英语最基本的语序是主语在前，谓语动词在后。但有时由于句子结构的需要或表示强调，就要采用倒 装形式。 将谓语动词完全移到主语之前称为完全倒装， 只将助动词或情态动词放到主语之前称为部分倒装。 强调性倒装和以 so， neither， nor 开头的句子是高考例题的热点。 一、倒装句的意义 1. 适应一定的语法结构的需要，主要是指疑问句句型结构的需要。 e.g. May I come in？ Was the People's Liberation Army founded in 1927？ 2. 为了强调某一部分，而把这部分放到句首，构成倒装。 e.g. Never have I been late for school this term. So early did he come to school that no other students came. 二、倒装的用法 1. 在“there be”结构里，there 是引导词，主语在 be 后。 在“there + be”结构中的谓语动词有时不用 be , 而用表示类似“存在”观念的其他不及物动词。 如： live, stand, come, lie, flow, enter, rise 和 appear 等。 e.g. There is a box on the table. There came shouts for help from the river. There lies a large wheat field in front of the house. Many years ago there lived an old man in the wooden house. 2. 在疑问句中。 e.g. Is she singing in the classroom？ 词的词序不变。 （完全倒装） e.g. There goes the bell. Here is an apple for you. There she comes. Ex：There ________. And here ________. A. goes the phone; she comes B. is the phone going; is she C. does the phone go; does she come D. the phone goes; come she 4. 重复倒装句型，用在以 so，nor，neither 开头，表示谓语所述的情况也适用于另一个人或事物的肯定或 否定句中。so 用于肯定句，表示“也一样”“也这样”；nor，neither 用于否定句，表示“同样也不，也不这样”。 e.g. I am watching TV. So is she. My parents didn't watch TV last night. Neither （Nor） did I. She is busy doing her homework. So is her brother. You passed the exam. So did I. He doesn’t like shopping. Neither do i. He can’t speak any foreign language. Nor can his father. 表示两人的同样一个情况时，只能表示一件事，即上、下句所使用的动词、时态要一致。 否则要用 so it is with… His uncle is a worker and has been working in the factory for more than ten years. So it is with his aunt.
What does your mother do？
3. 在 here， there 等副词开头的某些句子里（要用一般现在时态） 。如果主语是人称代词，主语和主要动
Ex：1)I don't know how to swim, ____. A. and my sister doesn't neither B. nor my sister can C. nor does my sister D. and my sister does either B. So have I C. So I have D. Also I have 2)She's passed the test. ____. A. So am I e.g. "Very well，" said the French student. "Bring me two eggs and a cup of tea， please." said he. 6. 在以 hardly(scarcely), never, not, not only, little, few，seldom, no sooner…(than), not until, no where 等否定 或半否定意义的副词、连词放在句首时要用倒装句，采用部分倒装。如不放在句首就不要倒装。 e.g. Little did he say at the meeting. Never shall I forget the day when I joined the Army. Hardly(Scarcely) had he reached the station when the train started. Not once did we visit the city of our own. Seldom in all my life have I met such a determined person. Not only was there no electricity, but also no water. Not until he shouted at the top of his voice did she turn her head. 比较：I shall never forget the day when I joined the Army. Ex：1) Hardly ________ the airport when the plane took off. A. I had arrived at reached D. I had got to 2) —Have you ever seen anything like that before? —No, ________ anything like that before. A. I never have seen B. never I have seen C. never have I seen D. I have seen 7. 用于以 only 所修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句的句子中。 e.g. Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to wrk. Only in this way can we learn English well. 注意：如果 only 后的词组不是状语，不需倒装。 e.g. Only Wang Lili knows this. only Only a few young men went to the theatre. （修饰主语时则不用倒装） Ex：1)Only in this way ___ make progress in your English. you able to 2) Only when the meeting was over___ go back to meet his friend. A. he could able to D. was able to he 3)Only after liberation___ to be treated as human beings. A.did they begin B. they had begun C.they did begin D. had they begun 8. 为了表达生动，有时把表地点、方位的副词，如 up， down， out， away， in 等放在句首，同时把谓 语动词放在主语之前。若主语为人称代词，主语和谓语动词的位置不变，只将副词放在句首。 （完全倒装） e.g. Away hurried the boy. Out rushed the girl. Away she went with tears in her eyes. Ex：Out ____, with a stick in his hand. A. did he rush B. rushed he 首时,要全部倒装。如:
5. 直接引语的全部或一部分放在句首时，主句中的主谓也常直接倒装。 （完全倒装）
B. had I arrived
C. had I
B. can you
C. you be able to D. will C. was he
B. he was able to
C. he rushed
D. he did rush
表示地点的介词短语 (如 on the wall, under the tree, in front of the house, in the middle of the room 等)放在句
On the top of the hill stands a pine tree. In front of the classroom is a playground. Ex：Under a big tree ________, half asleep. A. did sat a fat man B. a fat man sat 之前。 e.g. Had I time （= If I had time） ， I would go and help you. Were I you （= If I were you） ， I would go abroad. Should he come （=If he should come） ， tell him to ring me up. 10. as 引导让步状语从句时要倒装（形容词/ 副词/ 名词/ 动词 + as + 主语 + 谓语） 。 e.g. Proud as they are， they are afraid to see me. Child as he is， he seems to know everything.（child 前不加冠词） Hard as he worded， he made little progress. Ex：________, he's honest. A. As he is poor B. Poor is he C. Poor as he is D. Poor as is he _____, he knows a lot of things. A. A child as he is e.g. May you succeed！ Long live the People's Republic of China！ 12. So + 形容词、副词及 such 置于句首时要倒装。 So happy did he feel. Such was me. 13.固定搭配 hardly…when; scarcely…when…; no sooner…than… 可以用正常语序 had hardly done when… did 或用倒装句式 Hardly had + 主语+ done when… did 句式。hardly 所在的句子用过去完成时。 The bell hardly had rung when the class began.= Hardly had the bell rung when the class began. No sooner had he arrived in Beijing than he began to work. Ex：Hardly ____down ___he stepped in. A.had I sat …than B. I had sat …when C.had I sat …then D. had I sat…when 14. 在以 often, well, many a time, now and again 等方式或频度副词(短语)开头的句子中,要用部分倒装结构。 如: Many a time has John given me good advice. Often have we made that test. Ex：Many a time ________ swimming alone. A. the boy went B. went the boy C. did the boy go D. did go the boy 15. so+ 形容词/副词 that 的结构状语从句可以用正常语序表示，也可以把 so+形容词/副词放于句首构成倒 装。句型如下： so +形容词/副词+be/助动词/情态动词 that +从句。 Light travels so fast that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. = So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. So easy was the work that they finished it in a few days.
C. did a fat man sat D. sat a fat man
9. 在虚拟结构中，条件从句的谓语含有 were， had 和 should 这三个词是，可省去 if，将这些词移至主语
B. Child as he is C. A child as is he
D. Child as is he
16. "分词(代词) + be + 主语"结构。如: Walking at the head of the line was our teacher. Such was the story he told me. done 做形容词在句中做表语时，常把表语放在句首，要用倒装句式。 Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil. 17.为了保持句子的平蘅或为了强调表语和状语，或使上下文紧密衔接，把它们放在句首用倒装句。该结构 不需加助动词。 East of the town lies a beautiful lake. In a lecture hall of a university in England sits a professor. Outside the doctor’s clinic were twenty patients.
倒装句练习： 1._______ and caught the mouse. A. Up the cat jumped B. The cat up jumped C. Up jumped the cat 2.______ and the lesson began. A. In came Mr Brown B. Mr Brown in came C. In came he D. came in Mr Brown 3. Over _______ , dead. A. rolling the goat B. rolled the goat C. did the goat roll D. the goat rolled 4.— Where is my shirt, mum? —_________. A. There is it B. There it is C. There is D. Here is it 5. — Where is your father? —Oh, ________. A. here he comes B. he here comes C. here does he come D. here comes he 6.The door opened and there ________ . A. enters an old man B. entered an old man C. did an old man enter D. an old man entered 7. Now ______ your turn to recite the text. A. will come B. comes C. has come D. there is 8. Often _____ them not to smoke here. A. we advised B. advised me C. did we advise D. had we advised 9. ________ playing soldiers. A. Inside the room were two boys B. Inside the room two boys C. Were two boys inside the room D. Inside the room was two boys 10. On the wall _______ two large portraits. A. are hanging B .Hanged C. hang D. hangs 11. _______ who was wounded in the stomach. A. Among them were a soldier B. Among them was a soldier C. Among them a soldier was D. Among they was a soldier 12. Next door to ours ________ , who is no less than eighty. A. that lives an old man B. does an old man live C. lives an old man D. where lives an old man 13.She plays the piano very well, ______.
D. Jumped up the cat
A. so every one of us does B. every one of us does C. so does every one of us D. so do every one of us 14.You say he works hard, ______, and _____. A. so he does; so you do B. so he does; so do you C. so does he; so do you D. so does he; so you do 15. —I thought you women were present at the meeting. —__________. A. So we were B. So we did C. So were we D. So did we 16.I don’t think Jack will come today, _____. A. nor will Mary B. and Mary doesn’t C. Mary will either D. or Mary does 17. She is fond of cooking, _____I . A. so am B. nor am C. neither do D. nor do 18.Marx was born in Germany and German was his native language. A. So it was with English B. So was it with English C. So was English D. So did English 19.A fish needs water and without water it will die._______. A. So does a man B. So will a man C. So it is with a man D. So is it with a man 20. So absorbed _______ the work that she often forgot to _____ her meals. A. had she been in; do B. she was in; make C. was she in; take D. she had been in ; have 21.So loudly ______ that every one of the class could hear him. A. did he speak B. did he spoke C. spoke he D. he spoke 22. __________ his apperance that no one could recognize him. A. Strange so was B. So strange was C. Was so strange D. So was strange 23.Not once ______ their plan. A. did they change B. they changed C. changed they D. they did change 24. Never ______ such a wonderful place as Hangzhou. A. are seeing B. had I seen C. I have seen D. have I seen 25.Seldom ______ TV during the day. A. they watch B. are they watching C. have they watched D. do they watch 26.Nowhere ______ as in my garden. A. the flowers were so beautiful B. were the flowers so beautiful C. so beautiful were the flowers D. so beautiful the flowers were 27. Hardly ________ his homework when he went out. A. finished he B. he had finished C. did he finish D. had he finished 28.Scarcely _____ finished their homework ______ I came into the classroom. A. had they; than B. they had; when C. had they; when D. did they; when 29. Not only _______ a promise, but also he kept it. A. has he made B. does he make C. he made D. did he make 30. Not until his comrades criticized him _______ to admit his mistake. A. had he begun B. began he C. did he begin D. does he begin Keys： 1—5 CABBA 6—10 BBBDA 11—15 BCCBA 16—20 BAACC 21—25 ABADD 26—30 BDCDC
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