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跨文化交际期末复习


判断 1 the iceberg model of culture implies that it is very difficult to understand a culture thoroughly 文化的冰山模式意味着要彻底理解文化是非常困难的。 2 culture is innate as soon as a person is born 一个人出生就有文化 3 people may sometimes get confused about his or her cultural identity ( T ) ( F )

人们有时会对他或她的文化身份感到困惑。 ( T ) 4 scholars prefer the term subculture to co-culture in describing a culture which exists witnin a dominant culture 在描述一种存在显性文化的文化时,学者们倾向于亚文化到共同文化。 5 a person could be a member of several different subgroups at the same time ( F )

一个人可以同时成为几个不同的子组的成员。 ( T ) 6 Intracultural communication occurs when the sender and the receiver from different races exchang messages 文化的交流是发生在不同种族交换消息的发送者和接收者 7 communication and culture are inseparable and strongly connected ( F )

沟通与文化密不可分, 紧密相连。 ( T ) 8 The sender must choose certain words or nonverbal to send an intentional message.this activity is called decoding 发送者必须选择言语或非言语的发出故意这活动被称为解码 9 The process of communication has components :sender,encoding,message,channel,noise,decoding,feedback,and context ( F ) nine

通信过程由九部分组成:发送方、编码、消息、信道、噪声、解码、反馈和上下文。 ( T ) 10 No two of us can assume that our sensations are the same 我们谁也不能假定我们的感觉是一样的。 ( T ) 11 people may possess different sensing of the same smell 人们可能对同一气味有不同的感觉。 ( T ) 12 Our perception are influenced by who we are,includeing the accumulation of our experience 我们的感觉被我们是谁的影响, 包括我们的经验的积累 ( T ) 13 we give meaning to or decode the information that we have selected and organized during the selection stage 我们在选择阶段对我们选择和组织的信息给予意义或解码。 ( F ) 14 the psychological filters refer to the psychological factors,including the attitudes,beliefs,and dispositions of the individual 心理过滤指的是心理因素, 包括个人的态度、 信念和性格。 ( T ) 15 ethnocentrism,stereotyping,prejudice and racism are learned 民族中心主义、 刻板印象、 偏见和种族主义被学习 ( T ) 16 although stereotypes are considered as being negative judgements,they can also be positive 虽然刻板印象被认为是消极的判断, 但也可以是积极的。 ( T ) 17 when communicating with people from other cultures,an individual sometimes is likely to treat them as his people and to assume there is only one way of doing things:that is his way 当与来自其他文化的人交流时, 一个人有时可能会把他们当作他的人看待, 并假设只有一 种做事方式: 那就是他的方式。 ( T ) 18 assumption of superiority may lead to asuming similarity instead of difference

假设的优势可能会导致假设相似性而不是差异 ( F ) 19 economy is not the reason for the persistence of ethnocentrism,stereotyping,prejudice and racism 经济不是种族中心主义, 坚持理性的成见, 偏见和种族 ( F ) 20 an exacting style of communication can be found in Japan,china,and some Native American cultures 一个严格的沟通方式, 可以发现在日本, 中国, 和美国本土文化 ( F ) 21 The self-effacement verbal style emphasizes the importance of boasting about one's accomplishments and abilities 自谦的言语风格强调夸耀一个人的成就和能力的重要性 ( F ) 22 the elaborate,exacting,or succint communication style deals with the quantity and/or volume of talk that is preferred across cultural groups 精心设计的, 严格的, 或简洁的沟通方式处理的数量和/或说是首选的跨文化群体体积 ( T ) 23 dialect refers to geographic variation,while sociolect refers to variation in terms of social group 方言是指地理变异, 而方言是指在社会群体方面的变化 24 an elaborate style of communication can be seen in Arab cultures 在阿拉伯文化中可以看到一种复杂的交流方式。 25 speaking is the only mode of effective communication ( T ) ( T )

口语是有效沟通的唯一方式。 ( F ) 26 the Thais liketo touch babies or small children,especially they like others to pat their children's head 泰国人喜欢触摸婴儿或小孩, 尤其是他们喜欢别人拍拍孩子的头 ( F ) 27 Saudi Arabs belong to touch cultures 沙特阿拉伯人属于接触文化。 28 the appropriateness of eye contact varies with different cultures 眼睛接触的适当性因文化的不同而不同。 29 Paralanguage may imply the connotation of the actual differences ( T ) ( T )

它可能意味着实际差异的内涵 ( T ) 30 In industrialized societies like the United States,the mastery-over-nature view tends to predominate 在像美国这样的工业化社会, 对自然景观的掌控往往占主导地位。 ( T ) 31 The harmony-with-nature orientation draws clear distinctions among human life,nature,and the supernatural 与自然取向的和谐在人的生命、 自然和超自然之间产生了明显的区别。 ( F ) 32 Both American and British show respect for tradition 美国人和英国人都尊重传统。 ( F ) 33 A doing orientation involves a focus on those types of activities which have outcomes that can be measured by someone else 做定向工作需要关注那些能被别人衡量的结果。 ( T ) 34 In Being cultures,social status and position are more important than what a person does 作为一种文化, 社会身份和地位比一个人所做的更重要。 ( T ) 名词解释 1 焦虑 Anxiety: occurs because of not knowing what one is expected to do, and focusing on that feeling and not be totally present in the communication transaction.

在新环境下人们不知如何应对,过多关注自己的情绪,不能全身心投入到交际中。 2 假设相似性而不是差异性 Assuming similarity instead of difference:refers to the assumption that people are more similar to you than they actually are or that another person's situation is more similar to you own situation than it in fact is. 是指人们比你实际情况更接近你的假设, 或者另一个人的情况更像你自己的情况而不是事 实。 3 渠道 channel :is the method used to deliver a message 是信息传递的手段。 4 色彩学 Chromatics:refers to the study of color use in affecting people’s mood,emotions,and impression of others. 指影响你的情绪,情感和对他人的印象的颜色的研究。 5 时间行为:Chronemics is the study of how people perceive and use time. 是指研究人们如何看待和使用时间。 6 情境 context:The environment in which communication occurs and helps to explain the meaning of communication. 交际发生的环境并且有助于解释交际内容的含义。 7 文化 Culture :is a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs,values,and norms,which affect the behavior of a relatively large group of people. 文化是习得的一套关于信仰,价值观,规范的公认的解释,这些信仰,价值观,规范对相 当大人类群体的行为产生影响。 8 文化身份 Culture identity : refers to one’ s sense of belonging to a particular culture or ethnic group. 文化身份:指有意识地把自己归为某一特定文化或种族群体。 9 文化模式 cultural pattern:refers to shared beliefs,value,norms,and social practices that are stable over time and that lead to roughly similar behaviors across similar situations 指共同的信仰、价值观、规范和社会实践,随着时间的推移而稳定,并在类似的情况下导 致大致相似的行为。 10 dialect:is a form of language peculiar to a group of people,as distinguished from the literary language of the whole people 是一群人特有的语言形式,区别于全体人民的文学语言。 11 ethnocentrism:refers to negatively judging aspects of another culture by the standards of one's own culture 指的是用自己的文化标准消极的判断另一种文化方面 12 委婉语 Euphemism: means the act of substituting a mild,indirect,or vague term for one considered harsh,blunt,or offensive. 指用温和的,间接的方式来代替严厉的,生硬的或冒犯的言语。 13 触觉行为 Haptics:refers to communicating through the use of bodily context . 通过身体接触来进行交流。 14 high context:When people communicate, there is more information contained in the social cultural environment and situation, and the amount of information is less obvious than the code load. 在人们交际时,有较多的信息量蕴含在社会文化环境和情景中,明显的语码负载较少的信 息量。 15 跨文化能力 intercultural competence:refers to the ability to understand and adapt to the

target culture;in another word,it refers to the sensitivity to cultural diversity 指理解和适应目标文化的能力,指对文化多样性的敏感性 16 跨国交际 international communication:Of communication between the state and the government rather than the individual 指国家和政府而非个人之间的交际 17 interpretation:refers to attaching meaning to sence data and is synonymous with decoding 释义:指对意义数据附加意义,是解码的同义词。 18 跨种族交际 interracial communication:occurs when the sender and the receiver exchanging messages are from different races 指信息源和信息来自不同的种族 19 内文化交际 intracultural communication : is defined as communication between and among members of the same culture . 指同一文化内某成员之间的交际,总的来说,同一种族,政治倾向宗教,或者具有同样兴 趣的人们之间的交际。 20 jargon:refers to the special or technical vocabularies developed to meet the special needs of particular professions such as medicine and law 21 身势语行为 Kinesics:is the term used for communicating through various types of body movements including facial expressions,gestures,posture and stance ,and other mannerisms that may accompany or replace oral messages. 指交际时所使用的不同类型的动作,包括表情,手势,姿势,和其他代替语言传达信息的 行为举止。 22 通用语言 lingua Franca:is used for communication purpose between different groups of people 通用语言:用于不同人群之间的交际目的。 23 低语境 low context:is communication in which the mass of the information is vested in the explicit code 低语境:是把大量信息赋予显式代码的一种通信方式。 24 非言语交流 noverbal communicate:refers to the messages sent without using words 指不使用词发送的消息。 25 气味行为 Olfactics:The study of communication via smell 对通过味道进行交流的研究。 26 目光语 oculesics:The study of communications sent by the eyes. 研究目光传递的交流信息。 27 organization:is the process during which we need to organize and impose structure on what we observe in a meaningful way 组织:在这个过程中,我们需要以有意义的方式组织和强加我们所观察到的结构。 28 副语言 Paralanguage: refers to the rate ,pitch and volume qualities of the voice,which interrupt or temporarily take the place of speech and affect the meaning of a message 是与口语交际有关,指说的速度,音高,和质量,这些要素会打断或临时取代语言并影响 信息的语意表达. 29 感觉 perception:is the neurological process by which people become aware of their environmnent . 人们意识到周围环境的神经过程。

30 pidgin:is a special language variety that mixes or blends languages for restricted purposed such as trading 是一种特殊的语言变体,混合或混合语言的限制性等交易 31 权利距离 power distance:The degree of unequal distribution, acceptance, and expectation of power within an organization or organization. 组织或机构里边,没有权力的成员对于权力不均等分配接受和期望的程度。 32 偏 见 Prejudice : refers to the irrational dislike,suspicion,or hatred of a particular group,race,religion,or sexual orientation. 偏见是指对于某一特定群体,种类,宗教或性取向的无端的憎恶和怀疑。 33 时空行为 proxemics :refers to the study of spatial relations 指空间关系的研究。 34 种族主义是基于种族 Racism : is any policy,practice,belief,or attitude that attributes characteristics or status to individuals based on their race. 把性格特点或地位归因于个人的任意政策、做法、信仰或态度。 35 种族隔离 segregation:is the initiated and enforced separation by the dominant society 种族隔离:主导社会的发起和强制分离 36 定势 stereotypes:refers to negative or positive judgment made about individuals based on any observable or believed group membership. 针对目标群体成员所特有的正面或方面的判断。 37 Subculture:refers to culture that exists within dominant culture,and is often based on economic or social class,race,rigon 亚文化:指文化存在于主流文化,往往是基于经济或社会阶级、种族、区域 38 Subgroup 亚群体: are groups with the dominant culture does not agree and with which it has communication problems. 亚群体:与主流文化不一致,并与主流文化有交际障碍的交际群体。 39 禁忌语 Taboo:refers to some words or actions that are avoided by a particular group of people,or in certain for religious or social reasons. 在特定文化中出于宗教或社会原因被一特定群体所避免使用的一些词语或行为。 40 uncertainty:refers to cognitive inability to explain our own or other's feelings and behaviors 不确定性:指认知能力不能解释自己或他人的感受和行为。 41 uncertainty avoidance:uncertainty avoidance:deals with the degree to which members of a culture try to avoid uncertainty 不确定性回避:处理文化成员试图避免不确定性的程度。


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