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高中英语Unit11TheMediaSectionⅡLesson2&Lesson3精讲课时语法北师大版必修

Unit 11 The Media Section Ⅱ Lesson 2 & Lesson 3

03 精讲课时语法 [语法·预备役] ——动名词
判断下列句子中的动名词在句中的语法功能 1. The classic advertisement is one that gives information about finding certain products.( ) 答案:介词宾语 2. Because of the advertising boom, people are used to seeing high standards of visual design.( ) 答案:介词宾语 3. ...the main purpose of the advertisement is making customers spend money.( ) 答案:表语 4. The top advertisers of today believe that using humour as well as new and unusual ideas to surprise people is important in modern advertisements.( ) 答案:主语
[语法·讲座] 动名词由“动词+?ing”构成,是一种非谓语动词形式。 动名词具有动词的特征,在句中起名词的作用,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语 等。 一、动名词的时态和语态(以 write 为例)

时态

主动语态

被动语态

一般时 完成时

writing having written

being written having been written

注:其否定形式是在 doing 前加上 not。 ①Thank you for having taken so much trouble to help. 谢谢你费力帮忙。 ②I don't like being laughed at in public. 在公共场合下,我不喜欢被别人嘲笑。 二、动名词的语法功能 动名词具有名词的性质,因此在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语等。 1. 动名词作主语 (1)动名词作主语时多表示经常性的、习惯性的动作,且谓语用单数形式。

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Collecting information about children's health is his job. 收集儿童健康状况的信息是他的工作。

名师点睛 动名词和不定式都可以作主语,动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性行为,不定式作 主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。作宾语时的情况也是如此。 ①Playing with fire is dangerous. 玩火危险。(泛指) ②Be careful! To play with fire will be dangerous. 小心点!玩火会带来危险。(指一具体动作) (2)形式主语 it 代替动名词作主语。常见句式: It is/feels funny doing sth.做某事很滑稽。 It's a waste of time doing sth.做某事是浪费时间。 It's useless/worthwhile/worth doing sth.做某事没用/值得/值得。 It's no good/no use/no fun doing sth.做某事没好处/没用/没意思。 It is worthwhile reading such a wonderful novel. 读这样一部精彩的小说很值得。 It is no use arguing with him about such a matter. 为这种事情和他争论没有用。 2. 动名词作表语 动名词作表语时句子的主语常是表示无生命的事物的名词或 what 引导的名词性从句。 表语动名词与主语通常是对等的关系,表示主语的内容,主语、表语可互换位置。 ①Your task is cleaning the windows. (Cleaning the windows is your task). 你的任务就是擦窗户。 ②What I hate most is being laughed at. (Being laughed at is what I hate most). 我最痛恨的就是被别人嘲笑。 辨析:现在分词作表语与动名词作表语

现在分词 说明主语的性质、特征、状态等,主语和表语不可以互换位置

动名词

解释主语的内容,主语和表语的位置可以互换

①My job is interesting.

我的工作很有趣。(现在分词)

②My job is teaching.

我的工作是教学。(动名词)

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3. 动名词作宾语 (1)作动词的宾语。可接动名词作宾语的常见动词可用下面的口诀记住: 避免错过少延期(avoid, miss, postpone) 建议完成多练习(advise, finish, practise) 喜欢想象禁不住(enjoy, imagine, can't help) 承认否定与嫉妒(admit, deny, envy) 逃避冒险莫原谅(escape, risk, excuse) 忍受保持不介意(stand, keep, mind) ①Do you mind passing me that dictionary? 你介意递给我那本词典吗? ②He admitted having broken the window. 他承认打破了窗户。 (2)英语中有一些动词短语也常跟动名词作宾语。常见的跟动名词作宾语的动词短语有 insist on, object to, be good at, lead to, put off, give up, look forward to, feel like, devote to, get used to, pay attention to, be worth 等。 He insisted on doing it in his own way. 他坚持要按照自己的方法做。
名师点睛 有些动词后面加动名词和不定式均可,但意义不同:remember, forget, regret, mean, try, stop, go on。 (1)在 remember, forget, regret 后跟 v.?ing 形式时,v.?ing 形式表示动作发生在上 述动词表示的动作之前;上述动词后跟不定式时,不定式表示的动作发生在上述动词表示的 动作之后。 (2)mean 后接不定式时,意为“决意,打算”;mean 后接 v.?ing 形式时,意为“意味 着,表明”。 (3)try 后接不定式时,意为“努力,设法”;try 后接 v.?ing 形式时,意为“尝试, 试用”。 ①I regret accepting your advice. 我后悔听了你的建议。(accept 发生在 regret 之前) ②I regret to tell you that I won't accept your advice. 我十分遗憾地告诉你,我不能接受你的意见。(tell 发生在 regret 之后) 4. 动名词作定语 动名词作定语常置于被修饰词之前,表示被修饰词的某种用途或性能。
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a walking stick=a stick (which is used) for walking 拐杖 a washing machine=a machine (which is used) for washing 洗衣机 a reading room=a room (which is used) for reading 阅览室 辨析:动名词作定语与现在分词作定语

动名词 动名词作定语通常表示它所修饰的名词的用途,其间不存在逻辑上的主谓关系

现在分词

现在分词(短语)作定语与所修饰的名词之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,表示该 动作的主动和进行

①This passage can be used as listening materials.

这篇文章可以被用作听力材料。(动名词)

②As we all know, China is a developing country.

众所周知,中国是一个发展中国家。(现在分词)

三、动名词的复合结构

1. 动名词的复合结构作主语。

(1)形容词性物主代词+动名词

(2)名词所有格+动名词

Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us.

他们前来帮忙对我们来说是个巨大的鼓舞。

2. 动名词的复合结构作宾语。

(1)形容词性物主代词+动名词

(2)名词所有格+动名词

(3)人称代词宾格+动名词

(4)名词+动名词

①Do you mind my/me opening the door?

你介意我打开门吗?

②I can't imagine Mary's/Mary marrying such a young man.

我无法想象玛丽竟然嫁给了这么一个年轻人。

[强化·印证]

用所给词的适当形式填空

1. I don't mind ____________ (the children, play) in the garden, but I can't

have them walking over my flowers.

答案:the children ('s) playing

2. I hate ____________ (look) at when I am doing lessons.

答案:being looked

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3. The boy was afraid of ____________ (leave) alone in the room at night. 答案:being left 4. Something has been done to prevent workers from ____________ (injure) when they are working. 答案:being injured 5. I can't understand ____________ (they, forbid) to go to the meeting. 答案:their/them being forbidden 6. He couldn't stand ____________ (make) fun of when his wife was present. 答案:being made 7. This novel is not worthy of ____________ (make) into a film. 答案:being made 8. The patient insisted on ____________ (operate) on even if there was little hope of success. 答案:being operated 9. He regretted ____________ (make) the decision too hastily. 答案:having made 10. ____________ (he, tell) a lie made his mother quite angry. 答案:His telling
[考点·研讨] 1. His________(elect) our chairman made us think of a lot. 答案研讨:being elected 句意:他当选为我们的主席使我们想起了许多许多。根据 句意可知应用动名词的被动,故填 being elected。 2. As Jack left his membership card at home, he wasn't allowed ________(go) into the sports club. 答案研讨:to go 句意:因为杰克把会员证忘在家里了,所以他不被允许进入运动俱 乐部。本题容易填写 going,此处不是 allow doing 短语,而是 allow sb. to do sth. 的 被动语态,所以填 to go。 3. ________(hear) how others react to the book you have just read creates an added pleasure. 答案研讨:Hearing 句意:听到别人对你刚读的书作出的反应制造出了更多的快乐。 分析句子结构可知,句子的谓语动词为 creates,所以前面部分作主语,此处用动名词的一 般式作主语。 4. ________ (understand) your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions.
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答案研讨:Understanding'句意:对你自己的交流需求及交流风格加以理解和学会表达 你的爱和情感一样重要。本题考查非谓语动词作主语。逻辑主语与 understand 之间为主动 关系,设空处需用非谓语动词的主动形式。
5. The film star wears sunglasses. Therefore, he can go shopping without ________ (recognize).
答案研讨:being recognized'句意:那个电影明星戴着太阳镜,因此,他可以在不被 认出的情况下去购物。本题考查非谓语动词。without 为介词,后接动词的动名词形式, recognize 与 he 为逻辑上的被动关系,故答案为 being recognized。
[达标·演练] Ⅰ. 完成句子 1. ________________ argue with Shylock. 试图和夏洛克争论是没有用的。 答案:It is useless trying to 2. I regret ________________. 我真后悔没赶上那次报告会。 答案:missing the report 3. ________________doesn't necessarily mean ____________. 你正确未必就意味着我错了。 答案:Your being right; my being wrong 4. ________________, the student made a face. 这个同学脸上没有笑容,相反做了怪脸。 答案:Instead of smiling 5. I apologize for ________________ you. 我向你道歉,对你那样生气。 答案:being so angry with Ⅱ. 单句改错 1. I'm looking forward to see him again. _______________________________________________________ 答案:see→seeing 2. It is very cold outside. I feel like to drink something hot. _______________________________________________________ 答案:to drink→drinking 3. This felt funny watching myself on TV. _______________________________________________________
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答案:This→It 4. I being ill worried my parents greatly. _______________________________________________________ 答案:I→My 5. -I must apologise for letting not you know ahead of time. -That's all right. _______________________________________________________ 答案:letting not→not letting Ⅲ. 单句语法填空(不多于 3 个单词) 1. Lydia doesn't feel like ________(study) abroad. Her parents are old. 答案:studying 句意:Lydia 不想出国学习,她的父母都上年纪了。feel like doing sth.“想要做某事”,动名词在此作宾语。 2. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks ________ (open) and closed could be heard outside the classroom. 答案:being opened 句意:开始上课时,开关课桌的声音在教室外都能够听到。本题 考查动名词的复合结构作宾语的用法。of 是介词,其后接动名词的复合结构作宾语,desks 与 open 和 close 之间均是逻辑上的动宾关系,故动名词须用被动形式。 3. I had great difficulty ________ (find) the suitable food on the menu in that restaurant. 答案:finding 句意:我在那家餐馆里很难找到合适的饭菜。have difficulty (in) doing sth.为固定搭配,意为“做某事有困难”。 4. He used ________(drive) on the right in China, but he soon got used ________ (drive) on the left in England. 答案:to drive; to driving 句意:他过去在中国靠右边驾车,但他很快习惯了在英 国靠左边驾车。used to do sth.“过去常常做某事”;be/get used to doing sth.“习惯 于干某事”,to 是介词。 5. I really appreciate ________ (have) time to relax with you in this beautiful country. 答案:having 句意:我很感谢能和你一起在这个美丽的国家放松自己。appreciate(感 激)后通常接动名词作宾语,故填 having。 6. ________(expose) to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one's skin. 答案:Being exposed 句意:暴露在太阳底下太长时间对皮肤有害。所填部分为句子 主语,故用动名词形式,根据句意,expose 应为被动式。 7. The artist made up his mind to devote all he could to ________ (improve) his
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English before going abroad. 答案:improving 句意:这位艺术家决定在出国之前倾其一切提高英语。句中的 he
could 后省略了 do,作 all 的定语,即 devote all he could (do) to improving his English; devote...to...中的 to 是介词,后接名词、动名词或代词宾格作宾语。
8. All the staff in our company are considering ________ (go) to the city centre for the fashion show.
答案:going 由语境可知,consider 此处意为“考虑”,后接 doing 作宾语。 9. -Can I smoke here? -Sorry. We don't allow ________ (smoke) here. 答案:smoking 句意:——我可以在这儿吸烟吗?——抱歉。我们这儿不允许吸烟。 allow 常用结构为 allow sb. to do sth.以及 allow doing sth.。 10. The PLA soldiers are willing to risk ________ (lose) their lives to rescue those tourists caught in the flood. 答案:losing 句意:解放军官兵们甘愿冒生命危险来营救被洪水所困的游客们。risk 后面只能跟动名词作宾语,意为“冒……之险”。
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