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2018-2019学年新课堂英语必修四外研版讲义:Module+2+Section+Ⅲ+Word版含答案

Section Ⅲ Integrating Skills & Cultural Corner

Ⅰ.重点单词

1.congestion n.拥塞;堆积

2.registration n.执照;登记

3.mood n.心情;心境

4.react vi.反应→reaction n.反应

5.solution n.解答;答案

Ⅱ.核心短语

1.switch__off

关上(电灯、电视等);断掉(电源)

2.keep__cool 保持冷静

3.no__way (俚语)肯定不;没门儿

4.be happy with 对……满意

5.carry out 执行;履行

6.what’s more 另外;而且

Ⅲ.经典句式

1.It’s a good idea to have__your__destination__written in Chinese. 把你的目的地用汉语写出来是个好主意。

2.A survey carried__out at the end of 2003 suggests it__does. 2003 年年末展开的一项调查表明此措施是有效的。

原文呈现 The London Congestion Charge① Beijing isn’t the only city with traffic problems.You can get stuck in② a traffic jam anywhere in the world.The worst problems occur③ in cities which are growing fast,

such as Sao Paolo in Brazil and Lagos in Nigeria.But even cities in developed countries④ such as the US suffer⑤.Los Angeles,which was built with the motor car in mind,and is famous for its six-lane highways,is now the USA’s most congested⑥ city. In Europe most capital cities were planned and built before cars,and city centre traffic jams have been part of⑦ daily life for a long time.The situation in central London, where drivers spent fifty percent of their time in queues⑧,became so bad that⑨ the local government decided to do something about it.In February 2003 the Mayor of London,Ken Livingstone,introduced a“congestion⑩ charge”—a tax for cars entering the centre of the city. The idea is simple:every car coming into the centre has to pay £5 a day.Drivers can pay the charge at any of 10,000 pay points? in the capital before 10 pm.As the cars come into the centre,video cameras record their registration? numbers,and these are checked with a list of drivers who have paid the charge for that day.People who do not pay the charge will face? a fine? of £80. Most Londoners are not happy with the idea.They agree? that London has a traffic problem,but the congestion charge is expensive,and limits their freedom... But does the congestion charge work??A survey carried out? at the end of 2003 suggests? it does.After only six months,traffic coming into central London was reduced by? about 30 percent,and journey times by 15 percent.More people used public transport to? get to work,and bicycles were suddenly very popular.What’s
○21
more ,central London shops did not lose business even though there were fewer
cars. But there are a few people who think the charge should be much higher,for example
○22
rich businessmen who work in the city centre and can easily afford it.This would keep even more cars out of central London ,and the roads would be nearly
○23
empty.However,there are no plans to increase the charge. 阅读清障

①charge n.费用;free of charge 免费 ②get stuck in 陷入……,被困在…… ③occur vi.出现,发生(不用于被动语态和进行时态) ④developed countries 发达国家 developing countries 发展中国家 ⑤suffer vi.遭受;suffer from 受……之苦 ⑥congested adj.拥挤的,堵塞的 ※此处 which 引导非限制性定语从句,先行词是 Los Angeles。with the motor car in mind 是 with+宾语+介词短语的复合结构,with...in mind 意为“……在脑海中, 考虑……”。 ⑦part of……的一部分 in queues 排队 ⑨so...that...如此……以至于…… such...that...如此……以至于…… ⑩congestion n.拥塞;堆积 ※本句的主干为 The situation in central London became so bad,where 引导非限制 性定语从句,so/such...that...(如此……以至于……)结构,其中 that 引导结果状语 从句。 ?pay points 在此指“收费点” ?registration n.执照;登记 ?face vt.面对;面临;be faced with 面对…… ?fine n.罚款 ※现在分词在此作后置定语,修饰 car。 ※as 在此引导时间状语从句,意为“当……时”。 ※who 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 People,who 在从句中作主语,故从句谓语动 词用了复数形式。 ?agree vt.& vi.同意;赞同 ?work v.发挥作用,有效果 ?carry out 实施,进行 ?suggest 在此意为“暗示,表明”,此外,suggest 还可表示“建议”。

?be reduced by 被降低/减少了…… be reduced to 被降低/减少到…… ?use...to do sth 使用……做某事 be used to do sth 被用来做某事 be used to doing sth 习惯于做某事 used to do sth 过去常常做某事
○21 what’s more 此外,而且;近义短语为 in addition。
※过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰前面的 survey;suggest 在此意为“暗示,表 明”,其后为省略了引导词 that 的宾语从句(that 在从句中不作成分),从句用了 陈述语气。 ※what’s more 此外,而且,常用作插入语。
○22 afford v.负担得起,买得起
afford to do sth 负担得起做某事
○23 increase v.增加,提高
increase by 增加/提高了…… increase to 增加/提高到…… ※句中有两个 who 引导的两个定语从句,其先行词分别是 people 和 businessmen。
Read the text carefully and choose the best answer. 1.Why did the Mayor of London introduce the“congestion charge”? A.To increase the income of the government. B.To solve the problem of traffic jam. C.To make London the best city. D.To serve the rich. 2.If people do not pay the charge,they will________. A.be unhappy B.be fined for £5 a day C.have no freedom

D.be fined for £80 3.What’s a “congestion charge”? A.A tax which is not expensive. B.A tax for taxies only. C.A tax for cars entering the center of the city. D.A fine for those who don’t obey the traffic rules. 4.We can infer from the text that________. A.cities in developed countries suffer less traffic problems B.London was planned and built before cars C.drivers can pay the charge at any time D.the congestion charge will be reduced soon 答案 1.B 2.D 3.C 4.B

1.react vi.反应 Don’t react when others drive badly.(教材 P17) 当别人开车开得不好时不要回应。

react to

对……作出反应

reaction n. 反应;起作用(常与介词 to 连用) ①I shouted at her,but she didn’t react at all. 我向她大声喊,但她毫无反应。 ②How did he react to the bad news? 他对那个坏消息如何反应? ③Do you know what his reaction(react)will be when he hears the news? 你知道他听到这个消息时的反应吗? 2.solution n.方法,办法 There’s a simple solution to these problems.(教材 P18) 对这些问题有一种简单的解决办法。

the solution to... ……的解决办法/答案

solve vt. 解决;解答 ①The solution of the problem requires a lot of time. 解决这个问题需要很多时间。 ②It took me an hour to find the solution to the problem. 解决这个问题我花了一个小时。 ③With the help of his friends,he finally solved(solution)the problem. 在朋友们的帮助下,他终于解决了问题。
[温馨提示] 名词与介词 to 构成的短语

the answer/reply to ……的答案

the entrance to... ……的入口

the door to... ……的门

the attitude to... 对……的态度

the damage to 对……的破坏

the approach to ……的途径/方法

the key to... ……的钥匙/答案

the access to... ……的通道/机会 3.mood n.心境;情绪 Motorists could take a bus into the city centre and arrive at work or the shops relaxed and in a good mood.(教材 P18)驾车者可以轻松地乘公交车进入市中心,心情愉快 地工作或购物。

(1)in a good/bad mood

心情好/坏

be/feel in the mood for sth/to do sth 有做某事的心情

in no mood to do sth 没心情做某事

(2) moody adj. 喜怒无常的;忧郁的

①His mood suddenly changed and he became calm. 他的情绪突然一变,冷静下来。 ②He was in__a__good__mood when he got home from work. 他下班回到家时心情不错。 ③I’m not in the mood to__argue(argue) with you. 我没心思跟你争论。 ④It is difficult to predict his reaction because he is so moody(mood). 他如此喜怒无常,所以很难预知其反应如何。

1.switch off 关上(电灯、电视等);断掉(电源等) Switch off the motor.(教材 P17) 关闭发动机。
switch off= turn off 关掉

switch on=turn on 打开 ①When not in a room,you’d better switch off all the lights and the fan. 当你不在室内时,最好关掉所有的灯和那台电扇。 ②Switch on the recorder,please.I want to listen to some songs. 请打开录音机,我想听几首歌。
[温馨提示] 各种“开”“关”的译法

open/close/shut the door (window) 开/关门(窗)

switch on/off the radio/TV/light 开/关收音机/电视/电灯

turn on/off the radio/water/gas 开/关收音机/水/煤气

2.keep cool 保持冷静

keep quiet

保持安静

keep silent 保持沉默

keep still 保持不动

keep calm 保持镇静
keep fit/healthy 保持健康 ①Whatever happens,the first important thing is to keep cool. 不管发生什么事,最重要的是保持冷静。 ②Keep__still.I’ll take a picture of you. 不要动,我给你照张相。 ③You should keep__calm even in face of danger. 即使面临危险,你也应当保持镇静。 ④I don’t know if I should speak to him or keep__silent. 我不知道我是应该同他说话还是保持沉默。
Leave the motor on.(教材 P17)让发动机开着。 本句中使用了“leave+宾语+宾语补足语”结构,表示“使/让……处于某种状 态”。宾语补足语是副词。 “leave+宾语+宾语补足语”结构
leave+宾语+名词/形容词/副词/介词短语/现在分词/过去分词/不定式 ①Don’t leave the light on when you go out. 出去时,别让灯开着。 ②His parents died,leaving__him__an__orphan. 父母去世了,他成了孤儿。 ③Just as I got to the school gate , I realised I had left__my__bank__card__in__the__café. 当我刚刚走到学校大门口时,我就意识到把银行卡忘在咖啡馆了。 ④The teacher left the classroom angrily,leaving the boy standing (stand) in the front of the classroom. 让那个男孩站在教室前面,老师生气地离开了教室。 ⑤They covered him with a blanket,only leaving his eyes exposed (expose). 他们用毯子给他盖上,只留眼睛露在外面。

⑥Never leave the work for today to__be__finished (finish)tomorrow. 永远不要把今天该做的事情留到明天去完成。
Ⅰ.单词拼写 1.Please write your name and home address on this registration form. 2.There is always too much congestion on the road in big cities. 3.The patient reacted badly to this medicine and died at last. 4.The economists are trying to come up with a solution (解决方案) to the global financial crisis. 5.She’s too tired and in no mood(情绪)to dance. 6.The telephone wires were blown (吹) down by the strong wind. Ⅱ.选词填空 switch off,no way,keep cool,carry out,in no mood to 1.A survey is being carried__out by the young man. 2.She can keep__cool even under heavy pressure of anger. 3.Be sure to switch__off the light when you leave the office. 4.—Do you want to help? —No__way! 5.With two exams to worry about,I’m in__no__mood__to go to the cinema. Ⅲ.完成句子 1.I must have__my__homework__finished first before going out to play. 我在出去玩之前,必须先把作业做完。 2.The doctor suggested that I (should)come__again next day. 医生建议我第二天再来。 3.His expression suggests that he didn’t__sleep__well last night. 他的表情说明他昨晚没睡好。 4.Use__your__head__and you will find out a__solution__to these problems. 只要动脑筋,你就能想到这些问题的解决办法。 5.He never reads anything that is__not__worth__reading.

他从来不读任何不值得读的书。
Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.Remember to switch off the TV before you leave home. 2.The soldier’s courage was partly due to his ability to keep cool(coolly)in the face of danger. 3.He is lazy and doesn’t work hard,so there is no way that he can pass the exam. 4.She needed a clear head to carry out her instructions. 5.He suggested going(go)by plane,but I thought it would cost too much. 6.There is no easy solution(solve) to the problem,so you’d better consider it carefully. 7.Please have your names written(write)on this piece of paper. 8.—How did he react to the result of the exam? —He is very angry. 9.Until now,we have raised 50,000 pounds for the poor children,which is quite unexpected. 10.Student registration(register)starts on the first week in September. Ⅱ.单句改错 1.The boss is not on a good mood now;you’d better not ask for trouble.on→in 2.Successful leaders always react quickly for political events.for→to 3.It is very important to keep calmly in an emergency.calmly→calm 4.It is a waste to leave the water run while you brush your teeth.run→running 5.She is going to have her shoes repair.repair→repaired Ⅲ.阅读理解
It is quite reasonable to blame traffic jams,the cost of gas and the great speed of modern life,but manners on the road are becoming horrible.Everybody knows that the nicest men would become fierce tigers behind the wheel.It is all right to have a tiger

in a cage,but to have one in the driver’s seat is another matter altogether. Road politeness is not only good manners,but good sense too.It takes the most cool -headed drivers great patience to give up the desire to beat back when forced to face rude driving.On the other hand,a little politeness goes a long way towards reducing the possibility of quarrelling and fighting.A friendly nod or a wave of thanks in answer to an act of politeness helps to create an atmosphere of good will and calm so necessary in modern traffic conditions.But such behaviours of politeness are by no means enough.Many drivers nowadays don’t even seem able to recognize politeness when they see it. However,misplaced politeness can also be dangerous.Typical example is the driver who waves a child crossing the street at a wrong place into the path of oncoming cars that may be not able to stop in time.The same goes for encouraging old ladies to cross the road wherever and whenever they want to.It always amazes me that the highways are not covered with the dead bodies of these grannies. An experienced driver,whose manners are faultless,told me it would help if drivers learnt to correctly join in traffic stream without causing total blockages that give rise to unpleasant feelings.Unfortunately,modern drivers can’t even learn to drive,let alone master the roadmanship.Years ago,experts warned us that the fast increase of the car ownership would demand more give-and-take from all road users.It is high time for all of us to take this message to heart. 1.According to the passage,troubles on the road are often caused by________. A.road conditions B.the speed of modern life C.the behaviour of the drivers D.the large number of cars 答案 C [细节理解题。从第一段第一句可知,公路上的麻烦事主要是由道路交
通礼貌引起的。] 2.In the writer’s opinion,________. A.drivers should avoid traffic jams

B.strict traffic rules are badly needed C.unskillful drivers should be punished D.drivers should show road politeness properly 答案 D [推理判断题。从第二段和第三段可知司机要有正确的道路交通礼貌。] 3.The underlined word “give - and - take” in the 4th paragraph probably means________. A.politeness and impoliteness B.good manners and bad manners C.offering help to others as much as possible D.willingness of each person to give in to each other’s wishes 答案 D [词义猜测题。第二、三段讲述了道路礼貌问题,第四段又谈到了汽车
在增加。要想避免交通问题的发生,道路使用者需要具有“互让”的品质。] 4.What is the best title of the passage? A.Road Politeness B.Traffic Problems C.Bad Manners on the Road D.Good Drivers and Bad Drivers 答案 A [标题归纳题。纵览全文,作者讲述的是道路使用者应注意道路交通礼
貌问题。] Ⅳ.完形填空 Do you know about rabies?It is a(n) __1__ related to the rabies virus.The virus can infect (感染) dogs,birds and people.It is usually __2__ through the saliva (唾液) of an infected animal.Globally,more than 99% of rabies cases are __3__ by dogs.Once an animal gets rabies,the virus then __4__ the brain and nerves of it. The early __5__ of rabies include fever,weakness and headaches.__6__ the time period is usually one to three months,sometimes it can __7__ from person to person.As the disease progresses,the person may become very __8__ and confused, or they might be unable to move.People and animals getting rabies can have trouble in

__9__,so they often feel hungry.They also become __10__ water and always stay away from it.When animals or people become confused and active,they may __11__ dying of a heart attack.The virus kills cells in the brain,which leads to __12__. The good news is that rabies can be __13__ by the rabies vaccine (疫苗).Animal control and vaccination programs have __14__ the risk of rabies in many regions of the world.Pets such as dogs and cats should __15__ get vaccinated so that their bodies can fight off the virus.__16__,people usually get the vaccine only when they are attacked by an animal. People getting rabies in the United States are very __17__.But in other countries such as India and Ethiopia,thousands of people are __18__ by rabies each year.If you are traveling to a country where rabies is common,it is __19__ for you to ask your doctor whether you should receive the rabies vaccine.This includes traveling to a(n) __20__ area where medical care is difficult to find.When you go there,you can’t be too careful.
【语篇解读】 狂犬病会通过感染者的唾液传播。人患狂犬病后的病死率接近

100%,故应加强预防措施。

1.A.problem C.condition

B.accident D.disease

答案 D [文章内容主要是关于狂犬病的,故可知它是一种疾病。]

2.A.treated C.removed

B.tested D.spread

答案 D [根据后面被感染的动物的唾液可推测,此处是说狂犬病通过唾液传

播。]

3.A.shared C.caused

B.discovered D.shown

答案 C [根据前文狂犬病病毒可以感染狗、鸟和人,推测此处是说 99%的狂犬

病病例是由狗引起的。]

4.A.controls C.pollutes

B.enters D.changes

答案 B [这里是指动物感染狂犬病后,病毒会进入到大脑和神经。]

5.A.dangers C.reasons

B.signs D.examples

答案 B [根据 include fever,weakness and headaches 可知,这里是指感染后的

早期迹象。]

6.A.Unless C.If

B.Although D.As

答案 B [根据 the time period is usually one to three months 和 from person to

person 可知,前后是转折关系,所以选 Although。]

7.A.flow C.vary

B.continue D.start

答案 C [根据 from person to person 可推测,此处是表达潜伏期因人而异。]

8.A.lonely C.relaxed

B.smart D.uneasy

答案 D [随着病情的发展,患者会感到不安和困惑。]

9.A.eating C.walking

B.drinking D.speaking

答案 A [根据 so they often feel hungry 可知,在吃方面会有困难。]

10.A.surprised at C.excited at

B.afraid of D.interested in

答案 B [根据 always stay away from it 可知,感染者会害怕水。]

11.A.feel like C.end up

B.worry about D.think about

答案 C [根据 dying of a heart attack 可知,这里是指最后会因为过度活跃和疑

惑而死于心脏病。]

12.A.death C.anxiety

B.sickness D.tiredness

答案 A [根据 The virus kills cells in the brain 可推测,脑细胞被杀死后人会死

亡。]

13.A.passed C.judged

B.prevented D.examined

答案 B [根据 The good news 和 rabies vaccine 可知,好消息是这种病可以通

过狂犬病疫苗而得到预防。]

14.A.cut C.ignored

B.found D.announced

答案 A [根据语境可知,动物管理和疫苗组织已经在世界上很多地区降低了患

狂犬病的风险。]

15.A.suddenly C.regularly

B.gradually D.immediately

答案 C [根据 so that their bodies can fight off the virus 可知,这里是建议要定期

地给猫和狗注射疫苗。]

16.A.However C.Otherwise

B.Therefore D.Besides

答案 A [这里说人只有在被动物袭击后才会注射狂犬病疫苗,和前面一句构成

转折关系,所以选 However。]

17.A.few C.young

B.lucky D.poor

答案 A [根据后文 But in other countries such as India and Ethiopia,thousands of

people are...by babies each year.可知,前后构成对比,所以此处是讲在美国很少有

人患狂犬病。]

18.A.killed C.annoyed

B.warned D.hurt

答案 A [根据 by rabies 及前文提到狂犬病会致死可知,此处填 killed。]

19.A.admirable C.brave

B.wise D.fortunate

答案 B [如果你要去狂犬病很常见的国家时,询问一下医生你是否需要接种疫

苗是明智的。]

20.A.rich C.private

B.interesting D.remote

答案 D [根据后文的 where medical care is difficult to find 可知,此处是要表达

当你要去一个偏远的地区时。]


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