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分词作状语--独立主格


分词作状语:
分词和分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式和伴随 情况。在表示时间、原因、条件、让步和方式时,通常可转换为相应的状语从句, 表示方式和伴随情况时,可以转换为一个并列的谓语成分。 例 如 : Seeing the teacher entering the room,the students stood up.(=When the students saw the teacher entering the room,they stood up.) Heated,ice will be changed into water.(=When it is heated...) Being excited, I couldn’t go to sleep.(=As I was excited,I couldn’t go to sleep.) I stood there, listening to the broadcast.(=I stood there and listened to the broadcast.) The children went away laughing.(=The children went away.They laughed as they went.) Knowing all this,they made me pay for the damage.(=Although they know all this... (3)分词作状语与主语的关系。 A. 现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关 系是主动关系。 例如:He went out shutting the door behind him. Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help. B. 过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之 间的关系是被动关系。 例如:Given more attention,the trees could have grown better. Faced with difficulties,we must try to overcome them. (4)分词作状语时前面可用连词。 when,while,once,if,unless,though 等引导的状语从句, 若其主语与主句主语相同 时,可保留该副词连接词,其余部分则化简为分词短语。 例如:When (being) free,I’ll fetch you. While walking along the street early in the morning,he saw her. If falling ill,I’ll see my doctor.如果生病我会去看医生。 Once completed,this power station supplies the nearby towns and villages with electricity. Even though given every opportunity,they would not try. Though knowing the truth,he remained silent. Unless (being) rich,I am not going abroad. (5)分词作状语时,要特别注意其逻辑主语须和谓语动词的主语一致,否则分 词必须有自己的主语。 这种带主语的分词结构称作分词的独立结构, 或独立主格。 例如:The rain having stopped,the soldiers continued their match. The boys returned,their face covered with sweat. 〈注〉有时也可用“with(或 without)+名词(或代词宾格)+分词”的结构,表示伴 随情况。 例如:He fell asleep with the lamp burning.

The teacher entered the classroom,with a bag (being)in his hand. (6)分词作连词引导状语从句。 这些分词有 :provided (or provided that) , providing that, supposing,seeing (that), considering 等。 例如: You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting provided you don’t mind taking the night train. I’ll go,providing you go too. Supposing it rains,what shall we do? Seeing (that) she is old enough to get married,I don’t think you can stop her. Considering he has been learning English only for a year,he speaks it quite well. (7)动词不定式和分词作状语的区别。 A. 分词作状语一般表示伴随,而不定式常常表示目的。 例如:They stood by the roadside talking about the plan.他们站在路边谈论着这 个计划。(伴随) They stood by the roadside to talk about the plan.他们站在路边, 为的是谈论这个 计划。(目的) B. 分词作状语放在句子开头,除表示原因之外,有时表示时间或条件。动词 不定式作状语时,除了表示目的以外,还表示结果或原因。 例如:Reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch.由于在专心读书,他忘了 吃午饭的时间。(原因) Reading carefully,he found something he had not known before.他仔细读书时, 发 现了一些从前不知道的东西。(时间) Reading carefully,you’ll learn something new. 只要你仔细阅读,你会学到一些 新的东西。(条件) His family was too poor to support him.他的家庭太穷,不能维持他的生活。(结 果) The boy is not tall enough to reach the book shelf. 这男孩个子不够高, 手伸不到 书架。(结果) We are glad to hear the news.我们很高兴听到这消息。(原因) 2) 现在分词和过去分词作状语时的用法比较 不管是现在分词还是过去分词作状语,如果单独作状语,其逻辑主语必须和主句 的主语一致。 分词作状语通常可以转换成一个相应的状语从句,如果状语从句中 的谓语动词为被动结构, 就用过去分词; 如果状语从句中的谓语动词为主动结构, 就用现在分词。 有时为了强调, 分词前可带连词 when, while, if, though, as if, unless 等一起作状语,以便使句子的意思更清楚、更连贯。例如: Working hard (If you work hard), you will succeed. 如果你努力,你会成功的。 [b] Defeated (= Though he was defeated), he remained a popular boxer. 虽然他被击败了,但他仍然是一个受人喜爱的拳击手。 独立主格 (一) : 独立主格结构的构成: 名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;

名词(代词)+形容词; 名词(代词)+副词; 名词(代词)+不定式; 名词(代词) +介词短语构成。 (二) 独立主格结构的特点: 1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。 2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定 式,介词等是主谓关系。 3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 举例: The test finished, we began our holiday. = When the test was finished, we began our holiday. The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. This done, we went home. The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. He came into the room, his ears red with cold. He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.


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