Section Ⅲ Lesson 2 & Lesson 3—Pre-reading
[原文呈现] The classic① advertisement is one②that gives information about finding certain③ products. It is likely④ to be just the name of a company, part of which may be a general location⑤. For example, it could be “Shanghai Sewing⑥ Machine”，or “Tsing Tao Beer⑦ Corporation⑧”， and you would know what the companies sell, where they are located, and the brand⑨ names. However, this kind of advertising might not be suitable⑩ when there are products and services in direct competition with? each other in the market place. In such situations, advertisements need to attract, and hold the attention of? the public. Some advertisements consist of? pictures or the words of experts to show people how good the products are. Others try to create advertisements that people simply enjoy looking at. ?As present?day advertisers? often have large budgets?， a lot of money is spent on applying? modern techniques of design to make these advertisements as visually? attractive as possible?. [读文清障] ①classic/'kl?sIk/adj.传统的；经典的 ②one 指代同名(类)异物，即 an advertisement。 ③certain adj.某种，某些 ④likely adj.可能的，有希望的 Sb./Sth. be likely to do sth.某人/某物有可能做某事 ⑤“名词＋介词＋which”引导的定语从句。 ⑥sewing/s??I?/n.缝纫，缝制品 sew/s??/vt.缝，缝制 ⑦beer/bI?/n.啤酒 ⑧corporation/?k??p?'reI? n.公司 ⑨brand/br?nd/n.商标，牌子 1○0suitable/'su?t?b adj.合适的 ?in competition with ...与……竞争 compete with 与……竞争 ?attract the attention of sb.吸引某人的注意力 hold the attention of sb.保持某人的注意力 ?consist of 由……组成 make up 组成 be made up of 由……组成 ?as 引导原因状语从句。
?advertiser/'?dv?taIz?/n.广告人 advertise/'?dv?taIz/vt.为……做广告，登广告 advertisement n．广告 ?budget/'b?d?It/n.预算 ?apply v．申请，应用 apply for 申请 apply to 应用于，适用 ?visually/'vI???li/adv.外表上；视觉地 ?句中 to make ... possible 为动词不定式短语作目的状语。 [第 1～2 段译文] 传统的广告只为找到某种产品提供信息。它很可能仅是一个公司的名称，其中可能含有 公司的大概位置。例如，一则广告可能是“上海缝纫机厂”或“青岛啤酒厂”，你一看就知 道它们卖什么，位置在哪里，是什么牌子。 然而，当产品和服务在市场上互相进行直接竞争时，这种广告可能就不适合了。在这种 形势下，广告需要吸引和保持公众的注意力。有些广告中含有一些图片或专家说的话，以向 人们展示该产品如何好。还有一些广告的设计只是让人们欣赏其画面。当今的广告商常常拥 有大量的预算，所以他们把许多钱用在现代设计技术上，以使这些广告在视觉上尽可能地吸 引人。 However, even this is often not enough to be? noticed in a modern city. Because of○21 the advertising boom○22， people are used to2○3 seeing high standards of visual○24 design. Modern advertisements must stand out2○5 in a world full of competition by combining○26 the highest standards of design with ideas linked to2○7 the products to make them more attractive○28. For example, some advertisements may suggest○29 that buying a car3○0 can make you free. That is○31， they use the concept○32 of freedom to sell the car. Other common ideas include happiness, wealth and success. In fact, in the world of advertisements, such content is as old as advertising itself. For many of today’s advertisers, ○33repeating old ideas is not a successful approach3○4. They realise that it does not matter how attractive the idea linked with the product is○35 — most people know that the main purpose of the advertisement is making customers spend money. Instead, these advertisers look for other ways to make people notice their products. The top advertisers of today believe that using humour○36 as well as3○7 new and unusual ideas to surprise people is important in modern advertisements. Their aim is to create something that has never been seen before and is fascinating for people to look at3○8. By doing this, they hope to make people forget that someone is trying to sell○39 them something！ ?enough to do sth.足以做某事
2○1because of “因为”，后接名词、代词等。 2○2boom/bu?m/n.迅速增长 2○3be used to 习惯于 2○4visual/'vI???l/adj.视觉的，视力的 2○5stand out 突出，显眼 stand for 代表 2○6combine v．使结合，联合 combine ... with ...把……和……相结合 2○7be linked to 和……连接或联系 link ... with ...将……与……连接在一起 link up 相连接；相联系 2○8过去分词短语 linked to the products 作后置定语，修饰 ideas；动词不定式短语 to make them more attractive 作目的状语。 2○9suggest v．暗示当 suggest 表示“建议”时，其后名词性从句应使用虚拟语气；而 当 suggest 表示“暗示，表明”时，其后从句应使用陈述语气。 3○0动名词短语 buying a car 作主语。 3○1that is (＝that is to say)常作插入语，表示“也就是说”。 3○2concept/'k?nsept/n.概念；观念 3○3动名词短语 repeating old ideas 作主语。 3○4approach/?'pr??t?/n.方法，方式(常与介词 to 搭配) 3○5that 引导的从句作 realise 的宾语。it 是形式主语，真正的主语是后面的 how attractive ... the product is。 3○6humour/'hju?m?/n.幽默 humorous adj.幽默的 3○7as well as 既……又……，也 A as well as B 强调 A not only A but also B 强调 B 3○8动词不定式短语 to create ... look at 作表语。其中 that has never ... look at 是定语从句，修饰 something。 3○9try to do sth.设法/努力做某事 try doing sth.尝试做某事 [第 3～4 段译文] 然而即使这样，也经常不足以在现代城市中引起关注。由于广告业的繁荣，人们已习惯 于看到高水准的视觉设计。现代广告必须把最高水平的设计和产品理念相结合，以增强吸引 力，这样才能在激烈的竞争中胜出。例如，有些广告示意买车会使你自由。其实，他们是在 用自由的理念来卖车。其他常见的理念包括幸福、财富和成功。事实上，就广告界而言，这 些内容和广告本身一样陈旧。 对当今众多的广告商来说，重复旧的理念已不是有效的办法。他们意识到，与产品相关
联的理念多么吸引人并不重要——多数人知道广告的主要目的就是让消费者花钱。相反，这 些广告商寻找其他方式来使人们关注他们的产品。当今的顶级广告商认为。在现代广告中运 用既出其不意、新颖独特又幽默的创意很重要。他们的目的是要创造一种人们以前没有见过 的、赏心悦目的东西。他们希望这样做会使人们忘记有人正在向他们推销商品！
However, not all4○0 advertising○41 is about selling products and services for a profit. Some contemporary○42 advertisements mainly aim○43 to make contributions○44 to society. There are public advertisements which encourage citizens○45 to participate in improving their neighbourhood, protecting the environment, and helping other people. Over the last decade, the government has worked hard at using advertisements to educate the public on fighting AIDS, saving water, helping the poor, giving up smoking, etc. These advertisements have helped to increase public knowledge, which has made our society a better place for everyone.
4○0not all ...为部分否定，意为“并非所有的……都”。 完全否定常用 none, no one, nobody, nothing 等。 4○1advertising/’?dv?taIzI?/n.广告活动；广告业 4○2contemporary/k?n’temp r?ri/adj.当代的 4○3aim v．瞄准；力求达到；目的是 aim to do sth.意欲做某事 4○4contribution/?k?ntrI’bju?? n/n.贡献，捐助 make contributions to 对……做出贡献 4○5citizen/’sItIz n/n.公民；市民 [第 5 段译文] 然而，并非所有的广告都是为了赢利而推销商品和服务。一些当代广告的主要目的是为 社会做贡献。还有一些公益广告，它们鼓励公民参与改善社区、保护环境和帮助他人的活动。 在过去的 10 年中，政府努力用公益广告教育公众防范艾滋病、节约用水、扶贫、戒烟等。 这些公益广告有助于增加公众知识，使我们的社会对每个人来说更加美好。
Please match the words with their proper meanings. 1．blame A．雇用 2．attempt B．鼓励 3．attitude C．租用，雇用 4．pretend D．为……辩解；保卫
5．hire E．态度，看法 6．approach F．尊敬；尊重 7．analyse G．争论；理由 8．employ H．责怪，归咎于 9．contribution I．合适的 10．defend J．假装 11．argument K．分析 12．encouragement L．尝试，试图 13．respect M．方法，方式 14．advertise N．贡献，捐助 15．suitable O．为……做广告，登广告 1～5________ 6～10________ 11～15________ 答案：1～5 HLEJC 6～10 MKAND 11～15 GBFOI
1．What do you know about the paparazzi?
2．Can you think of some advertisements you have seen?
Where can you see or hear advertisements?
in the newspaper
on the Internet on the radio
in the street at bus/train/subway station
on the bus in the magazine
on the board, etc.
Fast?reading Read the text and then match the topics with each paragraph.
A．The combination of design and new ideas.
(2)Paragraph 2 B．The new and general need of modern ads.
(3)Paragraph 3 C．About classic ads.
(4)Paragraph 4 D．The reason of making people forget the existence of ads.
(5)Paragraph 5 E．About the public ads.
Choose the best answers according to the text.
1．According to the writer, advertisements like“Shanghai Sewing Machine” or
“Tsing Tao Beer Corporation” are ________.
2．Nowadays, advertisements with ________ are more attractive to people.
A．high standards of design
B．ideas linked to the products
C．high standards of design and ideas linked to the products
D．concepts of freedom, happiness, wealth and success
3．The top advertisers use humour as well as new and unusual ideas ________.
A．to create something new
B．to persuade people to buy their products
C．to make people notice their products
D．all of the above
4．Public advertisements are made to encourage people to ________.
A．make contributions to society
B．protect the environment
C．improve their neighborhood
D．help other people
5．What’s the main idea of the text?
A．How to make an attractive advertisement.
B．How to sell products with advertisements.
C．What a good advertisement is like.
D．Not all advertisements aim to make a profit.
Study?reading Analyze the following difficult sentences in the text. 1．For example, it could be“Shanghai Sewing Machine” or “Tsing Tao Beer Corporation”， and you would know what the companies sell, where they are located, and the brand names. [句式分析] 本句是由 and 连接的两个并列句。在后一个分句中，又包含着 what 引导 的宾语从句和 where 引导的宾语从句。 [尝试翻译] 例如，一则广告可能是“上海缝纫机厂”或“青岛啤酒厂”，你一看就知 道它们卖什么，位置在哪里，是什么牌子。 2．As present?day advertisers often have large budgets, a lot of money is spent on applying modern techniques of design to make these advertisements as visually attractive as possible. [句式分析]
[尝试翻译] 当今的广告商常常拥有大量的预算，所以他们把许多钱用在现代设计技术 上，以使这些广告在视觉上尽可能地吸引人。
The appeal of advertising to buying motives can have both negative and positive effects. Consumers may be convinced to buy a product of poor quality or high price because of an advertisement. For example, some advertisers have appealed to people’s desire for better fuel economy for their cars by advertising automotive products that improve gasoline mileage. Some of the products work. Others are worthless and a waste of consumers’ money.
Sometimes advertising is intentionally misleading. A few years ago, a brand of bread was offered to dieters with the message that there were fewer calories in every slice. It turned out that the bread was not dietetic, but just regular bread. There were fewer calories because it was sliced very thin, but there was the same number of calories in every loaf.
On the positive side, emotional appeals may respond to a consumer’s real concerns. Consider fire insurance. Fire insurance may be sold by appealing to fear of loss. But fear of loss is the real reason for fire insurance. The security of knowing that property is protected by insurance makes the purchase of fire insurance a worthwhile investment for most people. If consumers consider the quality of the insurance plans as well as the message in the ads, they will benefit from the advertising.
Each consumer must evaluate her or his own situation. Are the benefits of the product important enough to justify buying it? Advertising is intended to appeal to consumers. But it does not force them to buy the product. Consumers still control the final buying decision.
1．Advertising can persuade the consumer to buy worthless products by ________. A．stressing their high quality B．convincing him of their low price C．maintaining a balance between quality and price D．appealing to his buying motives 解析：选 D 推理判断题。从第一段看出，广告能说服人购买没有价值的产品就是因为 它能投其所好，抓住消费者的购买心理。故选 D。 2．The reason why the bread advertisement is misleading is that ________. A．thin slices of bread could contain more calories B．the loaf was cut into regular slices C．the bread was not genuine bread D．the total number of calories in the loaf remained the same 解析：选 D 细节理解题。文章第二段举了一个消费者被误导的例子。由本段最后一句 可知，面包广告的误导性在于整条面包的热量总数并未减少。 3．It can be inferred from the text that a smart consumer should ________. A．think carefully about the benefits described in the advertisements B．guard against the deceiving nature of advertisements C．be familiar with various advertising strategies D．avoid buying products that have strong emotional appeal 解析：选 A 推理判断题。广告的目的是吸引消费者，但不能强迫消费者购买，最终的 选择权还是在消费者手里。故选 A。 4．The text is mainly about ________.
A．how to make a wise buying decision B．ways to protect the interests of the consumer
C．the positive and negative aspects of advertising
D．the function of advertisements in promoting sales 解析：选 C 主旨大意题。文章的主旨就在开头处“The appeal of advertising to
buying motives can have both negative and positive effects.”故选 C。
London — The Edinburgh Festival, the biggest arts festival of its kind in the world, got under way in the Scotland capital on Sunday with a concert that included
Hector Berlioz’s “To Deum”， under the direction of
Christoph von Dohnanyi. The festival, which runs until August 31 this year,
includes as its high points Peter Stein’s staging of Wagner’
s “Parsifal”， with Claudio Abbado directing the Gustav Mahler youth orchestra (管弦乐队). The concert programme includes American pianist
Richard Goode，bass baritone Thomas Quash off and violinist Christian Tetzlaff. New
to the programmes this year will be 25 late evening classical music concerts.
Earlier this month, the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, the largest show?case in the world for performance art, officially got under way with theatre, dance, poetry and
music presentations (演出)． Many of the fringe artists, who can enter the fringe festival upon payment of
a small fee, were inspired this year by the events of September 11.
Thousands of people flock to Edinburgh from around the world during the festival,
which is over 50 years old. It aims to promote (促进) and encourage arts and to reflect international culture. It comprises (consists of) various dance, music, opera, and
theatre presentations taking place across the city during the three?week run.
语篇解读：本文为来自 London 的报道。报道了 The Edinburgh Festival 在 the Scotland
5．When did the Edinburgh Festival begin?
解析：选 A 推理判断题。从第二段第一句“The festival, which runs until August
31 this year”及文章最后 一句“during the three?week run”可推知此题答案为 A。 6．What did the Edinburgh Festival never have before?
A．Youth orchestra’s performances. B．Poetry and music presentations. C．Late evening classical music concerts. D．American pianists and violinists. 解析：选 C 细节理解题。从第二段最后一句“New to the programmers this year will be 25 late evening classical music concerts.”可知此题答案为 C。 7．The Edinburgh Festival ________. A．is the only festival of its kind in the world B．has lasted over 50 years C．began with a concert directed by Richard Goode D．is actually a dance festival 解析：选 B 细节理解题。根据文章最后一段的第一句“... the festival, which is over 50 years old.”可知此题答案为 B。 8．The Scottish people hold the Edinburgh Festival ________. A．to attract people across the world to their city B．to show their fringe arts only C．to attract famous artists to their city D．to promote and encourage art development 解析：选 D 细节理解题。根据文章最后一段第二句“It aims to promote (促进) and encourage arts and to reflect international culture.”可知此题答案为 D。
C The other day, I read a news report that an athlete consumed steroids (类固醇) in order to perform better at a sports event. I was really surprised. To be honest, I really loved that athlete before the news report. But after I learned he consumed steroids, I no longer liked him. Athletes that are in sports should not be allowed to consume steroids. Or if they are consuming steroids they should not be allowed to play sports. When athletes use steroids, they have the advantage of many things. For example, they have the advantage of doing better when doing their plays or when they are against their opponents (对手). Let’s say that two athletes are competing, one does consume steroids and the other doesn’t, who will win? It will more than likely be the athlete consuming steroids. This would be because steroids make people stronger and more energetic.
Steroid use should be avoided not only because it gives disadvantage to other athletes but also because it destroys the human body. Consuming steroids does not greatly change your body immediately. It does make you look built and strong, but its damages to your body will appear gradually.
In my opinion, steroids are not a good thing when it comes to sports. Steroids will not only be a disadvantage to those athletes who do not consume them but they will also have long?term negative effects on the human body. If an athlete was consuming steroids and had a great performance and later on the news found out that he was consuming steroids, it could affect the athlete’s career. Most of the fans will think that the athlete has a bad reputation and the athlete can even get kicked off the team.
9．What surprised the author? A．The athlete consumed steroids. B．People stopped liking that athlete. C．The news report lied about the athlete. D．The athlete performed better than before. 解析：选 A 细节理解题。由第一段“... I read a news report that an athlete consumed steroids (类固醇) in order to perform better at a sports event. I was really surprised.”可知，是那位运动员服用类固醇这件事让作者很惊讶。 10．According to the text, if an athlete consumes steroids, ________. A．he may look very strange B．it is unfair to his opponents C．he may perform worse than before D．it is harmful to him in the short run 解析：选 B 推理判断题。由第二段所举的例子可知，运动员服用类固醇后更易取胜， 因为类固醇会让人更强壮、精力更充沛。因此这对他的对手而言是不公平的。 11．In the author’s opinion, steroid use ________. A．isn’t always a bad thing B．is popular among athletes C．is supported by some fans D．may destroy the athlete’s career 解析：选 D 细节理解题。由最后一段“... later on the news found out that he was
consuming steroids, it could affect the athlete’s career.”可知应选 D。 12．What is the text mainly about? A．Why some athletes consume steroids. B．Why athletes should not consume steroids. C．Why steroids are harmful to the human body. D．Why some athletes perform better than others. 解析：选 B 主旨大意题。由文章内容可知，本文主要是围绕为什么运动员不应该服用
类固醇展开的。 Ⅱ.阅读七选五 It’s normal to wake briefly during the night. __1__ But if you’re waking up
during the night and having trouble falling back asleep, the following tips may help. Stay out of your head. The key to getting back to sleep is continuing to prepare
your body for sleep, so remain in bed in a relaxed position. Hard as it may be, try not to stress over the fact that you’re awake, because that very stress and anxiety encourage your body to stay awake. __2__
__3__ If you are finding it hard to fall back asleep, try a relaxation technique such as visualization (想象), or deep breathing, which can be done without even getting out of bed. Remind yourself that although they’re not a replacement for sleep, rest and relaxation still help refresh your body.
Do a quiet, non?stimulating activity. If you’ve been awake for more than 15 minutes, try getting out of bed and doing a quiet, non?stimulating activity, such as reading a book. Keep the lights dim so as not to think that it’s time to wake up. __4__ A light snack might relax you, but be careful not to eat so much that your body begins to expect a meal at that time of the day.
__5__ If you wake during the night feeling anxious about something, make a brief note of it on paper and delay worrying about it until the next day when you are fresh and it will be easier to resolve.
A．Make relaxation your goal, not sleep. B．Put off worries and troubles. C．Use a flashlight to go to the bathroom at night. D．In fact, a good sleeper won’t even remember it. E．Also avoid screens of any kind — computers, TVs, cellphones, iPads. F．You’ll be much more productive and creative after a good night’s rest. G．A good way to stay out of your head is to focus on the feeling in your body.
copyright ©right 2010-2020。