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2011年高考英语一轮复习 Unit1 Friendship(教师精析版)+(学生学习版)


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备战 2011 届高考英语一轮复习精品资料 必修一 Unit1 Friendship
、【高考名师导航 高考名师导航】 教师版 :一、【高考名师导航】
1.suffer 用作及物动词和不及物动词的用法是学生易混淆的考点之一。当 suffer 用作及物动词时,指“遭 罪”,不突出原因,指遭受一般的损害、痛苦;而作不及物动词时,通常与介词 from 连用,指“受----折磨”, 突出原因(即其后面得名词),指遭受长期的或习惯性的痛苦或困难。此考点仍可能是 2011 年高考命题的 侧重点。 2. situation 为新课标重点词汇,是历年高考中的常考词汇,其测试点不仅仅限于单项填空。通常考查 situation, condition 和 state 当“情形, 境况”讲时的用法区别。 此考点在 2011 年高考命题中仍会是考查的重点。 3.in order to, so as to, in order that 和 so that 的区别一直是高考的设题点。考生在复习备考中应该注意: (1)in order to 引导目的状语,位于句首或句中; (2)so as to 引导目的状语,只位于句中; (3)so that(in order that)引导的状语从句, 从句中的谓语动词常与 may, might, can, could 等情态动词连用。 此考点可以和倒 装句以及连词放在一起考查,在复习备考中要倍加重视。 4.go through, get through, look through 等带 through 类的动介型短语之间的意思辨析和多层意思, 一直是 高考关注的焦点,一定要掌握,明确其使用方法,考生要根据语境判断区分和判断。近三年的全国各地高 考题都有对此类考点的考查,2011 年仍作为复习的重点。 5.强调句式在近三年的高考题中均有考查,考生做此类题时,要注意强调句中的变化和 it 句型的辨析。 如:It be/has been---since; It be/will be—before; It be----when 等句型。2011 年仍可能是高考设题的重点。 5.with 的复合结构是历年来高考的重点,考生要注意宾语补足语的非谓语动词形式,尤其是现在分词和 过去分词的选择和使用。07 年山东卷、安徽卷、福建卷和重庆卷均对 with 符合结构进行了考查。11 年高考 中可能仍要继续关注此考点。 6. “It/That /This is /was the first(second,third…)time+that 从句(现在完成时/过去完成时)”是一个重要的 句型,其从句的变化是高考考查的重点,2009 年陕西卷和辽宁卷都考查了该句型。 2011 年仍可以作为复 习的重点

二、【单元要点预览】 、【单元要点预览】 单元要点预览

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 1. ignore / neglect / overlook 词语 辨析 2. cheat / fool 3. calm / quiet / silent / still 4. join / join in / take part in / attend 1. ignore vt. 忽视 词形 2. dusk n. 黄昏; 傍晚 词 汇 部 分 重点 3. settle vt. 安家; 定居;停留 vt. 使定居,安家;解决 单词 4. suffer vt.& vi.遭受;忍受;经历 5. situation [C]情形;境遇;(建筑物的)位置。 1. go through 经历;经受 重点 2. get along with 与某人相处;(工作的) 进展 词组 3. in order to 为了…… 1. Mother asked her if / whether she was very hot with so many clothes on. 重点句子 2. I don’t set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do … 3. … it was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face.强调句 重点语法 直接引语和间接引语 1. upset adj. 心烦意乱的,不安的;不适的 vt. (upset, upset) 2. concern v. 担忧; 涉及; 关系到 n. 担心,关注;(利害)关系 变化 3. add v. 添加; 增加 addition n. 加, 附加 additional adj. 添加的;附加的 dusky adj.昏暗的; 黑暗的 ignorance n. 无知 ignorant adj.无知的

三、【词语辨析】
1. ignore / neglect / overlook 【解释】 解释】 ignore neglect overlook 通常指有意不顾,或不理会显而易见的事物。 侧重指有意的忽略或忽视,也可指粗心与疏忽。 指因匆忙而疏忽或视而不见。

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 练习】
1 ○We could not afford to _________ such a serious offence.

2). He utterly ________ my warnings and met with an accident. 3). Don’t ________ paying him a visit now and then. 【答案】 答案】 1). overlooked 2). ignored 3). neglect

2. cheat / fool 【解释】 解释】 cheat 主要指盈利的买卖中或游戏竞赛中欺骗人,骗取人的钱等。 fool “愚弄”,指利用人缺乏常识,心理脆弱来欺骗人。 【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 练习】 1). You may get _________ in that shop. 2). He can’t __________ her. She sees through him every time. 【答案】 答案】 1). cheated 2). fool

3. calm / quiet / silent / still 【解释】 解释】 calm quiet 静。 silent still 表“沉默”、“不发言”、“不说话”,常常表示人不爱说话,沉默无语。 “不动的”,指人时侧重一动不动,;指物时指完全没有声音,突出静止不动。 天气、水、水面(表风平浪静);(指人时)表示镇定自如。 表“宁静”、“安静”、“寂静”,侧重没有响声,没有噪音和没有动静。指人时侧重性格温和,文

【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 练习】 1). Please stand __________ while I take your photo. 2). Why do you keep __________? 3). Everything was ___________. 4). He remained ___________ in the face of the enemy. 【答案】 1). still 答案】 2). silent 3). quiet 4). calm

4. join / join in / take part in / attend

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 【解释】 join join in 表示参加组织、党派、团体、军队、俱乐部等 表示参加游戏、活动等;join sb. (in sth.) 表(和某人一起)做某事

take part in 表示参与、参加讨论、游行、比赛、战斗、斗争、运动、庆祝等 attend 主要指出席、参加会议、婚礼;听讲座、课、报告、音乐会等;上学、教堂

【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 练习】 1). Can I ___________ the game? 2). Did you ____________ the fighting? 3). He __________ the army last year. 4). A lot of people __________ her wedding. 【答案】 1). join in 答案】 2). take part in 3). joined 4)attended

四、【词性变化】 、【词性变化】 词性变化
1. ignore vt. 忽视 2. dusk n. 黄昏; 傍晚 3. add v. 添加; 增加 ignorance n. 无知 dusky. adj.昏暗的; 黑暗的 addition n. 加, 附加 additional adj. 添加的;附加的 ignorant adj.无知的

【练习】用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空 练习】 1) 2) I can't __________ his rudeness any longer. (ignore) To say you were ________ of the rules is no excuse. ( ignore)

3) We are in complete ___________ of your plans. (ignore) 4) There is ____________ light inside the cave. (dusk) 5) The street lights come on at ____________ and go off at dawn. (dusk ) 6) Many words have been ____________ to this edition of the dictionary. (add) 7) 8) They've just had an ____________ to the family. (add) There are _____________ charges. (add) 2)ignorant 3) ignorance 7) addition 4) dusky 8) additional

【答案】 1) ignore 答案】 5) dusk

6) added

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重点词汇】 五、【重点词汇】
upset vt.扰乱;使不适;使心烦 vi.翻倒,倾覆 adj.心烦意乱的;不适的;不舒服的 n.烦闷;混乱 ①…if you do anything to upset my husband,out you go!如果你做出任何使我丈夫心烦的事情,请出去! ②The boat will upset if a storm breaks.如遇暴风雨,这条船会翻掉。 ③She was very upset when he ran away.She’s very fond of him,you know.他跑开的时候她非常不安。你知 道,她很喜欢他。 归纳拓展 be upset by… 被…… 打乱 upset oneself about sth 为某事烦恼 ignore vt.不理睬;忽视 ①My advice was completely ignored.我的建议完全被忽视了。 ②I can’t ignore his rudeness any longer.他粗暴无礼,我再也不能不闻不问了。(选自《牛津高阶词典》) 特别提示 ignore 强调(主观上)故意疏忽,拒绝注意。 归纳拓展 ignorant adj.无知的;不知道的 ignorantly adv.无知地 ignorance n.无知 辨析活用 ignore/neglect (1)ignore 是”假装不知,故意不理”的意思,后接名词,为及物动词。如: She saw him coming but she ignored him.她看见他走来,却假装没看到他。 (2)neglect 后可接名词或动名词,也可接不定式。接名词、动名词时,表示”不注意”;接不定式时,表示” 忘记”。neglect 作及物、不及物动词皆可。如:He has neglected reading.他忽视了阅读。

concern

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 vt.涉及;关系到 n.(利害)关系;关心;关注 ①This concerns us deeply.这事与我们关系极大。 ②Parents are concerned with children’s subject selection.父母对孩子们的学科选择很关心。 ③It received a cautious welcome from some in the arts world,who expressed concern that the tickets may not reach the most under privileged.它受到了艺术界的一些人谨慎的欢迎,这些人表达了他们的担心:贫困的人 们可能难以收到这些(戏)票。 归纳拓展 归纳拓展 as / so far as … be concerned be concerned about 关心 be concerned at / over sth. 为某事忧虑 be concerned in sth. 牵涉到,与……有关,参与 迁移应用 关于;至于;就……而言

settle vt.定居;安排;解决;决定;支付;使平静 vi.安家,定居;停留;下陷;沉淀;决定;澄清 ①The new law is partly intended to settle the problem of foreign lorry drivers ignoring limits on weight and hours at the wheel.制定新法律一定程度上是为了解决外国货车司机忽视载重量和行车时间限制的问题。 ②Donna did not dare settle herself too comfortably into her seat.in case she fell asleep.Donna 不敢使自己在椅 子里坐得太舒服,以防睡着了。 特别提示 因为 settle 可作及物动词,故有 settle sb 结构,其被动形式为 sb is settled,即 settle 与 sb 之间存在动宾关系, 所以会见到 settled 作定语、状语或补语的现象。如:

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 You will find most of the population settled in the south.你会发现大部分人都住在南边。 归纳拓展 settlement n.定居,定居点 settle down 稳定下来,定居下来 settle down to do…开始认真对待 settle a question/an argument 解决问题/争端

suffer vt.遭受,经历,忍受;宽恕;允许,容忍扰.受痛苦;受损害 ①That’s because he doesn’t know how much I’ve suffered.”she answered quietly,turning away to hide the tears on her face.”那是因为他不知道我受了多少罪。”她轻声回答,转过身藏起脸上的泪水。 ②People obviously have a need for the resources we gain from cutting trees but we will suffer much more than we will benefit.很明显,人们需要通过砍伐树木获得资源,但是(从长远看来)我们所遭受的损失要远大于我们 的收益。 归纳拓展 suffer for 为……而受苦 suffer from 患……病;受……苦 【典型例题】 典型例题】 The plant can’t ____the cold weather, so the researchers trying to deal with it. A. suffer for B. Suffer C. long for D. suffer from

【答案】B 考查 suffer 与 suffer from 得区别。 答案】 【解析】区分 suffer 及物动词和不及物动词的意思即可。 解析】 situation situation [C]情形;境遇;(建筑物的)位置。 How do you analyze the present economic situation? 您怎样分析当前的经济局势? I’m now in a difficult situation.我现在处境困难 The house has a fine situation.这所房子的地点很好

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 归纳拓展 situation 情况,境况, condition 条件, state 状态,position 位置,场所。 【典型例题】 典型例题】 You could get into a______where you have to decide immediately. A. condition B.position C. state D.situation

【答案】D 句意“你可能遇上一种情况,使你不得不立刻作出决定”。where 引导的是定语从句。 答案】 【解析】此处分析句子结构,这种情况在后面的从句中作状语即可突破 解析】

六、【重点词组】 、【重点词组】 重点词组
go through 通过(某场所),经过;完成;穿过;经历(困难等);遭受;仔细检查 ④We went through the back door and into the big room where I had been before.我们穿过后门,进入了我曾经 去过的那个大房间。 ②She struggled to get the boots off and went through the joyless task of putting them on again.她竭力脱下(穿错 了的)靴子,然后重新帮我穿上,以完成这项无趣的任务。 ③The country has gone through too many wars.这个国家经历了太多的战争。(选自《朗文词典》) 归纳拓展 go on(doing/to do sth)继续 go against 违背 go without 没有……也行,将就 go in for 赞成,支持,参加 go about 着手做;承担 get through 通过,穿过;(工作)完成;(测验)合格;接通电话 look through 浏览,透过……看 pass through 穿过,经历 【典型例题】 典型例题】 Before they are put into practice, we have to____all the details of the project plan. A. go through B. cut through C. get through D. put through

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 【答案】A 考查动词短语辨析。cut through 抄近路走过,刺穿;get through 通过,经过,到 答案】 达,打电话接通;put through 使穿过,使从事,使经历,接通均不和句意 【解析】牢记短语意思,按照句意排除 解析】

in order to 为了 Since women originally spent their days with the other women and children in the group, they developed the ability to communicate successfully in order to maintain relationships.由于妇女最初经常和群里其他的妇女和孩子们 在一起,她们为了维护人际关系就逐渐培养了成功交流的能力。 特别提示 in order to 的否定形式为 in order not to。 归纳拓展 in order that=so that 后跟从句,表目的 so…that…”如此……以致……”,引导结果状语从句。 辨析活用 in order to/so as to 两者意思相似,但 in order to 可以用在句首或句中,而 so as to 只能用在句中。如: ①He got up very early in order to/so as to catch the first bus. ②In order to catch the first bus,he got up very early.(此时不能用 so as to) 特别提示 (1)“in order to do…”的否定结构为:“in order not to do...”,如: Mr. Smith didn’t take the key with him, he wanted to get into the room through the window in order not to wake so up his wife.史密斯先生没带钥匙,所以他想从窗户进去,以免吵醒他的妻子。 (2)只有当主从句的主语相同时,so that 从句或 in order that 从句才可以简化为 so as to 或 in order to 引导的目 的状语。inorder to 在句中的位置可前可后,而 SO as to 一般不放句首。如: We started early so that we could catch the first train.:Westarted early so as to/in order to catch the first train.我 们早早地出发,以便可以赶上第一班火车。

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get along(with) 与……相处;进展 ①The main purpose of the text is to tell parents how to get along with a teenager.这篇文章的主要目的是告诉父 母们如何和青少年相处。 ②How is your work getting along?你的工作进展如何? 归纳拓展 get along/on well/nicely with sb/sth 与某人相处得好,某事进展得很好/很顺利 get about/around 四处走动;传播;流传 get over 解决;克服;控制 get across(使)被理解;(使)被接受 特别提示 表示”进展,进行”时,get along=get on,二者都是短语动词,其中 along 和 on 是副词,其后不能直接加宾语。

七、【必备句型剖析】
happen to do/be 碰巧;恰好 ①Another time five months ago,I happened to be upstairs at dusk when the window had to be shut.五个月前有 一次黄昏该关窗户时,我恰好在楼上。 ②Just at that moment a bank clerk put an old, unopened letter on Mr Lorry’S desk, Darnay happened to see the and name on it…就在这时,一位银行职员把一封旧的,没有打开的信放在了劳里先生的桌子上,Darnay 碰巧看 到了上面的名字……(选自《双城记》) 特别提示 “happen to do/be”句型, 可根据时间关系选用 to do sth, have done sth, be doing sth。 to to 其否定式可在 happen 前加 don’t 或 didn’t,也可在不定式前加 not,表示”碰巧不……”。如:

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 He happened not to be in the office when I got there.=He didn’t happen to be in the office when I got there.我到那里时他恰好不在办公室。 归纳拓展 It(so)happened that...碰巧…… as it happens 令人惊奇的是;恰恰 ①It so happened that the famous actor was her brother.碰巧那位著名演员是她哥哥。 ②As it happened,1 was there when the fire started.火灾发生时我碰巧在那里。 happen to do/be 与 happen to sb (1)happen to do/be(to 为动词不定式符号)表示”碰巧,恰好”,后接动词原形。 Someone in the ticket office happened to notice her.售票处正好有人注意到了她。 (2)happen to sb(to 为介词)表示”(某人)发生了某事”。如: A bad accident happened to the family.那家发生了不幸。

Mom asked her if (whether) she was very hot with so many clothes on. 妈妈问她穿那么多衣服是不是很热。 [解释] with 复合结构: with + 宾语+ v. –ing / v. –ed / to do / adj. / adv. / prep. phrases 由“介词 with+宾语+宾语补足语” 构成的复合结构在句中通常作为状语,表示背景情况,为方式,原因或条 件等,另外,该结构也可以作为定语使用。下面简述几种情况: 1) 如果在该结构中的分词表示的动作是由前面的名词或代词发出的,构成主谓关系,该分词用现在分词形 式。 2) 如果分词表示的动作与前面的名词或代词构成动宾关系,该分词用过去分词形式。 3) 宾语补足语也可以使用介词短语,形容词或副词来充当。 [典例] 1.with + 宾语 + 副词,如: The square looks more beautiful with all the lights on (= while all the lights are on). With his parents away (= As his parents are away), Tom becomes more naughty. 2.with + 宾语 + 介词短语,如:

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 The teacher came in with a book in his hand (= while a book was in his hand). The girl looked up with tears in her eyes (= while tears were in her eyes). 3.with + 宾语 + 现在分词,如: With summer corning (= As summer is corning), the weather is becoming hotter and hotter. With the teacher standing beside (= As the teacher was standing beside),she felt a bit uneasy. 4.with + 宾语 + 过去分词,如: With the work done (= As the work had been done), she felt greatly relieved. With his hair cut (= As his hair has been cut), he looks much younger. 5.with + 宾语 + 不定式,如: With her to go with us (= As she will go with us), we're sure to have a pleasant journey. With Mr Smith to teach them English next term (= As Mr Smith will teach them English) , they will be greatly improved in spoken English.

I don’t set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do … 我不愿意像大多数人那样在日记中记流水 帐…… [解释] as 引导的从句为比较状语从句,意为“像大多数人那么做”。 as 用作连词,可引导下列状语从句: 1). 引导状语从句,强调主句谓语动词与从句谓语的同时性 As he grew older he lost interest in everything except gardening. 随着他年纪越来越大,他失去了对所有事物的兴趣,除了园艺。 2). 引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管,虽然,即使”(从句需倒装) Cold as it is, my brother wears only a shirt. 尽管天气冷,我哥只穿了一件衬衫。 3). 引导方式状语从句,表示“以……方式”。 Why didn’t you take the medicine as I told you to? 为什么你没有按我说的服这药? 4). 引导原因状语从句 (=since; because),“由于,因为”。 As you were not there, I left a message. 因为当时你不在那,所以我给你留了便条。 5) 引导比较状语从句。 She is as tall as you. 她和你一样高。

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 [练习] 中译英 1. 随着年龄的增长我越来越对科学感兴趣。 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 由于雨下得很大,你最好穿上雨衣。 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 他学习很努力,但考试还是没及格。 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 【答案】 1. As l get older l get more interested in science. 答案】 2. As it is raining hard,you'd better put on your raincoat. 3. Hard as he worked,he failed in the exam.

It’s the+序数词+time(that)… ……it was the first time in a year and half that I’d seen the night face to face. 该句型为:It(That/This)is/was the first(second,third...)time+that 从句(现在完成时/过去完成时),表示” 这(那)是某人第几次做……”。 (1)在该句型中 it 可换成 this 或 that,that 从句中多用完成时态。 This was the last time I had asked you for money.这是我最后…一次问你要钱。 (2)该句型的反意疑问句式为 isn’t it 或 wash’t it. ①This is the first time that you have been here,isn’t it?这是你第一次来这里,对吗? ②It was the first time I had heard her sing,wasn’t it?这是我第一次听她唱歌,不是吗? (3)当主句为一般现在时时, 从句要用现在完成时, 当主句为一般过去时时, 从句用过去完成时。 was the last It time that I had taken the plane.那是我最后一次乘坐飞机。 归纳拓展 It’s time+that 从句,从句中的谓语动词有两种形式,或者用动词的过去式(be 用 were),或者用”should+动 词原形(should 不能省略)”。此句型为虚拟语气,表示”某人该做某事了”,含有该事早该去做而实际上却未 做,现在去做似乎都为时已晚的意思。 ①It’s time(that)we went to bed.我们该去睡觉了。

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 ②It’s high time that the article were published.发表这篇文章是适时的。 ③It’s time you should do cleaning.你该去打扫卫生了。

语法考点归纳】 八、【语法考点归纳】
直接引语和间接引语(Ⅰ) 一、基本定义 直接引语:直接引用别人的原话,并在原话前后加引号。 间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的话,多数以宾语从句的形式构成。 二、陈述句和疑问句中直接引语和间接引语间的转换 1.直接引语变为间接引语时,不同种类的句子有着不同的变化方式。陈述句、一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为 间接引语时都转化成了宾语从句,宾语从句必须用陈述语序。 直接引语 陈述句 He said,“I’m from America. ” 一般疑问句 He said,“Are you interested in English?” 间接引语 用连词 that 引导,that 可以省略。 He said(that)he was from America. 用连词 if 或 whether 引导,said 改为 asked, 其后还可以加 sb. ,句子用陈述语序。 He asked me if/whether I was interested in English. 特殊疑问句 “What do you want?”he asked me. 用原来的特殊疑问词引导,句子用陈述语序。 He asked me what I wanted.

2.直接引语变为间接引语时,从句中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等都要作相应的变 化。 (1)人称的变化

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 在人称变化方面,汉语和英语有相似之处,因此在转换时,要特别注意句子的意义。 记忆要诀 直接引语转换为间接引语时人称代词转换规律 一主,二宾,三不变。 说明:一主指“第一人称看主语”。直接引语改为间接引语时,第一人称的代词和物主代词,必须与主句 . . 中的主语的人称一致,在数上不发生变化。二宾指“第二人称看宾语”。第二人称的代词和物主代词变化时, . . 必须随主句中的宾语,如果没有宾语可以加个宾语(如 me 或 us) 。三不变指“第三人称不发生变化”。第三 . . . 人称的代词和物主代词在变为间接引语时,一律不变。 “一主”:He/I/You said to Rose,“I can help them.” →He/I/You told Rose that he/I/you could help them. “二宾”:He said to her/me/you,“You can help them.” →He said to her/me/you that she/I/you could help them. “三不变”:He said to Rose,“She/He/They could help them.” →He told Rose that she/he/they could help them. (2)时态的变化 直接引语 一般现在时 He said,“I’m afraid I can’t finish the work before dark.” 现在进行时 He said,“I’m using the knife.” 一般将来时 She said,“I’ll do it after class.” 一般过去时 He said,“I came to help you.” 现在完成时 She said,“I’ve not heard from him since May.” 一般过去时 He said(that)he was afraid he couldn’t finish the work before dark. 过去进行时 He said that he was using the knife. 过去将来时 She said(that)she would do it after class. 过去完成时 He said(that)he had come to help me. 过去完成时 She said (that) had not heard from him since she May. 过去完成时 过去完成时 间接引语

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 He said,“I had finished my homework before supper.” 注意: 直接引语转换为间接引语时,总的原则是向过去推一个时态。 (3)时态保持不变的情况 ①主句谓语动词为现在时,间接引语中的动词可保持原来时态。 如:He says,“I had a good time last night.”他说:“我昨晚过得很愉快。” →He says he had a good time the night before.他说他昨晚过得很愉快。 ②过去进行时、过去完成时不变。 如:“American Indians had already been in America by that time,” the historian said. 那个历史学家说:“美洲印第安人那时已经存在于美洲大陆上了。” →The historian said American Indians had already been in America by that time. 那个历史学家说美洲印第安人那时已经存在于美洲大陆了。 ③间接引语中动词所表示的情况说话时仍继续进行或存在,其时态可以不变。 如:“I am eight,” the boy said. 那个男孩说:“我 8 岁。” →The boy said that he is eight.(现在还是 8 岁) 那个男孩说他 8 岁。 ④直接引语中若有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。 如:I said,“I was born in March,1977.” 我说:“我生于 1977 年 3 月。” →I said I was born in March,1977. 我说我生于 1977 年 3 月。 ⑤直接引语表达的是习惯性动作、客观事实或科学真理时,变为间接引语时态不变。 如:“The moon moves around the earth,” the astronomer said. 天文学家说:“月亮绕着地球转。” →The astronomer said the moon moves around the earth. 天文学家说月亮绕着地球转。 He said(that)he had finished his homework before supper.

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 (4)指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化速记表 项目 指示代词 this these now 时间状语 today this week(month,etc. ) yesterday last week(month,etc. ) three days(a year,etc. )ago tomorrow next week(month,etc. ) 地点状语 动词 here come 直接引语 that those then that day that week(month,etc.) the day before the week(month,etc.)before three days(a year,etc.)before the next(following)day the next(following)week(month,etc.) there go 间接引语

注意:如果在当地转述,here 不必改为 there;come 也不必改为 go。 陈述句和疑问句中直接引语变间接引语的方法 记忆要诀 陈述句和疑问句中直接引语变间接引语的方法 1.直接引语是陈述句变间接引语的方法——去掉引号加 “that”,人称变化要灵活,时态向后退一步,状语变 化背表格。 2.直接引语是一般疑问句变间接引语的方法——去掉引号加 “if” (whether),陈述语序要记住,时态、人称和 状语,小心变化别马虎。 3.直接引语是特殊疑问句变间接引语的方法——直接引语去引号,陈述语序莫忘掉。小心助动词,去它最重 要。 4.直接引语是感叹句变间接引语的方法——去掉引号保留 how/what;去掉引号加 “that”,感叹语句改陈述。 直接引语与间接引语 当我们引用别人的话时, 如果引用的是别人的原话, 那么被引用的部分就叫直接引语, 一般用””引起来。 如果我们把意思转述出来,那么这样的话就叫间接引语。间接引语在多数情况下都构成一个宾语从句。纵 观近几年的高考试题,对于间接引语的考查一般集中在时态、人称和语序上。此外,从阅卷老师反馈的信

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 息来看,书面表达中经常出现这方面的失分。 如何把一个直接引语变成间接引语呢? 考点 1 人称的变化 1.“一随主”。直接引语中的第一人称在变为问接引语后,应与主句中主语的人称一致。 He says.”I have finished my homework.”=He says that he has finished his homework. 2.“二随宾”。若直接引语中有第二人称,变间接引语时,应与主句中的宾语的人称一致。 She said to Tom.”Can you help me?”=She asked Tom if/whether he could help her. 3.”三不变”。直接引语中的第三人称变间接引语时不需要变化。如: He said to me,“Tom left your book in your room.”= He told me that Tom had left my book in my room. 考点 2 时态的变化 主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,直接引语变间接引语时,从句的谓语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化。 一般现在时→一般过去时;现在进行时→过去进行时 完成时 过去完成时不变;一般将来时→过去将来时 ①He said to me,“1 wrote to my father yesterday.”→He told me that he had written to his father the day before. ②The teacher asked, “Are you waiting for the bus?”。 →The teacher asked (me)if 1 was waiting for the bus. 特别提示 注意时态的”五不变” (1)直接引语如果是客观真理、谚(习)语,变间接引语时时态 不变。如: ①The teacher said,“The earth goes around the sun.→Theteacher said that the earth goes around the sun. ②My father said,“Practice makes perfect.→My father said practice makes perfect. (2)直接引语中被引述的部分是反复出现的、习惯性的动作或说话时情况仍然存在,变间接引语时,时 态保持不变。如: ①The boy said to us, usually get up at six every day. “I →The boy told us he usually gets up at six every day. ②He said,“We are still students.”→He said they are still students. (3)直接引语中如果有明确的表示过去的时间状语,时态不变。如: ①He said to me,“1 was born in 1978.”→He told me that he was born in 1978. 现在完成时→过去完成时;一般过去时→过去

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 ②The engineer said,“1 was at college in 1967.→The engineer said he was at college in 1967. (4)直接引语中凡有 when,since,while 引导的从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句时态,从句的时 态不变。如: ④M r Green said to them,“Joe told me all about his story when he asked for a job.”→Mr.Green told them Joe had told him all about his story when he asked for a iob. ②He said,“I have studied English since 1 was a boy.”→He said he had studied English since he was a boy. ⑧She said,”I read the book while 1 was waiting for a bus.”→She said she had read the book while she was waiting for a bus. (5)如果直接引语中引述部分含有 insist,suggest,demand 等引导的虚拟宾语从句,变间接引语时,引 语中的主从句时态都不变。如: ①He said,”We insisted that she start immediatelv.→He said they(had)insisted that she start immediatelv. ②She said,”He denmnded that the 如 rl leave at once.”→She said he demanded that the girl leave at once. (6)如果说话人转述自己的话,人称可不变。如: I said to him,“I have finished it.”→I told him I had finished it. 考点 3 指示代词、时间状语各动词的变化 this→that these→those now→then today→that day ago→before yesterday→the day betore

tomorrow→the next/following day the day before yesterday→two days before here→there come→go 如: ①John said to me,“I told her all about it three days ag0.→John said to me that he had told her all about it three davs before. ②Which one do you like best here?”he asked her.→He asked her which one she liked best there. 特别提示 如果就在当地转述,here 不必变为 there,come 不必改为 go,如果就在当天转述,则 today,yesterday,

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 tomorrow 等状语也不必变化。如: She said to us,I’11 come here tomorrow.”→She told us she would come here tomorrow. 考点 4 语序的变化 1.引语是陈述句,语序不变,如: They said,”We will go there by bus.”→They said they would go there by bus. 2.引语是一般疑问句,则须先加上 if 或 whether,然后变成陈述句语序,如: She said to me,“Are you interested in science?” →She asked me if 1 was interested in science. 3.引语是特殊疑问句,疑问词不变,把其后的句子变成陈述句语序。 He asked,“Who is the man near the window?” →He asked who was the man near the window. 4.引语中的反意疑问句改成由 whether/if 引导的从句。

考点 5 当直接引语是祈使句时,变成间接引语的方法 若直接引语是表示命令、请求等的祈使句,其间接引语须用复合结构,即”动词+宾语+to do…”;引述 动词常根据情况选用 advise,ask,beg,command,order,tell,request 等。若祈使句为否定句,则须在不 定式符号前加否定词 never 或 not。 He said to the girl,“Do it at once.”→He told the girl to do it at once. She said to me,“don’t smoke in the classroom:”→She told me not to smoke in the classroom. 特别提示 (1)若直接引语是表示建议的祈使句或疑问句,其间接引语通常用 suggest doing sth/suggest+that 从句表 示。 Tom said,“Let’s go to the movies this afternoon.”→Tom suggested that they(should)go to the movies that afternoon. 或 Tom suggested going to the movies that afternoon. (2)如果直接引语是感叹句,变间接引语时语序可变可不变。 He said,“How happy I am!” →He said that he was very happy.或 He said how happy he was. (3)直接引语为 Let’s 开头的祈使句改成 that 引导的宾语从句 I said to him,“Let’s start at once.”→I suggested to him that we(should)start at once.

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流

学生版: 学生版:一、【高考名师导航】 高考名师导航】
1.suffer 用作及物动词和不及物动词的用法是学生易混淆的考点之一。当 suffer 用作及物动词时,指“遭 罪”,不突出原因,指遭受一般的损害、痛苦;而作不及物动词时,通常与介词 from 连用,指“受----折磨”, 突出原因(即其后面得名词),指遭受长期的或习惯性的痛苦或困难。此考点仍可能是 2011 年高考命题的 侧重点。 2. situation 为新课标重点词汇,是历年高考中的常考词汇,其测试点不仅仅限于单项填空。通常考查 situation, condition 和 state 当“情形, 境况”讲时的用法区别。 此考点在 2011 年高考命题中仍会是考查的重点。 3.in order to, so as to, in order that 和 so that 的区别一直是高考的设题点。考生在复习备考中应该注意: (1)in order to 引导目的状语,位于句首或句中; (2)so as to 引导目的状语,只位于句中; (3)so that(in order that)引导的状语从句, 从句中的谓语动词常与 may, might, can, could 等情态动词连用。 此考点可以和倒 装句以及连词放在一起考查,在复习备考中要倍加重视。 4.go through, get through, look through 等带 through 类的动介型短语之间的意思辨析和多层意思, 一直是 高考关注的焦点,一定要掌握,明确其使用方法,考生要根据语境判断区分和判断。近三年的全国各地高 考题都有对此类考点的考查,2011 年仍作为复习的重点。 5.强调句式在近三年的高考题中均有考查,考生做此类题时,要注意强调句中的变化和 it 句型的辨析。 如:It be/has been---since; It be/will be—before; It be----when 等句型。2011 年仍可能是高考设题的重点。 5.with 的复合结构是历年来高考的重点,考生要注意宾语补足语的非谓语动词形式,尤其是现在分词和 过去分词的选择和使用。07 年山东卷、安徽卷、福建卷和重庆卷均对 with 符合结构进行了考查。11 年高考 中可能仍要继续关注此考点。 6. “It/That /This is /was the first(second,third…)time+that 从句(现在完成时/过去完成时)”是一个重要的 句型,其从句的变化是高考考查的重点,2009 年陕西卷和辽宁卷都考查了该句型。 2011 年仍可以作为复 习的重点

二、【单元要点预览】 单元要点预览】
词 汇 部 分 词语 辨析 1. ignore / neglect / overlook 2. cheat / fool 3. calm / quiet / silent / still 4. join / join in / take part in / attend

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 1. ignore vt. 忽视 词形 2. dusk n. 黄昏; 傍晚 变化 3. add v. 添加; 增加 addition n. 加, 附加 additional adj. 添加的;附加的 1. upset adj. 心烦意乱的,不安的;不适的 vt. (upset, upset) 2. concern v. 担忧; 涉及; 关系到 n. 担心,关注;(利害)关系 重点 3. settle vt. 安家; 定居;停留 vt. 使定居,安家;解决 单词 4. suffer vt.& vi.遭受;忍受;经历 5. situation [C]情形;境遇;(建筑物的)位置。 4. go through 经历;经受 重点 5. get along with 与某人相处;(工作的) 进展 词组 6. in order to 为了…… 1. Mother asked her if / whether she was very hot with so many clothes on. 重点句子 2. I don’t set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do … 3. … it was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face.强调句 重点语法 直接引语和间接引语 dusky adj.昏暗的; 黑暗的 ignorance n. 无知 ignorant adj.无知的

三、【词语辨析】
1. ignore / neglect / overlook 【解释】 解释】 ignore neglect overlook 通常指有意不顾,或不理会显而易见的事物。 侧重指有意的忽略或忽视,也可指粗心与疏忽。 指因匆忙而疏忽或视而不见。

【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 练习】
1 ○We could not afford to _________ such a serious offence.

2). He utterly ________ my warnings and met with an accident. 3). Don’t ________ paying him a visit now and then. 【答案】 答案】 1). overlooked 2). ignored 3). neglect

2. cheat / fool

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 【解释】 解释】 cheat 主要指盈利的买卖中或游戏竞赛中欺骗人,骗取人的钱等。 fool “愚弄”,指利用人缺乏常识,心理脆弱来欺骗人。 【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 练习】 1). You may get _________ in that shop. 2). He can’t __________ her. She sees through him every time.

3. calm / quiet / silent / still 【解释】 解释】 calm quiet 静。 silent still 表“沉默”、“不发言”、“不说话”,常常表示人不爱说话,沉默无语。 “不动的”,指人时侧重一动不动,;指物时指完全没有声音,突出静止不动。 天气、水、水面(表风平浪静);(指人时)表示镇定自如。 表“宁静”、“安静”、“寂静”,侧重没有响声,没有噪音和没有动静。指人时侧重性格温和,文

【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 练习】 1). Please stand __________ while I take your photo. 2). Why do you keep __________? 3). Everything was ___________. 4). He remained ___________ in the face of the enemy.

4. join / join in / take part in / attend 【解释】 解释】 join join in 表示参加组织、党派、团体、军队、俱乐部等 表示参加游戏、活动等;join sb. (in sth.) 表(和某人一起)做某事

take part in 表示参与、参加讨论、游行、比赛、战斗、斗争、运动、庆祝等 attend 主要指出席、参加会议、婚礼;听讲座、课、报告、音乐会等;上学、教堂

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式填空 练习】 1). Can I ___________ the game? 2). Did you ____________ the fighting? 3). He __________ the army last year. 4). A lot of people __________ her wedding.

四、【词性变化】 词性变化】
1. ignore vt. 忽视 2. dusk n. 黄昏; 傍晚 3. add v. 添加; 增加 ignorance n. 无知 dusky. adj.昏暗的; 黑暗的 addition n. 加, 附加 additional adj. 添加的;附加的 ignorant adj.无知的

【练习】用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空 练习】 1) 2) I can't __________ his rudeness any longer. (ignore) To say you were ________ of the rules is no excuse. ( ignore)

3) We are in complete ___________ of your plans. (ignore) 4) There is ____________ light inside the cave. (dusk) 5) The street lights come on at ____________ and go off at dawn. (dusk ) 6) Many words have been ____________ to this edition of the dictionary. (add) 7) 8) They've just had an ____________ to the family. (add) There are _____________ charges. (add)

重点词汇】 五、【重点词汇】
upset vt.扰乱;使不适;使心烦 vi.翻倒,倾覆 adj.心烦意乱的;不适的;不舒服的 n.烦闷;混乱 ①…if you do anything to upset my husband,out you go!如果你做出任何使我丈夫心烦的事情,请出去! ②The boat will upset if a storm breaks.如遇暴风雨,这条船会翻掉。 ③She was very upset when he ran away.She’s very fond of him,you know.他跑开的时候她非常不安。你知

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 道,她很喜欢他。 归纳拓展 be upset by… 被…… 打乱 upset oneself about sth 为某事烦恼 ignore vt.不理睬;忽视 ①My advice was completely ignored.我的建议完全被忽视了。 ②I can’t ignore his rudeness any longer.他粗暴无礼,我再也不能不闻不问了。(选自《牛津高阶词典》) 特别提示 ignore 强调(主观上)故意疏忽,拒绝注意。 归纳拓展 ignorant adj.无知的;不知道的 ignorantly adv.无知地 ignorance n.无知 辨析活用 ignore/neglect (1)ignore 是”假装不知,故意不理”的意思,后接名词,为及物动词。如: She saw him coming but she ignored him.她看见他走来,却假装没看到他。 (2)neglect 后可接名词或动名词,也可接不定式。接名词、动名词时,表示”不注意”;接不定式时,表示” 忘记”。neglect 作及物、不及物动词皆可。如:He has neglected reading.他忽视了阅读。

concern vt.涉及;关系到 n.(利害)关系;关心;关注 ①This concerns us deeply.这事与我们关系极大。 ②Parents are concerned with children’s subject selection.父母对孩子们的学科选择很关心。 ③It received a cautious welcome from some in the arts world,who expressed concern that the tickets may not reach the most under privileged.它受到了艺术界的一些人谨慎的欢迎,这些人表达了他们的担心:贫困的人 们可能难以收到这些(戏)票。

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 归纳拓展 as / so far as … be concerned be concerned about 关心 be concerned at / over sth. 为某事忧虑 be concerned in sth. 牵涉到,与……有关,参与 迁移应用 【例题】International advisors are deeply_______ and put forward more ideas for the development of China’s 例题】 limited drinking water resources. A. concerning C. concern B. concerned D. to concern 关于;至于;就……而言

settle vt.定居;安排;解决;决定;支付;使平静 vi.安家,定居;停留;下陷;沉淀;决定;澄清 ①The new law is partly intended to settle the problem of foreign lorry drivers ignoring limits on weight and hours at the wheel.制定新法律一定程度上是为了解决外国货车司机忽视载重量和行车时间限制的问题。 ②Donna did not dare settle herself too comfortably into her seat.in case she fell asleep.Donna 不敢使自己在椅 子里坐得太舒服,以防睡着了。 特别提示 因为 settle 可作及物动词,故有 settle sb 结构,其被动形式为 sb is settled,即 settle 与 sb 之间存在动宾关系, 所以会见到 settled 作定语、状语或补语的现象。如: You will find most of the population settled in the south.你会发现大部分人都住在南边。 归纳拓展 settlement n.定居,定居点 settle down 稳定下来,定居下来 settle down to do…开始认真对待 settle a question/an argument 解决问题/争端

suffer

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 vt.遭受,经历,忍受;宽恕;允许,容忍扰.受痛苦;受损害 ①That’s because he doesn’t know how much I’ve suffered.”she answered quietly,turning away to hide the tears on her face.”那是因为他不知道我受了多少罪。”她轻声回答,转过身藏起脸上的泪水。 ②People obviously have a need for the resources we gain from cutting trees but we will suffer much more than we will benefit.很明显,人们需要通过砍伐树木获得资源,但是(从长远看来)我们所遭受的损失要远大于我们 的收益。 归纳拓展 suffer for 为……而受苦 suffer from 患……病;受……苦 【典型例题】 典型例题】 The plant can’t ____the cold weather, so the researchers trying to deal with it. A. suffer for B. Suffer C. long for D. suffer from

situation situation [C]情形;境遇;(建筑物的)位置。 How do you analyze the present economic situation? 您怎样分析当前的经济局势? I’m now in a difficult situation.我现在处境困难 The house has a fine situation.这所房子的地点很好 归纳拓展 situation 情况,境况, condition 条件, state 状态,position 位置,场所。 【典型例题】 典型例题】 You could get into a______where you have to decide immediately. A. condition B.position C. state D.situation

六、【重点词组】 重点词组】
go through 通过(某场所),经过;完成;穿过;经历(困难等);遭受;仔细检查

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 ④We went through the back door and into the big room where I had been before. 我们穿过后门, 进入了我曾经去过的那个大房间。 ②She struggled to get the boots off and went through the joyless task of putting them on again.她竭力脱下(穿错 了的)靴子,然后重新帮我穿上,以完成这项无趣的任务。 ③The country has gone through too many wars.这个国家经历了太多的战争。(选自《朗文词典》) 归纳拓展 go on(doing/to do sth)继续 go against 违背 go without 没有……也行,将就 go in for 赞成,支持,参加 go about 着手做;承担 get through 通过,穿过;(工作)完成;(测验)合格;接通电话 look through 浏览,透过……看 pass through 穿过,经历 【典型例题】 典型例题】 Before they are put into practice, we have to____all the details of the project plan. A. go through B. cut through C. get through D. put through

in order to 为了 Since women originally spent their days with the other women and children in the group, they developed the ability to communicate successfully in order to maintain relationships.由于妇女最初经常和群里其他的妇女和孩子们 在一起,她们为了维护人际关系就逐渐培养了成功交流的能力。 特别提示 in order to 的否定形式为 in order not to。 归纳拓展 in order that=so that 后跟从句,表目的 so…that…”如此……以致……”,引导结果状语从句。

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 辨析活用 in order to/so as to 两者意思相似,但 in order to 可以用在句首或句中,而 so as to 只能用在句中。如: ①He got up very early in order to/so as to catch the first bus. ②In order to catch the first bus,he got up very early.(此时不能用 so as to) 特别提示 (1)“in order to do…”的否定结构为:“in order not to do...”,如: Mr. Smith didn’t take the key with him, he wanted to get into the room through the window in order not to wake so up his wife.史密斯先生没带钥匙,所以他想从窗户进去,以免吵醒他的妻子。 (2)只有当主从句的主语相同时,so that 从句或 in order that 从句才可以简化为 so as to 或 in order to 引导的目 的状语。inorder to 在句中的位置可前可后,而 SO as to 一般不放句首。如: We started early so that we could catch the first train.:Westarted early so as to/in order to catch the first train.我 们早早地出发,以便可以赶上第一班火车。 【典型例题】 典型例题】 He kept quiet about punishment___be laughed at by his colleagues. A. so not as to B. so as not to B. so as to not D. not so as to

get along(with) 与……相处;进展 ①The main purpose of the text is to tell parents how to get along with a teenager.这篇文章的主要目的是告诉父 母们如何和青少年相处。 ②How is your work getting along?你的工作进展如何? 归纳拓展 get along/on well/nicely with sb/sth 与某人相处得好,某事进展得很好/很顺利 get about/around 四处走动;传播;流传 get over 解决;克服;控制 get across(使)被理解;(使)被接受 特别提示

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 表示”进展,进行”时,get along=get on,二者都是短语动词,其中 along 和 on 是副词,其后 不能直接加宾语。

七、【必备句型剖析】
happen to do/be 碰巧;恰好 ①Another time five months ago,I happened to be upstairs at dusk when the window had to be shut.五个月前有 一次黄昏该关窗户时,我恰好在楼上。 ②Just at that moment a bank clerk put an old, unopened letter on Mr Lorry’S desk, Darnay happened to see the and name on it…就在这时,一位银行职员把一封旧的,没有打开的信放在了劳里先生的桌子上,Darnay 碰巧看 到了上面的名字……(选自《双城记》) 特别提示 “happen to do/be”句型, 可根据时间关系选用 to do sth, have done sth, be doing sth。 to to 其否定式可在 happen 前加 don’t 或 didn’t,也可在不定式前加 not,表示”碰巧不……”。如: He happened not to be in the office when I got there.=He didn’t happen to be in the office when I got there.我到 那里时他恰好不在办公室。 归纳拓展 It(so)happened that...碰巧…… as it happens 令人惊奇的是;恰恰 ①It so happened that the famous actor was her brother.碰巧那位著名演员是她哥哥。 ②As it happened,1 was there when the fire started.火灾发生时我碰巧在那里。 happen to do/be 与 happen to sb (1)happen to do/be(to 为动词不定式符号)表示”碰巧,恰好”,后接动词原形。 Someone in the ticket office happened to notice her.售票处正好有人注意到了她。 (2)happen to sb(to 为介词)表示”(某人)发生了某事”。如: A bad accident happened to the family.那家发生了不幸。

Mom asked her if (whether) she was very hot with so many clothes on. 妈妈问她穿那么多衣服是不是很热。 [解释] with 复合结构:

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 with + 宾语+ v. –ing / v. –ed / to do / adj. / adv. / prep. phrases 由“介词 with+宾语+宾语补足语” 构成的复合结构在句中通常作为状语,表示背景情况,为方式,原因或条 件等,另外,该结构也可以作为定语使用。下面简述几种情况: 1) 如果在该结构中的分词表示的动作是由前面的名词或代词发出的,构成主谓关系,该分词用现在分词形 式。 2) 如果分词表示的动作与前面的名词或代词构成动宾关系,该分词用过去分词形式。 3) 宾语补足语也可以使用介词短语,形容词或副词来充当。 [典例] 1.with + 宾语 + 副词,如: The square looks more beautiful with all the lights on (= while all the lights are on). With his parents away (= As his parents are away), Tom becomes more naughty. 2.with + 宾语 + 介词短语,如: The teacher came in with a book in his hand (= while a book was in his hand). The girl looked up with tears in her eyes (= while tears were in her eyes). 3.with + 宾语 + 现在分词,如: With summer corning (= As summer is corning), the weather is becoming hotter and hotter. With the teacher standing beside (= As the teacher was standing beside),she felt a bit uneasy. 4.with + 宾语 + 过去分词,如: With the work done (= As the work had been done), she felt greatly relieved. With his hair cut (= As his hair has been cut), he looks much younger. 5.with + 宾语 + 不定式,如: With her to go with us (= As she will go with us), we're sure to have a pleasant journey. With Mr Smith to teach them English next term (= As Mr Smith will teach them English) , they will be greatly improved in spoken English.

I don’t set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do … 我不愿意像大多数人那样在日记中记流水 帐…… [解释] as 引导的从句为比较状语从句,意为“像大多数人那么做”。

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 as 用作连词,可引导下列状语从句: 1). 引导状语从句,强调主句谓语动词与从句谓语的同时性 As he grew older he lost interest in everything except gardening. 随着他年纪越来越大,他失去了对所有事物的兴趣,除了园艺。 2). 引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管,虽然,即使”(从句需倒装) Cold as it is, my brother wears only a shirt. 尽管天气冷,我哥只穿了一件衬衫。 3). 引导方式状语从句,表示“以……方式”。 Why didn’t you take the medicine as I told you to? 为什么你没有按我说的服这药? 4). 引导原因状语从句 (=since; because),“由于,因为”。 As you were not there, I left a message. 因为当时你不在那,所以我给你留了便条。 5) 引导比较状语从句。 She is as tall as you. 她和你一样高。 [练习] 中译英 1. 随着年龄的增长我越来越对科学感兴趣。 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 由于雨下得很大,你最好穿上雨衣。 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 他学习很努力,但考试还是没及格。 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 【答案】 1. As l get older l get more interested in science. 答案】 2. As it is raining hard,you'd better put on your raincoat. 3. Hard as he worked,he failed in the exam.

It’s the+序数词+time(that)… ……it was the first time in a year and half that I’d seen the night face to face. 该句型为:It(That/This)is/was the first(second,third...)time+that 从句(现在完成时/过去完成时),表示” 这(那)是某人第几次做……”。

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 (1)在该句型中 it 可换成 this 或 that,that 从句中多用完成时态。 This was the last time I had asked you for money.这是我最后…一次问你要钱。 (2)该句型的反意疑问句式为 isn’t it 或 wash’t it. ①This is the first time that you have been here,isn’t it?这是你第一次来这里,对吗? ②It was the first time I had heard her sing,wasn’t it?这是我第一次听她唱歌,不是吗? (3)当主句为一般现在时时, 从句要用现在完成时, 当主句为一般过去时时, 从句用过去完成时。 was the last It time that I had taken the plane.那是我最后一次乘坐飞机。 归纳拓展 It’s time+that 从句,从句中的谓语动词有两种形式,或者用动词的过去式(be 用 were),或者用”should+动 词原形(should 不能省略)”。此句型为虚拟语气,表示”某人该做某事了”,含有该事早该去做而实际上却未 做,现在去做似乎都为时已晚的意思。 ①It’s time(that)we went to bed.我们该去睡觉了。 ②It’s high time that the article were published.发表这篇文章是适时的。 ③It’s time you should do cleaning.你该去打扫卫生了。 【典型例题】 典型例题】 It will be the first time that I ______ to America. A. have gone B. have been C. go D. will go

语法考点归纳】 八、【语法考点归纳】
直接引语和间接引语(Ⅰ) 一、基本定义 直接引语:直接引用别人的原话,并在原话前后加引号。 间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的话,多数以宾语从句的形式构成。 二、陈述句和疑问句中直接引语和间接引语间的转换 1.直接引语变为间接引语时,不同种类的句子有着不同的变化方式。陈述句、一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为 间接引语时都转化成了宾语从句,宾语从句必须用陈述语序。 直接引语 陈述句 间接引语 用连词 that 引导,that 可以省略。

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 He said,“I’m from America. ” 一般疑问句 He said,“Are you interested in English?” He said(that)he was from America. 用连词 if 或 whether 引导,said 改为 asked, 其后还可以加 sb. ,句子用陈述语序。 He asked me if/whether I was interested in English. 特殊疑问句 “What do you want?”he asked me. 用原来的特殊疑问词引导,句子用陈述语序。 He asked me what I wanted.

2.直接引语变为间接引语时,从句中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等都要作相应的变 化。 (1)人称的变化 在人称变化方面,汉语和英语有相似之处,因此在转换时,要特别注意句子的意义。 记忆要诀 直接引语转换为间接引语时人称代词转换规律 一主,二宾,三不变。 说明:一主指“第一人称看主语”。直接引语改为间接引语时,第一人称的代词和物主代词,必须与主句 . . 中的主语的人称一致,在数上不发生变化。二宾指“第二人称看宾语”。第二人称的代词和物主代词变化时, . . 必须随主句中的宾语,如果没有宾语可以加个宾语(如 me 或 us) 。三不变指“第三人称不发生变化”。第三 . . . 人称的代词和物主代词在变为间接引语时,一律不变。 “一主”:He/I/You said to Rose,“I can help them.” →He/I/You told Rose that he/I/you could help them. “二宾”:He said to her/me/you,“You can help them.” →He said to her/me/you that she/I/you could help them. “三不变”:He said to Rose,“She/He/They could help them.” →He told Rose that she/he/they could help them. (2)时态的变化 直接引语 一般现在时 He said,“I’m afraid I can’t finish the work before dark.” 一般过去时 He said(that)he was afraid he couldn’t finish the work before dark. 间接引语

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 现在进行时 He said,“I’m using the knife.” 一般将来时 She said,“I’ll do it after class.” 一般过去时 He said,“I came to help you.” 现在完成时 She said,“I’ve not heard from him since May.” 过去进行时 He said that he was using the knife. 过去将来时 She said(that)she would do it after class. 过去完成时 He said(that)he had come to help me. 过去完成时 She said (that) had not heard from him since she May. 过去完成时 He said,“I had finished my homework before supper.” 注意: 直接引语转换为间接引语时,总的原则是向过去推一个时态。 (3)时态保持不变的情况 ①主句谓语动词为现在时,间接引语中的动词可保持原来时态。 如:He says,“I had a good time last night.”他说:“我昨晚过得很愉快。” →He says he had a good time the night before.他说他昨晚过得很愉快。 ②过去进行时、过去完成时不变。 如:“American Indians had already been in America by that time,” the historian said. 那个历史学家说:“美洲印第安人那时已经存在于美洲大陆上了。” →The historian said American Indians had already been in America by that time. 那个历史学家说美洲印第安人那时已经存在于美洲大陆了。 ③间接引语中动词所表示的情况说话时仍继续进行或存在,其时态可以不变。 如:“I am eight,” the boy said. 那个男孩说:“我 8 岁。” →The boy said that he is eight.(现在还是 8 岁) 那个男孩说他 8 岁。 过去完成时 He said(that)he had finished his homework before supper.

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 ④直接引语中若有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。 如:I said,“I was born in March,1977.” 我说:“我生于 1977 年 3 月。” →I said I was born in March,1977. 我说我生于 1977 年 3 月。 ⑤直接引语表达的是习惯性动作、客观事实或科学真理时,变为间接引语时态不变。 如:“The moon moves around the earth,” the astronomer said. 天文学家说:“月亮绕着地球转。” →The astronomer said the moon moves around the earth. 天文学家说月亮绕着地球转。 (4)指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化速记表 项目 指示代词 this these now 时间状语 today this week(month,etc. ) yesterday last week(month,etc. ) three days(a year,etc. )ago tomorrow next week(month,etc. ) 地点状语 动词 here come 直接引语 that those then that day that week(month,etc.) the day before the week(month,etc.)before three days(a year,etc.)before the next(following)day the next(following)week(month,etc.) there go 间接引语

注意:如果在当地转述,here 不必改为 there;come 也不必改为 go。 陈述句和疑问句中直接引语变间接引语的方法 语的方法 记忆要诀 陈述句和疑问句中直接引语变间接引语的方法 1.直接引语是陈述句变间接引语的方法——去掉引号加 “that”,人称变化要灵活,时态向后退一步,状语变 化背表格。

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 2.直接引语是一般疑问句变间接引语的方法——去掉引号加 “if” (whether),陈述语序要记 住,时态、人称和状语,小心变化别马虎。 3.直接引语是特殊疑问句变间接引语的方法——直接引语去引号,陈述语序莫忘掉。小心助动词,去它最重 要。 4.直接引语是感叹句变间接引语的方法——去掉引号保留 how/what;去掉引号加 “that”,感叹语句改陈述。 直接引语与间接引语 当我们引用别人的话时, 如果引用的是别人的原话, 那么被引用的部分就叫直接引语, 一般用””引起来。 如果我们把意思转述出来,那么这样的话就叫间接引语。间接引语在多数情况下都构成一个宾语从句。纵 观近几年的高考试题,对于间接引语的考查一般集中在时态、人称和语序上。此外,从阅卷老师反馈的信 息来看,书面表达中经常出现这方面的失分。 如何把一个直接引语变成间接引语呢? 考点 1 人称的变化 1.“一随主”。直接引语中的第一人称在变为问接引语后,应与主句中主语的人称一致。 He says.”I have finished my homework.”=He says that he has finished his homework. 2.“二随宾”。若直接引语中有第二人称,变间接引语时,应与主句中的宾语的人称一致。 She said to Tom.”Can you help me?”=She asked Tom if/whether he could help her. 3.”三不变”。直接引语中的第三人称变间接引语时不需要变化。如: He said to me,“Tom left your book in your room.”= He told me that Tom had left my book in my room. 考点 2 时态的变化 主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,直接引语变间接引语时,从句的谓语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化。 一般现在时→一般过去时;现在进行时→过去进行时 完成时 过去完成时不变;一般将来时→过去将来时 ①He said to me,“1 wrote to my father yesterday.”→He told me that he had written to his father the day before. ②The teacher asked, “Are you waiting for the bus?”。 →The teacher asked (me)if 1 was waiting for the bus. 特别提示 注意时态的”五不变” 现在完成时→过去完成时;一般过去时→过去

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 (1)直接引语如果是客观真理、谚(习)语,变间接引语时时态 不变。如: ①The teacher said,“The earth goes around the sun.→Theteacher said that the earth goes around the sun. ②My father said,“Practice makes perfect.→My father said practice makes perfect. (2)直接引语中被引述的部分是反复出现的、习惯性的动作或说话时情况仍然存在,变间接引语时,时 态保持不变。如: ①The boy said to us, usually get up at six every day. “I →The boy told us he usually gets up at six every day. ②He said,“We are still students.”→He said they are still students. (3)直接引语中如果有明确的表示过去的时间状语,时态不变。如: ①He said to me,“1 was born in 1978.”→He told me that he was born in 1978. ②The engineer said,“1 was at college in 1967.→The engineer said he was at college in 1967. (4)直接引语中凡有 when,since,while 引导的从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句时态,从句的时 态不变。如: ④M r Green said to them,“Joe told me all about his story when he asked for a job.”→Mr.Green told them Joe had told him all about his story when he asked for a iob. ②He said,“I have studied English since 1 was a boy.”→He said he had studied English since he was a boy. ⑧She said,”I read the book while 1 was waiting for a bus.”→She said she had read the book while she was waiting for a bus. (5)如果直接引语中引述部分含有 insist,suggest,demand 等引导的虚拟宾语从句,变间接引语时,引 语中的主从句时态都不变。如: ①He said,”We insisted that she start immediatelv.→He said they(had)insisted that she start immediatelv. ②She said,”He denmnded that the 如 rl leave at once.”→She said he demanded that the girl leave at once. (6)如果说话人转述自己的话,人称可不变。如: I said to him,“I have finished it.”→I told him I had finished it. 考点 3 指示代词、时间状语各动词的变化 this→that these→those now→then today→that day ago→before yesterday→the day betore

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 tomorrow→the next/following day the day before yesterday→two days before here→there come→go 如: ①John said to me,“I told her all about it three days ag0.→John said to me that he had told her all about it three davs before. ②Which one do you like best here?”he asked her.→He asked her which one she liked best there. 特别提示 如果就在当地转述,here 不必变为 there,come 不必改为 go,如果就在当天转述,则 today,yesterday, tomorrow 等状语也不必变化。如: She said to us,I’11 come here tomorrow.”→She told us she would come here tomorrow. 考点 4 语序的变化 1.引语是陈述句,语序不变,如: They said,”We will go there by bus.”→They said they would go there by bus. 2.引语是一般疑问句,则须先加上 if 或 whether,然后变成陈述句语序,如: She said to me,“Are you interested in science?” →She asked me if 1 was interested in science. 3.引语是特殊疑问句,疑问词不变,把其后的句子变成陈述句语序。 He asked,“Who is the man near the window?” →He asked who was the man near the window. 4.引语中的反意疑问句改成由 whether/if 引导的从句。

考点 5 当直接引语是祈使句时,变成间接引语的方法 若直接引语是表示命令、请求等的祈使句,其间接引语须用复合结构,即”动词+宾语+to do…”;引述 动词常根据情况选用 advise,ask,beg,command,order,tell,request 等。若祈使句为否定句,则须在不 定式符号前加否定词 never 或 not。 He said to the girl,“Do it at once.”→He told the girl to do it at once. She said to me,“don’t smoke in the classroom:”→She told me not to smoke in the classroom. 特别提示 (1)若直接引语是表示建议的祈使句或疑问句,其间接引语通常用 suggest doing sth/suggest+that 从句表

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最权威的信息 最丰富的资源 最快捷的更新 最优质的服务 最真诚的交流 示。 Tom said,“Let’s go to the movies this afternoon.”→Tom suggested that they(should)go to the movies that afternoon. 或 Tom suggested going to the movies that afternoon. (2)如果直接引语是感叹句,变间接引语时语序可变可不变。 He said,“How happy I am!” →He said that he was very happy.或 He said how happy he was. (3)直接引语为 Let’s 开头的祈使句改成 that 引导的宾语从句 I said to him,“Let’s start at once.”→I suggested to him that we(should)start at once.


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