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2016年北京自主招生英语模拟试题:科普知识类阅读


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2016 年北京自主招生英语模拟试题:科普知识类阅读
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1:阅读下面短文,并按照题目要求用英语回答问题(请注意问题后的词数要求) 。 1]Stamp collectors usually collect stamps only from certain countries or regions. The traditional method of stamp collecting is to organize stamp collection according to the issue dates. [2]Of course, there are many ____________. You can collect stamps relating to a particular theme. For example, sport lovers may choose the Olympic theme. They try their best to find Olympic stamps issued by various parts of the world every four years. Some of them may want to concentrate on even more specific sport activities like ball games, gymnasium, swimming, etc. [3]If you like astronomy, you may be keen on collecting stamps describing the stars, planets, spacecraft, spacemen, etc. once you have fixed the topic, you no longer need to bother about stamps other than the theme you selected. Then, you can put all your effort to collect the stamps around it. [4]China issues zodiac animal stamps (十二生肖邮票) every year to celebrate the Lunar New Year. They are extremely popular and a lot of collectors wait patiently for 12 years to collect a full set of them. Hong Kong’s Lunar New Year special stamp series began in 2000 with the Year of Dragon and the twelfth and final set was issued in 2011, the Year of Rabbit. Recently some Western countries have issued zodiac animal stamps, which attract a lot of attention as well. [5]You may choose any theme you like. However, you should bear in mind an essential point. The topic you choose should not be too narrow. Otherwise, it is very difficult to accumulate stamps around the topic. You will be depressed and even lose your interest in collecting stamps. [6]Collecting stamps with these is especially popular among teenagers because there is a wide range of choices forthem. The main challenge is how you organize and expand your collection around your theme. 【小题 1】What is the main idea of the passage? (no more than 5 words) ________________________________________________________ 【小题 2】Fill in the blank in Paragraph 2 with proper words。 (no more than 5 words) Of course, there are many ____________________________________________. 【小题 3】What should you do if you want to collect a full set of zodiac animal stamps? (no more than 7 words) ________________________________________________________ 【小题 4】List the three general themes in collecting stamps mentioned in the passage。 (3 words) ________________________________________________________ 【小题 5】What does the word "them" (Line2, Paragraph6) probably refer to? (1 word) _______________________________________________________

2:阅读下面短文,简要回答问题。 Baloneyis a kind of sausage that many Americans eat often. The word also has another meaning in English. It is used to describe something—usually something someone says—that is false or wrong or foolish. Baloney sausage comes from the name of the Italian city, Bologna. The city is famous for its sausage, a mixture of smoked, spiced meat from cows and pigs. But, boloney sausage does not taste the same as beef or pork alone. Some language experts think this different taste is responsible for the birth of the expression baloney. Baloney is an idea or statement that is nothing like the truth...in the same way that baloney sausage tastes nothing like the meat

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that is used to make it. Baloney is a word often used by politicians to describe the ideas of their opponents. The expression has been used for years. Fifty years ago, a former governor of New York State, Alfred Smith, criticized some claims by President Franklin Roosevelt about the successes of the Roosevelt administration. Smith said, “No matter how thin you slice it, it is still baloney.” A similar word has almost the same meaning as baloney. It even sounds almost the same. The word is blarney. It began in Ireland about 1600. The lord of Blarney castle, near Cork, agreed to surrender the castle to British troops. But he kept making excuses for postponing the surrender. And, he made them sound like very good excuses, “this is just more of the same blarney.” The Irish castle now is famous for its Blarney stone. Kissing the stone is thought to give a person special powers of speech. One who has kissed the Blarney stone, so the story goes, can speak words of praise so smoothly and sweetly that you believe them, even when you know they are false. 73.【小题 1】Find in the passage a word closest in meaning to the underlined word “ baloney”. 74.【小题 2】According to Americans, what does baloney refer to? (回答词数不超过 8 个) 75.【小题 3】What do you know about the lord of Blarney castle, near Cork? (回答词数不超过 6 个)

3: [1] Imagine a magical forest where the trees touch the sky. Due to enough rainfall, the trees grow huge and spread wide. Their tallest branches are so thick-leafed that they create a thick curtain. Even the wind does not find enough space to blow asitpleases. The climate is good for life forms of all kinds- from trees to animals, birds and insects. [2] These forests are called tropical rainforests. Most of them are located near the equator, in Asia, Africa and South America. The rainforest of the Amazon basin in South America is one of the lushest(茂盛的) rainforests in the world. You will find more varieties of trees or animal life here than anywhere else in the world. [3] The tropical rainforests are called the green lungs of the planet. They absorb carbon dioxide from around them to process their food and release oxygen into the air. They also contain the largest number of trees with medicinal value. [4] But now human beings are out to . Many companies all over the world, especially in the West, have been attacking these rainforests for a variety of reasons – some want to make profit by cutting down trees and selling timber(木材); others are trying to be the only ones to make profit out of medicinal plants. [5] To the outside world, the rainforest has always seemed a very dangerous place. Generations of films and literature have shown the people who live in the rainforests as dangerous and violent people who have a strange way of life. [6] But actually, these people have a better understanding of their relationship with their environment than modern man has. Greed for profit by destroying the planet’s resources is a unique quality of societies that have become modern and use technology. One should then ask, who is more violent? 【小题 1】What is the best title for the text?(no more than 5 words) ______________________________________________________________ 【小题 2】Complete the following statement with proper words.(no more than 4 words) Nowhere on earth as much wildlife as in the rainforest. 【小题 3】Fill in the blank in Paragraph 4 with proper words. (no more than 5 words) ________________________________________________________________ 【小题 4】Why are the tropical rainforests called the green lungs of the planet?(no more than 10 words)

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__________________________________________________________________

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【小题 5】What does the underlined word “it” (line 3,paragraph 1) probably refer to?(no more than 3 words)

4:阅读表达(共 5 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 10 分) 【1】The air was pleasant and the music was loud in the vast square in front of the New York State office building in Harlem(哈莱姆, 美国纽约市黑人居住区) as health advocates(支持者,提倡者) set up information tables for Harlem wellness Week. It was a wide-ranging effort to educate people about non-communicable diseases: Heart disease, cancer, lung disease, obesity, and so on. 【2】There is an economic effect caused by these diseases, especially in Harlem, one of the city’s poorest districts. Without healthy employees and healthy customers, you cannot have healthy business, says Patricia Ricketts of the Greater Harlem Chamber of Commerce, which sponsors Wellness Week. 【3】Dr. Jo Ivy Boufford is president of the New York Academy of Medicine, a Wellness Week partner. She says education about better nutrition is important, but that people with low incomes often lack the means to put what they know into practice. But there is hope. New York is very active in adovating good, effective public health policies. “New York City has banned smoking in public places, both indoors and outdoors. That is a fantastic example of what can be done, without having any impact on the economy. It is a city where you have bike paths. That is a good message for the world, because bikes make your transport active. That is good for your health and lowers air pollution,” she said. 【4】“It is not enough to focus on the management of disease through medication,” Dr. Boufford says. “That’s why health advocates will be trying to persuade UN officials during Wellness Week to pass resolutions that deal with road and transport design and construction and other potential causes of non-communicable diseases.” 【小题 1】What is the main idea of the text? (no more than 8words) 【小题 2】Complete the following statement with words from Paragraph【4】.(no more than 3words)_______________ the management of disease through medication is not enough. 【小题 3】What noninfectious diseases are mentioned in the text?( no more than 6 words) 【小题 4】why not? (no more than 16 words) 【小题 5】What does the word “That”(paragraph 3) refer to?(no more than 4 words)

5:Like our body, our memory needs regular exercise to be in good condition. Like the sportsman who must train to allow the body to respond to difficult times, the memory needs its own special training in order to stay in “shape” and improve. There are many factors that can cause poor memory like insomnia (失眠), depression and alcohol. However, there are simple ways which you can follow to keep your memory in shape and actually help you to improve your memory’s condition and performance. Never stop learning. Look for topics that interest you and really get involved in learning new information about them. Reading and attending lectures or programs are sources of continuous education of your brain with beneficial results

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to your memory. Develop your social and family relationships. The more social you are, the better it is for your brain. Studies have shown that the brain and heart have a lot to gain from good family and social relationships. Exercise your mind with games. The more you use your brain, the more you help your memory stay in shape. There are many games that can make you an intelligent person as well as entertain you such as chess, puzzles and board games. Exercise physically can improve your memory. This type of exercise improves the circulatory (血液循环的) system. Even the simple but regular daily exercise such as fast walking can improve the heart and oxygenation (供氧) of the brain. The benefits of exercise affect positively many body systems, as well as our memory and other cognitive(认知 的) capabilities. Eat more fruit and vegetables. What we eat every day affects the performance and long-term condition of our memory. Fruit and vegetables are an excellent source of antioxidants(抗氧化剂) and vitamins that can help and benefit the nervous system. So our memory is like a sportsman. The more we practice our brains and memory, the better their performance will be. Title: How to improve memory Topic 【小题 1】 like insomnia, depression and alcohol can lead to poor memory. We should exercise 【小题 2】 to keep memory in good condition. Ways to improve memory Never stop learning

6:根据短文内容,从下面 A-F 选项中选出能概括每一段主题的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该选项涂黑。选项中 有一项为多余选项。 【小题 1】________________ Americans are far more knowledgeable about drinks than they were 20 years ago. Witness the Starbucks revolution and you’ll know where the trend goes. Now, encouraged by recent studies suggesting that it can cut the risk of cancer and heart disease and slow the aging process, tea is enjoying a similar change. Enough fashionable tea houses are springing up to make even longtime coffee drinkers consider switching drinks. 【小题 2】________________ Tea is available in more places than ever. The Tea Association of the United States reports that from 1990 to 1999, annual sales of the drink grew to $4.6 billion from $1.8 billion. “Green tea is seen by consumers as a ‘functional food’” — delivering health benefits beyond food itself, says Vierhile. 【小题 3】_______________ Recently published studies point out that only teas that come from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis have been shown to contain health benefits. Other herbal teas may taste good, yet they do little more than warm up the drinker. But for Camellia sinensis, the evidence is powerful. In a 1998 study, Harvard University researchers found that drinking one cup of black tea a day lowered the risk of heart attack by as much as 44 percent compared with non-tea drinkers, and other studies have suggested that the antioxidants (抗氧化剂) in these so-called real teas can also prevent cancer.

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【小题 4】________________ One such antioxidant in green tea is ECGC, a compound 20 times as powerful as vitamin E and 200 times as powerful as vitamin C. “When people ask me for something good and cheap they can do to reduce their cancer risk, I tell them to drink real tea,” says Mitchell Gaynor, director of medical oncology at New York City’s Strang-Cornell Cancer Prevention Center. 【小题 5】________________ Among those inspired to become a green-tea drinker is Tess Ghilaga, a New York writer who took it up after seeking advice from a nutritionist six years ago. “I’ve never been a coffee drinker,” says Ghilaga, 33. “She told me to start drinking green tea for the antioxidant qualities.” Now Ghilaga and her husband habitually make tea — they order theirs from InPursuitofTea.com, an Internet tea company. And although tea contains about half the amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee, “you still get such a kick from it,” says Ghilaga.A. The spreading of tea B. The history of tea growing C. Changes of tastes for drinks D. Reducing cancer risks E. The plant Camellia sinensis F. A woman’s opinion of tea

7:Do’s and Don’ts in Whale(鲸) Watching The Department of Fisheries and Oceans has developed guidelines for whale watching in Johnstone Strait, where killer whales are found on a daily basis each summer。It is strongly recommended that vessel(船只) operators follow these guidelines for all kinds of whales。 Approach whales from the side, not from the front or the back。 Approach no closer than 100 meters, then stop the boat but keep the engine on。 Keep noise levels down—no horns, whistles or racing of engines。 Start your boat only after the whales are more than 100 meters from your vessel。 Leave the area slowly, gradually moving faster when you are more than 300 meters from the whales。 Approach and leave slowly, avoiding sudden changes in speed or direction。 Avoid disturbing groups of resting whales。 Keep at low speeds and remain in the same direction if travelling side by side with whales。 When whales are travelling close to shore, avoid crowding them near the shore or coming between the whales and the shore。 Limit the time spent with any group of whales to less than 30 minutes at a time when within 100 to 200 meters of whales。 If there is more than one vessel at the same observation spot, be sure to avoid any boat position that would result in surrounding the whales。 Work together by communicating with other vessels, and make sure that all operators are aware of the whale watching guidelines。 【小题 1】 For whom is this text written? 【小题 2】 When leaving the observation areas, the vessel should _____。 【小 题 3】When going side by side with whales, the vessel should 。 【小题 4】What is the shortest safe distance from the whales? A、Tour guides。 B、Whale watchers。

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C、Vessel operators。 D、Government officials。 A、move close to the beach B、increase speed gradually

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8: Directions: Read the following passage. Fill in the numbered blanks by using the information for the passage. Write NO MORE THAN 3 WORDS for each answer. A Low-Carbon Economy (LCE) refers to an economy which has a minimal emission of greenhouse gas (GHG), namely, carbon dioxide into the biosphere(生物圈). Recently, most of the scientists and the public hold the opinion that the climate is changing because there is such an accumulation of CO 2in the atmosphere due to human activities. The over-concentration of these gases is producing global warming that affects long-term climate, with negative impacts on humanity in the foreseeable future. LCE, therefore, is proposed as a means to avoid catastrophic climate change. All nations which are considered carbon intensive societies and societies which are heavily populated should become zero-carbon societies and economies. Several of these countries have promised to become 'low carbon' but not entirely zero carbon, and claim that emissions will be cut by 100% by balancing emissions rather than ceasing all emissions. Nuclear power and the strategies of carbon capture and storage (CCS) have been proposed as the primary means to achieve a LCE while continuing to exploit non-renewable resources. Scientists are afraid, however, whether the spent-nuclear-fuel can be stored, and whether it is secure. Also they are not certain about the costs and time needed to successfully implement CCS worldwide and whether the stored emissions will leak into the biosphere or not. Alternatively, many have proposed renewable energy should be the main basis of a LCE, but, they have their associated problems of high-cost and inefficiency; this is changing, however, since investment and production have been growing significantly in recent times. Furthermore, it has been proposed that to make the transition to an LCE economically attractive we would have to attach a cost (per unit output) to GHGs through means such as emissions trading and/or a carbon tax. A LCE is aimed to integrate all aspects of itself from its manufacturing, agriculture, transportation to power-generation around technologies that produce energy and materials with little GHG emission and thus around populations, buildings, machines and devices which use those energies and materials efficiently and dispose of or recycle its wastes so as to have a minimal output of GHGs. Title: 71 I. 72 : an economy with a minimal output of GHG II. 73 of the present economy: ● global warming ● long-term climate change ● 74 on humanity III. 75 : ● to produce energy and materials with little GHG emission ● to use those energies and materials efficiently ● to have 76 of GHGs IV. 77 to achieve a LCE: ●nuclear power ●the strategies of carbon capture and storage

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● renewable energy ● 78 ● a carbon tax V. 79 : ● spent-nuclear-fuel storage / storage of spent-nuclear-fuel ● 80 ● uncertainty about the costs and time needed

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9:Have you ever felt sick to your stomach during a test? Have you ever been so worried about something that you ended up with a terrible headache? If so, then you know what it's like to feel stress. You've probably heard people say, "Wow, I'm really stressed out.” ___【小题 1】____ But children have lots of things going on in their lives that can cause stress, too. What is stress? Stress is what you feel when you are worried or uncomfortable about something. This worry in your mind can make your body feel bad. You may feel angry, frustrated, scared, or afraid --- which can give you a stomachache or a headache. What causes stress?www.zxxk.com Plenty of things can cause stress in a child's life.___【小题 2】____Good or normal stress might show up when you're called on in class or when you have to give a report. Have you ever gotten butterflies in your stomach or sweaty hands? Those can be signs of good stress. ___【小题 3】____ For example, you may do a better job on your book report if the anxiety inspires you to prepare well before you get up and read it to the class. But bad stress can happen if the stressful feelings keep going over time. You may not feel well if your parents are fighting, if a family member is sick, if you're having problems at school, or if you're going through anything else that makes you upset every day. ____【小题 4】____ Once you recognize that you're feeling stressed, there are several things you can do. You can try talking about what's bothering you with an adult you trust, like a parent or teacher. ___ 【小题 5】 ____ An adult may have ideas about how to solve whatever is worrying you or making you uncomfortable.E. There are ways to reduce stress and manage the stress that's unavoidable. F. That kind of stress isn't going to help you, and it can actually make you sick. G. The trick is to remember that some types of stress are good and others are bad.

10: People from East Asia tend to have more difficulty than those from Europe in 42 facial expressions – and a new report published online in Current Biology explains why. Rachael Jack, University of Glasgow researcher, said that rather than scanning evenly (均匀地) across a face as Westerners do, Easterners 43 their attention on the eyes. “We show that Easterners and Westerners look at different face features to read facial expressions,” Jack said. “Westerners look at the eyes and the mouth in equal measure, whereas Easterners favor the eyes and 44 the mouth.” According to Jack and her colleagues, the discovery shows that human 45 of emotion is more complex than previously believed. As a result, facial expressions that had been considered universally recognizable cannot be used to 46 convey emotion in a cross-cultural situation.

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The researchers studied cultural differences in the 47 of facial expressions by recording the eye movements of 13 Western people and 13 East Asian people while they observed pictures of 48 faces and put them into categories: happy, sad, surprised, fearful, disgusted, angry, or neutral (中立的). They compared how accurately participants read those facial expressions using their particular eye movement strategies. It turned out that Easterners focused much greater attention on the eyes and made 49 more errors than did Westerners. “The cultural difference in eye movements that they show is probably a reflection of cultural difference in facial expressions,” Jack said. “Our data suggest that whereas Westerners use the whole face to convey emotion, Easterners use the eyes more and mouth less.” In short, the data show that facial expressions are not universal signals of human emotion. From here on, 50 how cultural factors have differed in these basic social skills will help our understanding of human emotion. Otherwise, when it comes to communicating emotions across cultures, Easterners and Westerners will find themselves lost in translation.A. focus B. examining C. expressive D. communication E. significantly AB. neglect AC. distinguishing AD. reliably AE. recognition BC. considerate

11: 首先,请阅读下列的应用文: Colourful etching(蚀刻), aquatints and silk-screen prints on porcelain(瓷器), Metro-life four-star rating. Tue to Fri 10am to 5pm. Until Feb 15.0113 247 8245 E、Skool Disco at Corporation Cheesy tunes and school-themed high jinks, place for gathering occasions. 9pm to 2am; £2.1-3 Milton Street. F、The Factory Of Dreams: Inside Mexico’s Soap Operas Stefan Ruiz’s look at Mexico’s soap operas, including Los Ricos Tambien Lloran, watched regularly by 200 million people, yet actually unheard of in the West. Tue to Sat 10am to 5:30pm, free. 请阅读以下个人信息,然后匹配到合适的地方。 56。Lance is interested in interior decoration. He has recently helped his uncle with the decoration of his new house. He now majors in architecture: the designing of buildings. 57。William is an amateur director. He likes to invite some friends together and perform plays. With new high-tech equipment, he even starts to produce DIY(Do-It-Yourself) mini films. He wishes he will be a big name in the film industry one day. 58。Jim is working in a big company and has just got his first-month pan and would like to invite some young fellow workers to have fun this Saturday. 59。Patric is a super fan of classical music. He always finds it a high joy to be lost in some excellent symphonies, like those of Beethoven’s. Recently, he is planning to purchase some musical equipment. 60。Victor is now a college freshman majoring in engineering in another city. At this time of Christmas, he is back at home for the holiday. He plans to invite some of former fellow students in high school for a get-together. 56。Lance A Music Box 57。William B Breathing Space 58。Jim C Hypnotic 59。Patric D Susie Perring 60。Victor E Skool Disco at Corporation F The Factory Of Dreams

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12: 【题文】阅读下面短文,请根据短文后的要求进行答题。 (请注意问题后的字数要求) [1]Keeping a busy social life among lots of friends may keep people slimmer than spending hours on a treadmill, according to scientists. They say that socializing and meeting with friends helps boost levels of ‘brown fat’ in the boby which burns calories to generate heat. [2]Living in a stimulating, social environment was found to reduce abdominal fat in mice by half over four weeks, even if they ate more. US researchers say that social stimulation can by converting white fat into brown, White stores calories and makes us fatter, while brown burns energy to generate heat .Converting white fat into brown is difficult, as we all know, normally requiring long term exposure to cold conditions or activating part of the body’s nervous system [3]However, scientists from Ohio State University now think that having a busy social life is an even more effective way of changing white fat into brown, The team came up with their theory by studying the effects of various living environments on mice.Those who lived alongside a greater number of mice and had more space and toys to stimulate them lost far more weight over the course of the study than their ‘couch potato’ ones. [4]Study author Dr. Mattew During, whose team’s findings appear in journalCell Metabolism said: I’m still amazed at the degree of fat loss that occurs. Explaining how new technology had threatened face-to-face socializing, he added: ‘It’s not just a sedentary lifestyle and high calorie foods, but an increasing lack of social engagement.’ [5]Co-author Dr. Lei Cao said: ‘Loneliness is a profound factor for cancer and death; it’s on par with cigarette smoking. Social engagement is very important’. 【小题 1】What’s the main idea of this passage? (no more than 10 words) 【小题 2】Fill in the blank in Paragraph 2 with proper words. (no more than 5 words) 【小题 3】What’s the purpose of the study of mice? (no more than 20 words)

【小题 4】How does socializing help make people slim? (no more than 15 words) 【小题 5】Translate the underlined sentence into Chinese.

13: 【题文】阅读下面的短文,并根据短文后面的要求答题。 (请注意问题后的字数要求) For years children in the industrial areas of Europe and America seldom left their smoky cities to see the beauties of the countryside.Not that the woods and fields were always far away, but they were too far from the city to permit people to make a round trip between morning and nightfall.What's more, factory workers did not have enough money to send their children on country holidays away from home. In 1907 a young German schoolmaster had an idea which changed this state of affairs. He decided to turn his little schoolhouse into a dormitory for the summer holidays. Anyone who brought his sleeping bag and cooking equipment along could stay there for a very small amount of money. The idea was a success. A few years later the schoolhouse was far too small to hold so many young people who wanted to stay there. So, a dormitory was set up in an old castle nearby. This was the first Youth Hostel. Today young students and workers of every country can meet in the hostels and get to know each other. Some spend

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a week or more in the same hostel, seeing the surrounding sights and meeting the people of the area. Other youths go on foot or by bicycle from place to place, spending a night or two in one hostel, then going to the next. Sometimes an informal program will be organized after the meal, with dances, songs, or short talks followed by a question period. One can _____________________________ about other places, just by meeting people who come from these places. For this reason, a few weeks spent "hostelling" can be just as useful a part of one's education as classes in school. 【小题 1】What does paragraph 2 mainly tell us? (Please answer within10 words.) ______________________________________________________________________ 【小题 2】Which sentence in the text is the closest in meaning to the following one? Some youths stay in a hostel for several days, during which period they go sightseeing and visit the local people. _____________________________________________________________________________ 【小题 3】 Fill in the blank in the 4th paragraph with proper words to complete the sentence. (Please answer within 7 words) _____________________________________________________________________________ 【小题 4】List 3 of the advantages of hostelling according to the text. (Please answer within 15 words.) ____________________________________________________________________________ 【小题 5】Translate the underlined sentence in paragraph 1 into Chinese. _____________________________________________________________________

14:简答题(共 3 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 6 分) 阅读下面短文,根据第 73 至第 75 小题的具体要求,简要回答问题。 The north magnetic pole(磁极)is no longer a resident of Canada.It has drifted across the Canadian Arctic and is nowanglingtoward Siberia. Not to be confused with the geographic North Pole—the northern extremity of the Earth’s axis(地轴),the north magnetic pole(where the Earth’s magnetic field is directed downward)is moving due to natural changes in the Earth’s magnetic field,a process that originates about 3000 kilometers below our feet,in the outer core(核心)of the planet.But scientists are now noticing that the magnetic pole has picked up its pace.

Over the past century,the pole has been migrating at an average speed of about 10 kilometers per year,says Larry Newitt,head of Geomagnetic Laboratory at Natural Resources Canada in Ottawa.Since the 1970s,this speed has increased to about 50 kilometers per year. Scientists are wondering why the speed is increasing,says Newitt.One hypothesis(假说)relates it to “magnetic jerks”,sudden shifts(变化)in the rate of change of the magnetic field.There have been three jerks in the past four decades,each one correlating to an increases in speed. If the north magnetic pole continues at its current rate,it could reach Siberia by 2056.

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“For most of recorded history,the pole has been a part of Canada,and now it’s not,”says Newitt.“It may be a blow to our collective psyche,but other than that,it doesn’t have a major effect on most people’s existence.” 73.Find in the passage a word closest in meaning to the underlined word “angling”. ____________________________________________________________ 74.What could happen to the north magnetic pole by the middle of the 21st century?(回答词数不超过 8 个) ____________________________________________________________ 75.What is the main idea of the passage?(回答词数不超过 8 个) ____________________________________________________________

答案部分

1、 【小题 1】Collecting stamps with themes 【小题 2】other methods of collecting stamps 【小题 3】We should wait for 12 years. 【小题 4】sport(s); astronomy;animal(s) 【小题 5】Teenages

试题分析: 集邮主题各不相同。 除了地点, 时间以外, 还有运动, 天文和十二生肖等。 主题集邮尤受青少年喜爱。 【小题 1】文章前 4 段介绍集邮的不同主题;第 5 段讲主题集邮注意事项;最后一段交代主题集邮的最大困难。 因此,根据结构可以得知整篇文章大意是和主题集邮(Collecting stamps with themes)相关。 【小题 2】文章第一段介绍有按地点,时间为主题的集邮。第二段第二句以后是讲按运动为主题的集邮。第 3,4 段讲按天文和十二生肖为主题的集邮。 因此该句可以看成第一段与 2,3,4,段的段间过渡, 也可以看成 2.3.4 段的中 心句。因此,相对于第一段,这里当然是介绍 other methods of collecting stamps。 【小题 3】该题是问为了收集全十二生肖的邮票我们该怎么办。首先可以把信息定位在第 5 段; 然后找到该段的 第二句(…and a lot of collectors wait patiently for 12 years to collect a full set of them.); 最后以答者的身份改变人 称(they 变为 we ).即 We should wait for 12 years. 【小题 4】该题要考生列出文章提到的三个一般性集邮主题。全文讲到集邮主题有地点,时间,运动,天文和十 二生肖等。但在 2,3,4 段中浓彩笔墨介绍了人们喜爱的运动,天文和十二生肖三个主题。所以答案为 sport(s); astronomy;animal(s)。 【小题 5】根据文章最后一段第一句“主题集邮尤其受青少年的欢迎。因为对于他们来说,有着广泛的可选择范 围。”所以 them 是指人(Teenages) 。 考点:考查阅读表达

2、 【小题 1】blarney

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【小题 2】It is something false or wrong or foolish. 或 It is a false idea or statement. 【小题 3】He was a clever man. 或 He didn’t surrender to British troops.

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【小题 1】 根据句子 A similar word has almost the same meaning as baloney. It even sounds almost the same. The word is blarney 可知。 【小题 2】根据句子 It is used to describe something—usually something someone says—that is false or wrong or foolish 可知; 根据句子 Baloney is an idea or statement that is nothing like the truth 可知。 【小题 3】根据句子 he made them sound like very good excuses 可知;根据句子 But he kept making excuses for postponing the surrender 可知。

3、 【小题 1】The magical tropical rainforest 【小题 2】will/can you find 【小题 3】harm/ destroy the rainforests 【小题 4】They absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the air 【小题 5】The wind.

试题解析:文章叙述了热带雨林,热带雨林所处的地理位置,天然氧吧,以及人类对雨林的破坏,使人们意识到 要保护雨林,减少对环境的破坏。 【小题 1】开篇点题,根据文章开头第一段第一句话 Imagine a magical forest where the trees touch the sky 想象一 片森林, 在森林里树可以触到天空和第二段第一句话 These forests are called tropical rainforests 这些森林被称谓热 带雨林第三四五六段都是对森林的介绍,所以最好的题目是 The magical tropical rainforest。 【小题 2】根据第二段最后一句话 You will find more varieties of trees or animal life here than anywhere else in the world.你将发现比世界上其他任何地方更多的各种各样的树木和野生动物,所以得出答案 will/can you find. 【小题 3】根据第四段空后 Many companies all over the world, especially in the West, have been attacking these rainforests for a variety of reasons – some want to make profit by cutting down trees and selling timber(木材); others are trying to be the only ones to make profit out of medicinal plants. 世界上有许多公司,尤其在西方一直攻击这些雨林,有的是从砍伐和销售木材获利,有的是从药用植物中获利, 所以对人类破坏雨林,所以答案是 harm/ destroy the rainforests。 【小题 4】根据第三段第二句话 They absorb carbon dioxide from around them to process their food and release oxygen into the air.得出答案:They absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the air 【小题 5】根据全句 Even the wind does not find enough space to blow asitpleases.甚至风找不到足够的空间随意的 吹,as 按照(它的意愿) ,所以答案是 the wind . 考点:考查人文地理类文章。

4、 【小题 1】Wellness week focuses on disease prevention. 【小题 2】To focus on/Focusing on.

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【小题 3】Heart disease, cancer, lung disease, obesity. 【小题 4】(open answer) 【小题 5】No smoking in public.

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试题分析: 本文讲述的是在纽约的 Harlem 所进行的对人们的疾病预防知识方面的教育 Wellness week 的情况介绍。 【小题 1 】主旨大意题。根据文章第一段最后一句 It was a wide-ranging effort to educate people about non-communicable diseases: Heart disease, cancer, lung disease, obesity, and so on.说明 Wellness week 聚焦于一些疾 病的预防。 【小题 2】 推理题。 根据文章最后一段“It is not enough to focus on the management of disease through medication,” Dr. Boufford says.说明只关注治疗是不够的,要加强预防工作。 【小题 3】 细节题。 根据文章第一段最后 2 行 educate people about non-communicable diseases: Heart disease, cancer, lung disease, obesity, and so on.。 【小题 4】对于此题,不同的人有不同的观点。可以开发式回答,主要还是是支持为主。 【小题 5】根据本句“New York City has banned smoking in public places, both indoors and outdoors. That is a fantastic example of what can be done 说明这里的 that 就是指上句中的 banned smoking。 考点:考查阅读表达 点评:本文讲述的是在纽约的 Harlem 所进行的对人们的疾病预防知识方面的教育。本文要求考生在阅读理解整 体语篇的基础上,把握文章的真正内涵。要吃透文章的字面意思,从字里行间捕捉有用的提示和线索,这是推理 的前提和基础;要对文字的表面信息进行挖掘加工,由表入里,由浅入深,从具体到抽象,从非凡到一般,通过 分析、综合、判定等,进行深层处理,符合逻辑地推理。不能就是论事,断章取义,以偏概全。要忠实于原文, 以文章提供的事实和线索为依据。

5、 【小题 1】Many factors 【小题 2】regularly 【小题 3】Continous education 【小题 4】your/the heart 【小题 5】entertainment 【小题 6】physical 【小题 7】heart and oxygenation 【小题 8】rich 【小题 9】Conclusion/ Summary 【小题 10】perform better

试题分析:文章介绍了几个提高记忆力的方法,从脑力训练到饮食方面还有心理因素。 【小题 1】原词重现:根据第二段的句子:There are many factors that can cause poor memory like insomnia (失眠), depression and alcohol.可知填:Many factors 【小题 2】 词性转化题: 根据第一段的句子: Like our body, our memory needs regular exercise to be in good condition. 可知填:regularly 【小题 3】原词重现:根据第三段的句子:Reading and attending lectures or programs are sources of continuous education of your brain with beneficial results to your memory.可知填:Continous education

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【小题 4】原词重现:根据第四段的句子:The more social you are, the better it is for your brain. Studies have shown that the brain and heart have a lot to gain from good family and social relationships. 可知填:your/the heart 【小题 5】 词性转化题: 根据第五段的句子: There are many games that can make you an intelligent person as well as entertain you such as chess, puzzles and board games.可知填:entertainment 【小题 6】词性转化题:根据第六段的句子:Exercise physically can improve your memory.可知填:physical 【小题 7】原词重现:根据第六段的句子:Even the simple but regular daily exercise such as fast walking can improve the heart and oxygenation(供氧) of the brain.可知填:heart and oxygenation 【小题 8】 词义归纳题: 根据第七段的句子: Fruit and vegetables are an excellent source of antioxidants (抗氧化剂) and vitamins that can help and benefit the nervous system.可知填:rich 【小题 9】归纳题:根据表格右边的句子:可知是这篇文章的总结,填:Conclusion/ Summary 【小题 10】词性转化题:根据最后一段的句子:The more we practice our brains and memory, the better their performance will be.可知填:perform better 考点:考查任务型阅读

6、 【小题 1】C 【小题 2】A 【小题 3】E 【小题 4】D 【小题 5】F

试题分析: 【小题 1】从 Americans are far more knowledgeable…where the trend goes…tea is enjoying asimilar change…tea houses are springing up to make even longtime coffee drinkers considerswitching drinks. 知,该段主要讲述美国人对 茶叶的需求增加,口味从咖啡向茶转变的趋势,所以选 C 项。 【小题 2】 从 Tea is available in more places than ever.…annual sales of the drink grew to 4.6billion from 1.8 billion.…知, 该段主要讲述茶叶的销量增长,逐渐得到发展,所以选 A 项。 【小题 3 】从 …that come from the leaves of the plant Camellia Sinensis have been shown tocontain health benefits. …But for Camellia Sinensis the evidence is powerful…知,该段主要讲述一种野茶树 Camellia Sinensis,所以 选 E 项。 【小题 4】从…can do to reduce their cancer risk I tell them to drink real tea…at New York City’s DStrange—Cornell Cancer Prevention Center.知,该段主要讲述茶叶能减少患癌的几率,所以选 D 项。 【小题 5】从 Among those inspired to become a green tea drinker is Tess Ghilaga a New Yor kwriter…says Ghilaga 33. …Now Ghilaga and her husband habitually make tea…“you still getsuch a kick from it, ” says Ghilaga. 知, 该段主要 讲述了一个叫做 Tess Ghilaga 的女人对茶叶的看法,所以选 F 项。 考点:考查信息匹配 点评:文章层次结构清晰,上下文联系紧密,做题时,先通读全文,熟悉各选项,填句子的时候注意密切联系上 下文,认真体会上下文之间的联系,填好之后可以代入检查核对。

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7、 【小题 1】C 【小题 2】B 【小题 3】A 【小题 4】D

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试题分析:本文是给那观察鲸鱼的人的建议。 【小题 1】C 推理题。根据文章 1,2 行 The Department of Fisheries and Oceans has developed guidelines for whale watching in Johnstone Strait, where killer whales are found on a daily basis each summer。 说明本文是给那些观察鲸鱼 的人而写的建议。故 C 正确。 【小题 2】B 细节题。根据第五条建议 Leave the area slowly, gradually moving faster when you are more than 300 meters from the whales。说明要逐渐加速离开,故 B 正确。 【小题 3】A 细节题。根据第 8 条建议 Keep at low speeds and remain in the same direction if travelling side by side with whales。说明要和鲸鱼同一个方向运动,故 A 正确。 【小题 4】 D 细节题。 根据第二条建议 Approach no closer than 100 meters, then stop the boat but keep the engine on 说明 100 米是安全距离,故 D 项正确。 考点:考查信息筛选类短文 点评:本文属于信息筛选类短文,文本所给信息非常丰富,要求考生从中选出适合题目要求的信息。解此类题目 时, 考生可以先阅读题目和选项, 了解具体要求, 然后再仔细阅读文章, 认真筛选甄别, 这样的阅读就有的放矢, 可以大大提高阅读的速度和效率。

8、 71. Low-Carbon Economy/LCE 72. Definition / Concept 73. Consequences 74. negative impacts 75. Aim(s) / Aim(s) of LCE 76. a minimal output 77. proposed means 78. emissions trading 79. Concern / Worry / Anxiety 80. security 略

9、 【小题 1】B 【小题 2】G 【小题 3】A 【小题 4】F

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【小题 5】C

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试题分析:本文在讲如何区分好的压力与坏的压力,正常对待。 【小题 1】B 与上文中 You've probably heard people say 相响应故先 B 项。 【小题 2】 G 上句提到许多事情会给孩子带来压力, 紧接着技巧是记住哪些是好的哪些是不好的。 与下文中 Good or normal stress might show up when you're called on in class or when you have to give a report 相照应。 【小题 3】A 上文提到 这是好的压力,接下来其好处是帮助人更好的完成某些事情。 【小题 4】F 这段提到不好的压力的坏处是不仅不会帮助到你还会使你生病。 【小题 5】C 上文提到 你能谈论与长辈谈论这些问题,然后就是提出你心里所想的,表达你的感受。故选 C 项。 考点:日常生活类阅读

10、 【小题 1】AC 【小题 1】A 【小题 1】AB 【小题 1】D 【小题 1】AD 【小题 1】AE 【小题 1】C 【小题 1】E 【小题 1】B 略

11、 BFACE 略

12、 【小题 1】Socializing keeps you slim/Keeping a busy social life makes people slim 【小题 2】aid weight loss/help lose weight 【小题 3】 To show having a busy social life is an even more effective way of changing white fat into brown; They want to show the advantage of a busy social life To show the part socializing plays in changing white fat into brown 【小题 4】by changing white fat into brown which burns calories to generate heat; Socializing changes white fat into brown which burns calories to generate heat 【小题 5】在研究期间,和那些总是呆着不动的小鼠相比,有更多伙伴、更大空间和更多玩具的实验鼠减肥效果 更明显。

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试题分析: 【小题 1】根据文章第一段第一行 Keeping a busy social life among lots of friends may keep people slimmer 说明本文 的话题就是 Socializing keeps you slim。 【小题 2】本段讨论的正是 social stimulation 能让人减肥。 【小题 3】本文的话题是关于 Socializing 能让人减肥,告诉我们 a busy social life 的好处。 【小题 4】根据文章第二段第三行 by converting white fat into brown 说明是通过改变 white fat 的方法来减肥。 【小题 5】本句的翻译难点在于对这几个词“stimulate” “couch potato”的翻译过于死板,翻译不通。要根据上下 文的语义来猜测这些词的意思。 考点:考查科普类短文阅读 点评:本文讲述了一项关于减肥的研究。以小老鼠的例子告诉人们应该积极参加社交活动多锻炼,而不是总是呆 在不动。以细节题的考查为主,仍然要求考生在阅读的时候关注重要的关键点。

13、 【小题 1】How the first Youth Hostel came into existence/ How the first Youth Hostel began 【小题 2】Some spend a week or more in the same hostel, seeing the surrounding sights and meeting the people of the area. 【小题 3】learn a lot (of things) / get to know a lot 【小题 4】① Breathe fresh air ② enjoy the beauties of the countryside ③ learn things about other places ④ make new friends 【小题 5】并不是树林和田野总是很遥远,而是因为他们离城市较远,人们要当天往返是做不到的。

试题分析: 【小题 1】从第二段最后一句总结句 This was the first Youth Hostel 可知前面讲述了它是怎样形成的。 【小题 2】从第三段第二句可得知答案。 【小题 3】从文章最后一句 a few weeks spent "hostelling" can be just as useful a part of one's education as classes in school 可知在 Youth Hostel 可以学到很多东西。 【小题 4】从文章第一,三,四段可总结得知。 【小题 5】注意句型 not...but 不是...而是.。 考点:百科知识类短文阅读简答 点评:本篇阅读简答题内容比较简单,集中考查细节较多,在阅读时注意捕捉关键的细节信息,做好标志,培养 归纳概括能力。

14、73.Moving/Migrating 74.It could reach Siberia 75.The north magnetic pole is moving faster. 73. 按照上下文意思“移动,迁移”。

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74. 按照此段意思,应该总结为“能够达到西伯利亚”。 75. 抓住关键词:magnetic ,moving。

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