高中英语阅读理解题型及解题技巧分析 高中英语阅读理解题型及解题技巧 阅读理解能力测试的主要要求是： 1． 阅读材料，理解材料的主旨大意，以及用以说明主旨大意的事实和细节。 2． 既理解具体的事实，也理解抽象的概念。 3． 既理解文章的字面意思，也理解深层含义，包括作者的态度、意图等。 4． 既理解某句、某段的含义，也理解全篇的逻辑关系，并据此进行推理和判断。 5． 既能根据所提供的信息去理解，也能结合中学生应具有的常识去理解判断。 根据这五项要求，我们可将阅读理解多项选择题归纳为以下几种题型：主题主旨大 意，细节理解题，综合推理题，概括归纳题，观点归纳题，人物评价题，词义句义理解 题， 指代关系题，内容排序题等。下面结合自己平时教学中的经验体会，谈一谈做英语 阅读理解题的技巧与策略。 一．主旨大意题 阅读理解首先要做到的就是掌握所读材料的主旨和大意，它是全文的概括与总结。 能否抓住这个中心，取决于读者的总结能力。每篇短文都有其主题思想，而作者表现主 题思想的手法各不相同。这就需要我们挖掘相同点，寻找解题的方法。 常见题型 1． 主题型：What’s the main idea of this passage ? What does this passage mainly discuss? What’s the topic of this passage ? 2． 标题型：What’s the best title? The best title for this text is (to tell ) ______. 3．目的型：The main purpose of this text is ________. The author’s purpose of writing this text is to _______. What’s the main purpose of the passage? 解题指导 1． 抓住主题句。它们一般位于文章的开头或结尾。同时，也可以贯穿各段中心句 进行总结。 2． 抓住文章逻辑线索，理清发展脉络。作者往往会采取举例、比较、分类、归纳 等不同方法来组织文章。 3． 把握文章的体裁，分清文体，确定思维方向。 4． 体会作者的写作意图和所要表达的思想感情，辨清褒贬态度。 二．词义理解题 词义理解是阅读理解能力的重要指标。无论一个人的词汇量有多大，都会在阅读中 碰到生词。对词义的理解往往会影响到对全文的准确把握。阅读过程中，为保证适当的 阅读速度，一般不必频繁的停下查字典。对于不妨碍全文理解和出现频率较低的生词， 跳过即可。词义理解包括：生词词义和熟词新义。 解题指导 1．利用语境、常识和语法关系推断词义。
①抓住所需推断词汇前后的“mean”或系动词或破折号等直接定义该词的部分。 ②抓住文章主旨与该段所表达的中心。 特别对于议论文要牢记论点与论据的相互 支撑关系。 ③通过例证、比喻、对照、插入语等语法结构推断词义。 2．利用词根、前后缀与合成词推断词义。 三．句意理解题 句意理解题是常见的阅读题型。它不仅考查对句子表层意思的理解能力。有时还需 要读者结合上下文和平时的知识积累、生活常识和人生阅历来判断或推断句子的深层含 义。 常见题型 1．开门见山型：问题中直接要求读者对文中某一句进行理解。 The underlined sentence may tell us that ______. What does the underlined sentence mean? 2．隐含理解型：题目中未直接点出考查句，需要我们根据题干和选项信息找到并理 解该句。 ①简单理解：通过理解句中关键词，明确句内关系以获得正确答案。 ②综合理解：需要结合语境、分析上下文关系，获得正确答案。 解题指导 1．根据题干，缩小并锁定相关句段。 2．挖掘选项异同点寻找提示。 3．利用各类词义理解技巧逐一突破关键词。 4．抓住表示因果、转折、递进、并列等关系的连词，准确把握句内各分句以及该句 所在段落各句间的逻辑关系。 四．概括归纳题 在词义与句义理解的基础上，结合上下文总结归纳某一段或几段的大意，对于把握 文章主旨，分析全文结构都是至关重要的。此类题型考查了读者段落或文章某一版块的 理解概括能力。 常见题型 1．单段型：要求归纳某一段大意。 What can we learn from the last paragraph ? According to the third paragraph ,the Britons think that ___. In paragraph 2, the writer uses the example of the ancient Greek athletes to show that _____. 2．多段型： 要求归纳多段大意或多段细节总结某一非全文主旨的观点。 解题指导 1．通过审题，缩小范围，锁定相关段落。 2．利用词义及字意理解技巧，透彻把握段落关键词的含义。 3．抓住文章中连词（如表转折、因果、递进、承接、让步等关系的词语） 序数词 、 （如 First …Second …）等提示性词句，辨清段落之间的逻辑关系
五．观点态度题 观点态度题从某种意义上来说要求考生具有较高层次的阅读技能，包括在复杂的语 境条件下，把握作者的思路；在较高深的措辞中，探索作者的隐藏思想及真正的写作意 图。常见观点态度题用以考查文章的写作意图和作者主观态度的把握；分析作者对某些 细节描述的意图。 常见题型 What’s the writer’s /author’s attitude towards to wards …? The writer /author believes(implies, suggests) that ______. The writer /author seems to agree(think ) that _________. The writer / author tries to tell us _______. The writer’s / author’s tone would be best described as _______. 解题指导 1．抓住文章和选题中反映态度、语气的关键词，特别是其中的形容词和副词，分清 褒贬。 2．利用概括归纳题与主旨大意题的解题技巧，准确把握文章中心思想与段落结构。 3．务必忠实原文，切忌将自己的观点强加于作者。 六．综合推理判断题 综合推理判断题是通过文章提供的多处已知信息得出未知结论，或由文章中某一细 节或某一描述方式推导出答案的题型。要求学生综合考虑上下文，通过文章表面文字信 息推测文章隐含意思。 常见题型 1． 直接型： 直接提问从文章所提供的信息， 我们可以推测出什么， 可以了解到什么。 这结论往往是文章中没有直接说出来的，但通过全文，我们可以得出相应的结论。 From the passage we can draw the conclusion that ______-. We can infer ( conclude ) from the passage that ________. Where can you read this passage ? 2．间接型：题目中未要求，但只有综合上下文多处细节才能解决问题。 On the whole, this story is about _________. What can we learn about Brampton ? 解题指导 1．抓住关键词句，利用词义和句意理解技巧来弄清其内在含义。 2．利用表示因果、转折、递进、并列等关系的连词，准确把握句与句之间的关系。 联系各项信息，综合推断结论。 3．辨清总—分、总—分—总、倒证等文章结构关系。 4．特别注意一般信息与最终结论之间的区别，避免以偏概全。 5．排除文中已出现、无需再度推测的事实，以及与文意明显不符的选项。 七．人物评价题型 人物评价题虽然出现的频率不高，但是由于它涉及对整篇文章基调的把握，所以对 准确理解全文非常重要。此类题型在人物传记类文章中常会出现，主要考查读者对文中
人物的评价。 常见出题方式： 1．评价人物行为。 2．评价人物性格。 常见提问方式： What do you think of …? What do you think best describe …? What kind of person was …? Which of the following words can be best used to describe the fisherman …? How do you find …? 解题指导 1．紧扣人物本身的行为和语言来分析每句话每件事分别说明了什么。 2．结合上下文，抓住其他人对这一人物的评价，以及文中的论点与例证之间的承接 关系。 3．抓住文章和选项中反映态度、语气的关键词，分清褒贬。 4．排除明显与文意不符的选项，缩小选择范围。 八．细节理解题 细节理解题出现在各种文体中。就记叙文而言，大多数针对某个情节。而在议论文 和说明文中，往往通过事例、数字等细节来说明主题或支持作者观点。 常见题型 1．简单反馈： 在保持与原文大体一致的情况下，进行微小的不易被察觉的增加或改变，如对原句 进行解释，或改变句子结构。一旦粗心就会造成错选。 2． 多项反馈： 选项多个都涉及文章细节，细节之间又相互交织在一起，不耐心、不细心的同学就 会一下“看晕” ，失去耐心和信心，胡乱选一个完事。 解题指导 1．依据题干和选项提示，找到文中相对应的信息。 2．把握文章主题，弄清主题与细节，细节与细节间的关系。 3．由易到难逐项排除。 九．辨别正误题 辨别正误题是阅读的常见题型。它主要考查读者对语段所揭示事实的判断能力；确 认语篇所涉及主要事实的逻辑关系和对细节或是大意以及文章寓意的理解能力。 常见题型 常见出题方式： 1．对集中事实或推断的判断。 2．对多处事实或推理的判断。 常见提问方式： Which of the following is NOT true according to this passage?
Which of the following is TRUE according to this passage? From the passage, we can learn …EXCEPT ________. 解题指导 1． 在了解文章大意的情况下， 把握文章的基本事实， 并在此基础上列出事实 “清单” ， 做到心中有数。 2．准确理解整篇文章的意图，找出段落之间的逻辑关系。 3．注意原文中的陈述和题目中相关陈述的表达方法的异同。 4．仔细审题，看清题目中相关陈述的表达方法的异同。 5．排除法与原文检验法相结合。先排除与文中内容矛盾的选项，再将剩余选项代入 文中看是否符合前后逻辑关系。 十．内容排序题型 在做阅读理解的时候，除了要把握文章的主体大意和一些细节外，还要对文章各个 细节发生的先后顺序或者不同事物的特点有一个很好的把握。此类题为内容排序题。考 查学生的快速阅读能力和思维连贯能力。容易出此类题的文章是：探险旅游，科普知识， 趣味故事等。 常见题型 1．动作排序：主要考查文章的多个细节发生的先后顺序。 2．内容顺序：主要考查对文本某个或某些信息的理解，然后进行比较排序。 解题指导 1．对于动作排序题，应该学会使用跳读和快速阅读的方法，在文章中迅速地找到各 个动作的位置，从而排出正确的顺序。 2．对于内容排序题，应该先找到各个信息在文章的位置，然后联系上下文很好地理 解意思，找到它们的正确顺序。需注意的是，做此类题应当根据对文本内容的理解排出 正确的顺序，而不是根据各个细节出现的先后顺序排列。 十一.指代关系题 指代关系题是指对文章中某个指示代词进行推测从而弄清它所指代的真实对象的阅 读理解题。现行高中英语教学大纲明确要求我们掌握通过上下文语境推测词义的技巧， 指代关系题则是这一理念在实践中的应用。 常见题型 What does the underlined word “it” refer to ? What does the underlined word mean ? 解题指导 1．弄清上下文逻辑关系---因果、让步、转折、承接、递进等。这样才能比较准确 地判断出题目所涉及的代词的指代意义。 2．排除法： 即将代词分别替换成四个选项的内容，放回原句看能否讲得通。 十二.计算推理题 计算推理题虽然不是阅读理解的重点题型，但是最能考查学生的综合素质和解决实 际问题能力的题型。解题过程不但要求学生具备数学计算的知识和技巧，也同时要求学 生透彻理解文意和题意，有时更需要找出原文中包含的解题所需的必要条件。
常见题型 1．简单计算：往往只需一步计算就可得出答案。 2．单一计算单位的复杂计算：只涉及一种计算单位的复杂运算，如对重量、数量、 面积体积等的计算，但计算过程需要多个步骤。 3．涉及多种计算单位的复杂运算：如计算单位体积的重量或单位面积的价格等多步 骤计算。 解题指导 1．对于简单计算，因计算本身不难，所以往往考查的是对题意或文意的确切理解。 如果理解有误，计算必定失误。 2． 对于只涉及一种计算单位的复杂计算， 主要需细心， 不要遗漏必要的条件和步骤。 3．对于涉及多种计算单位的复杂计算，除了细心不忽略必要条件之外，还要注意各 个计算公式的运用和单位间的正确转换。 牛津高中英语模块二第一单元错题集及答案 1. With summer _______ near, it is hotter and hotter. A. came time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle B. was watched; coming D. were watching; came C. after D. when D. being settled 3. My family ______ TV when my classmates _____ to see me. A. watched; was coming C. will watch; come A. since B. before B. comes C. coming D. come 2. With a lot of difficult problems _______, the newly-elected president is having a hard
4. It is three years ______ he left home. 5. ----Did you find the missing couple in the mountain yesterday? ----No, but we _____ to get in touch with them ever since. A. have tried B. have been trying C. had tried D. had been trying 6. I thought John would say something about his new job, but he ______ it. A. hasn’t mentioned C. didn’t mention A. haven’t noticed; have C. haven’t noticed; did B. hadn’t mentioned D. doesn’t mention B. didn’t notice; did D. didn’t notice; have
7. I’m sorry, I _____ you. When ____ you come?
8. ----You’ve agreed to go, so why aren’t you getting ready? ----But I ____ that you ____ me to start at once. A. don’t realize; want C. haven’t realized; want B. don’t realize; wanted D. didn’t realize; wanted
9. The boss is going on business next month and the company will be left __ the
white-skinned girl. A. in charge of charge of 10. The worried parents went into the forest_________ the missing child. A. search for B. in search of C. in search for D. search for 11. ----What made you so excited today? ----______ the game this afternoon made me really excited. A. Due to winning win. ----______________! A. Congratulations A. me on the A. fur the ocean. A. sunk B. sunken C. sunking D. sank 16. ----I wonder if I could possibly use your bicycle for tomorrow? ----_______. I’m not using it. A. Yes, indeed B. I don’t know C. Sure, go ahead D. I don’t care 17. ----What have you been up to ______ ? ----Preparing for the coming exam. A. those days B. lately C. after that D. from then 18. ----I hear that Amy is trying to lose weight by taking weight-loss pills. ----In my opinion, looking good is important, but_____, staying healthy is far more important. A. after all A. Seen; / B. in all B. Seen; the C. at all C. Seeing; / D. above all D. Seeing; the 19. ______ from _____ space, the earth looks blue. 20. My dictionary _____. I have looked for it everywhere but still _____ it. A. is missing; didn’t find C. has lost; don’t find A. happened B. has happened B. has lost; haven’t found D. is missing; haven’t found C. was happened D. had happened B. Best wishes B. me in the B. furs C. Good luck D. my D. a fur D. Cheers 13. He apologized to me for patting ________ shoulder. C. me on my C. the fur 14. Who is the rich lady in _____ standing there, talking and laughing loudly? 15. As he grew up, he developed a lot of interest in _______ treasure at the bottom of B. Because of winning C. Winning D. Win 12. ----John, our team will play against that of Class Eight on Saturday. I’m sure we will B. in the charge of C. taking charge of D. taking the
21. I have no idea what _____ while I was asleep.
22. ______ by the fans, the football team won the match again. A. Being supported B. Supporting A. will leave B. was leaving C. Supported C. had left D. To be supported D. has left 23. Mary has just left, but I didn’t know she ______ until yesterday evening. 24. The family _____ at the lunch table when someone came to tell them what had happened at ___. A. were sitting; Mr. Brown C. was sitting; Mr. Brown A. didn’t understand C. wasn’t understand A. had smelt immediately. A. fell; was; injured injured 28. He was said _____ TV instead of studying when his mother went into his room. A. to watch A. break off A. to whom B. to be watching B. break down B. to which C. watching C. break into D. where D. to have watched D. break out 29. Shall we ____ our discussion and have some tea or coffee? 30. Would you please put the book _____ it belongs? C. to that 31. ----______ the poet ______ a very poor life? ----Yes, but he ______ us a lot of excellent poems. A. Did; lead; had left leading; had left 32. The first use of atomic weapons was in 1945, and their power _____ increased enormously ever since. A. is B. was C. has been B. has reached D. had been D. had reached 33. She has set a new record, that is, the sales of her latest book _____ 50 million. A. have reached A. found C. are reaching D. invented D. Convinced 34. It was said that the first object that man ____ for sports was the ball. B. discovered C. made 35. ______ of the truth of the report, he told his colleagues about it. A. Having convinced B. Convincing C. To convince B. Did; lead; has left C. Does; lead; has left D. Was; B. fell; did; injure C. falls; has; injured D. was falling; was; B. has smelt B. were sitting; Mr. Brown’s D. was sitting; Mr. Brown B. didn’t be understood D. wasn’t understood C. was smelling D. smelt
25. He _____ and was made to repeat it.
26. The rain had cleared the air, and the grass _____ fresh and sweet. 27. He ___from the tree and ___ so badly ___ that he was sent to the nearest hospital
36. ----What did Mr. Zhang say? ----So you _____ to the teacher. A. wouldn’t listen A. studying B. weren’t listening C. didn’t listen D. hadn’t listened C. be studying D. have studied 37. She is said _____ abroad, but I don’t know which country she stayed in. B. study 38. The students were ____ over the ____ problem, listening to the teacher with a ____ expression on their faces. A. puzzled; puzzling; puzzling C. puzzling; puzzling; puzzled night. A. With; to solve C. Besides; solved last year. A. was studying A. were come up with by others. A. notice A. does have told taken them. A. these A. be searched A. that; in charge of C. in which; in charge of A. broke out; put out C. broke out; was put out A. lied; lay B. lay; lay B. one C. that D. the ones C. search D. search for 45. Every visitor will ____ at the entrance to the queen’s palace. B. be searched for 46. The factory _____ my father works is now ______ Director Li. B. there; in charge of D. in which; in the charge of B. was broke out; was put out D. was broke out; put out C. lied; lied D. lay; lied B. noticing C. to be noticed C. did tell D. noticed D. does tell 43. Lisa ____ me to attend the meeting at two in the afternoon, but I completely forgot. B. did have told 44. Mr. Zhang gave all the textbooks to all the pupils, except ____ who had already B. studied C. had studied D. has studied D. came up 41. Many new ideas ____ during the discussion at yesterday’s assembly. B. came up with C. were come up 42. Every time Leo entered the office talking and laughing loudly in order to get _____ B. Because; solved D. With; solved B. puzzled; puzzling; puzzled D. puzzling; puzzled; puzzling
39. _____ many problems _____, the manager couldn’t go to sleep all day and all
40. Li Ping, who is now working in my father’s company, ___in London for three months
47. A fire ____ in the shoe factory last night, but ____ soon.
48. “I _____ awake all night thinking of you.” he ____ to me.
49. I wonder why Jenny _____ us recently. We should have heard from her by now. A. hasn’t written B. doesn’t write C. won’t write D. hadn’t written 50. His success is due to _____. A. work hard B. hard work C. study hard D. bad work M2U1 错题集答案 1-5 C C D A B 6-10 C B D B B 11-15 C C A B B 16-20 C B A A D ACBBD 26-30 D A B A D 31-35 B C A D D 36-40 B D B A B 41-45 D D C D A 46-50 D C D A B 一、英语书信的常见写作模板： 开头部分： How nice to hear from you again. Let me tell you something about the activity. I’m glad to have received your letter of Apr. 9th. I’m pleased to hear that you’re coming to China for a visit. I’m writing to thank you for your help during my stay in America. 结尾部分： With best wishes. I’m looking forward to your reply. I’d appreciate it if you could reply earlier. 二、口头通知常见写作模板： 呼语及开场白部分： Ladies and gentlemen, May I have your attention, please? I have an announcement to make. 正文部分： All the teachers and students are required to attend it. Please take your notebooks and make notes. Please listen carefully and we’ll have a discussion in groups. Please come on time and don’t be late.
结束语部分： Please come and join in it. Everybody is welcome to attend it. I hope you’ll have a nice time here. That’s all. Thank you. 三、议论文模板 1.正反观点式议论文模板 导入： 第 1 段：Recently we’ve had a discussion about whether we should... （导入话题） Our opinions are divided on this topic.（观点有分歧） 正文： 第 2 段：Most of the students are in favour of it.（正方观点） Here are the reasons. First... Second... Finally...(列出 2~3 个赞成 的理由) 第 3 段：However, the others are strongly against it. （反方观点） Their reasons are as follows. In the first place... What’s more... In addition...(列出 2~3 个反对的理由) 结论： 第 4 段：Personally speaking, the advantages overweigh the disadvantages, for it will do us more harm than good, so I support it. （个人观点） オ 2.“A 或者 B”类议论文模板： 导入： 第 1 段：Some people hold the opinion that A is superior to B in many ways. Others, however, argue that B is much better. Personally, I would prefer A because I think A has more advantages.
正文： 第 2 段：There are many reasons why I prefer A. The main reason is that ... Another reason is that...(赞同 A 的原因) 第 3 段: Of course, B also has advantages to some extent... (列出 1~2 个 B 的优势) 结论： 第 4 段: But if all these factors are considered, A is much better than B. From what has been discussed above, we may finally draw the conclusion that ...(得出结论) オ 3.观点论述类议论文模板： 导入： 第 1 段：提出一种现象或某个决定作为议论的话题 As a student, I am strongly in favour of the decision. （亮明自己 的观点是赞成还是反对） The reasons for this may be listed as follows. （过渡句，承上启下） 正文： 第 2 段：First of all... Secondly... Besides...(列出 2~3 个赞成或反 对的理由) 结论： 第 3 段：In conclusion, I believe that... （照应第 1 段，构成"总—分 —总"结构） 4."How to"类议论文模板： 导入： 第 1 段：提出一种现象或某种困难作为议论的话题 正文： 第 2 段：Many ways can help to solve this serious problem, but the following may be most effective. First of all... Another way to solve the
problem is ... Finally...(列出 2~3 个解决此类问题的办法) 结论： 第 3 段：These are not the best but the only two/ three measures we can take. But it should be noted that we should take action to...(强调 解决此类问题的根本方法) 四、图表作文写作模板： The chart gives us an overall picture of the 图表主题. The first thing we notice is that 图表最大特点 . This means that as (进一步说明). We can see from the statistics given that 图表细节一 . After 动词 -ing 细节一中的第一个 变化， the 动词-ed+幅度+时间(紧跟着的变化) . The figures also tell us that 图表细节二 . In the column, we can see that accounts for (进一步描述). Judging from these figures, we can draw the conclusion that (结论). The reason for this, as far as I am concerned is that (给出原因). / It is high time that we (发出倡议). 五、图画类写作模板 1.开头 Look at this picture./The picture shows that.../From this picture, we can see.../As is shown in the picture.../As is seen in the picture... 2.衔接句 As we all know, .../As is known to all,.../It is well known that.../In my opinion,.../As far as I am concerned,.../This sight reminds me of something in my daily life. 3.结尾句 In conclusion.../In brief.../On the whole.../In short.../In a word.../Generally speaking.../As has been stated...
copyright ©right 2010-2020。