谓语， 没有人称和数的 变化，可以有自 己的宾语和状语。 还有时态和语态 的变化。
分词 作状语 伴随 让步 原因 条件 结果 时间 方式
表示的范围 1.时间 2.原因 3.条件 4.让步 相当的状语从句 时间状语从句 原因 状 语从句 条件 状 语从句 让步状 语从句 没有合适的状语从句
并说明其功能 1.1.When they saw their teacher, the students stood up.
Seeing their teacher, the students stood up. *现在分词短语作( 时间状语 ) *现在分词动作的发出者是(句子主语)
???- -ing分词短语作时间状语，代替一个 时间状语从句：
注意：现在分词所表示的动作与主句 的动作一般是同时发生，有时可由 连词when, while引出。现在分词一 般位于句首。 如：
? When he read the book, he nodded from time to time. When reading the book, he nodded from time to time. When she saw those pictures, she remembered her childhood. Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood.
1.After they had finished their homework,
they went home.
Having finished their homework, they went home.
*Having finished their homework表现的动 作在went home( 之前),故用分词的 ( 完成式 ).
2.Because he was ill, he couldn’t go to school.
Being ill, he couldn’t go to school. *现在分词短语 作原因状语
3.If you work harder at English, you will make greater progress.
Working harder at English, you will make greater progress. *现在分词短语 作条件状语
4.Although they felt very tired， they kept running.
*Feeling very tired, they kept running.
5.The children came into the classroom, and they laughed and talked.(并列句)
*The children came into the classroom, laughing and talking.
*Laughing and talking, the children came into the classroom.
注：从句的主语和主句的主语必须一致。 即-ing分词作状语时，它的逻辑主语就 是整个句子的主语，并表示主动的关系。
主动形式 一 般 式 完 成 式 被动形式
being done having been done
He came into the classroom, talking and laughing.
Having finished his work, he went home.
having done 作状语，表示分词的动作先
把下列划线部分改写成分词短语, 并 说明其功能 1.When she was asked why she did it, she began to cry. *从句的动词用的是被动语态 *Asked why she did it, she began to cry. *过去分词短语作时间状语 *过去分词的动作由主语承受
2.Because he was moved by her words, he decided to help the poor boy.
*Moved by her words, he decided to help the poor boy. *过去分词短语作原因状语
3.If I were given one more chance, I would like to tell the girl, “I love you.”….
*Given one more chance, I would like to tell the girl , “ I love you.”…. *过去分词短语作条件状语
4.Although they had been defeated many times， they continued to fight. *Having been defeated many times, they continued to fight. =Although defeated many times, they continued to fight. *过去分词短语作让步状语
可加上适当连词如：while， when，once，if，unless，as if， though
*Once used, the car will never be sold again. (once “一旦……”)
=Once it is used, the car will never be sold again.
Heated, water turns into steam
*When heated, water turns into steam. =When water is heated, water turns into steam.
5.The teacher stood there and he was surrounded by many students.
*The teacher stood there (,)surrounded by many students
= Surrounded by many students, the teacher stood there. *过去分词短语作伴随或方式状语
Having been told many times, he didn’t make the same mistake. Having been criticized by the teacher, he gave up smoking.
1、现在分词的一般式（doing）与句中主 语构成逻辑上的主谓关系，与句中谓语动 作同时发生或者在其后发生。 2、完成式（having done）与句中主语构 成逻辑上的主谓关系，先与谓语动作而发 生。 3 过去分词（done）同动词现在分词的完 成形式（having been done）均与句中主 语构成逻辑上的动宾关系，且先与谓语动 词发生。
其 逻辑 doing 主语必 与主语为 须与句子 主动关系 主语保持一致
Hearing the bad news, they couldn’t help crying. When they heard the bad news
Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.
If they had been given more attention
see ________ Seeing from the top of the building, we saw the house like a match box.
Seen ________from the top of the building, the house looks like a match box.
分词（短语）做状语时，分词前面可以 加上连词，但是分词和句子之间不能用 并列连词(如but，and，so)，因为并列连 词接的是两个并列成分，而分词短语只 是全句的一个状语部分，分词和主句之 间可用逗号。
例如: 误: Having been told many times, but he still couldn’t understand it.
正: He was told many times, but he still couldn’t understand it. 或 Having been told many times, he still couldn’t understand it.
1. ________many times , but he still C couldn't understand it . 2. _______many times , he still couldn't A/B understand it . A. Having been told B. Told C. He was told D. He been told 3. ______from space , the earth looks A blue . 4.______from space , we can see the B earth is blue . A. Seen B. Seeing C. To see D.See
? 1. As he had eaten too much for supper, he couldn’t go to sleep.
Having eaten too much for supper, he couldn’t go to sleep.
? 2.This book became well known all over the world after it had been translated into many different languages. ?Having been translated into many different languages, this book became well known all over the world .
--- ing形式（短语）的否定形式 常在其（ 前面 ）加not /never等。
Not knowing his address, I could do nothing but stay at home and wait. Not having received his father’s letter, he decided to make a call to him.
有些分词短语可以做独立成分，用来解释整个句子， 不受句子主语的限制。常见的分词短语有： generally(frankly,honestly…) speaking, supposing (假设), judging from(从…判断), talking of（谈到), speaking of（谈到）,considering(考虑到，鉴于）等
Generally speaking, girls are more careful than boys
Supposing you lose, what will you do?
Judging from his accent, he must be from the north.
Talking of travel, have you ever been to Beijing?
Task 4 现在分词的独立主格结构
在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上 的主语一般必须与句子的主语一致, 但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑 上的主语, 这种结构称为:
? As the boy led the way, we had no trouble finding the strange village.
The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange village. ? If weather permits, we’ll go for an outing tomorrow.
The weather permitting, we’ll go for an outing tomorrow.
? As there was no further problems to discuss, we ended the meeting at last. There being no further problems to discuss, we ended the meeting at last.
1、分词 (短语) 作状语时, 前后两个动作 的主语是一致的。
3、用V+ing一般式 还是Having+done完成式， 要看前后两个动作有没明显的先后顺序，在 可能引起误解的场合应该用完成式现在分词
4、分词的否定形式是在分词短语前面加上 not, never等否定词构成。
After he heard a strong sound, he went out of the room for a look. = Hearing a strange sound, he went out of ..
As the girl was seriously ill, she was taken to hospital immediately. be - being Being seriously ill, the girl was taken to …. As she didn’t know any French, she couldn’t get any one to help her. Not knowing any French, she couldn’t get any one to help her.
巩固练习： 1. The secretary worked late into the night, _____ a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing 2. European football is played in 80 countries, ___ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making C. made B. makes D. to make
3.”Can’t you read?” Mary said ______ to the notice. A. angrily pointing C. angrily pointed B. and point angrily D. and angrily pointing
4. ______ a reply, he decided to write again. A.Not receiving B. Receiving not C.Not having received D. Having not received
5．The missing singer was last seen ____ the voice close to the bridge． A．exercising B．to be exercising C．exercise D．to exercise 6.The directors discussed the project that they would like to see ____ the next year． A．carry out B．carrying out C．carried out D．to carry out
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