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01语法专项一名词答案


初三英语下(1)
一、名词的分类

语法专项一——名词

现在开始我们进入语法专项复习。首先要复习的是名词。

类别 人名、地名、国名等 专用名词 组织、团体、机构等 语言、星期、月份等 个体名词 可数名词 集体名词 普通名词 物质名词 不可数名词 抽象名词 注意:

例词 Lucy, Shanghai, China the United Nations English, Friday, March man, desk, pen family, people, police snow, air, water friendship, knowledge

1.专用名词前一般不加定冠词,并要大写单词的首字母。如:Japanese, January, Africa 等。 2.由普通名词构成的专用名词,其前一般要加定冠词 the(表节日的词除外),并大写其中实词的首 字母。如:the Great Wall, the Communist Party of China 等。 二、名词复数的的构成规则及读音 (一) 种类 变化 读音 在清辅音后读/s/ 一般情况 在词尾加-s 在浊辅音和元音后读/z/ 例词 book-books, map-maps mouth-mouths, brother-brothers box-boxes, bus-buses, watch-watches city-cities, family-families knife-knives, leaf-leaves

以 s, x, sh, ch 结尾 在词尾加-es

/iz/

以辅音字母+y 结尾 变“y”为“i”加-es

/iz/

以 f 或 fe 结尾

变 f/fe 为 v,加-es

/vz/

(二)少数名词的复数形式是不规则的。 man→men, woman→women, child→children, foot→feet, tooth→teeth, policeman→policemen, Frenchman→Frenchmen (三)某国人变复数。 1.中国人 a Chinese→Chinese(复数) 日本人 a Japanese→Japanese(复数)
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2.英语国 an Englishman→Englishmen 3.美国人 an American→Americans 埃及人 an Egyptian→Egyptians 澳大利亚人 an Australian→Australians (四)单、复数相同的名词。

法国人

a Frenchman→Frenchmen

阿拉伯人 an Arab→Arabs 德国人 a German→Germans

Chinese→Chinese, Japanese→Japanese, fish→fish, deer→deer, sheep→sheep 其中 fish 指鱼类时, 其 复数是 fishes。 (五)复合名词的复数形式。 1.复数通常体现在里面的主体词上。 passer-by→passers-by(过路人) sister-in-law→sisters-in-law(嫂子) runner-up→runners-up(亚军) looker-on→lookers-on(旁观者)

2.无主体名词,复数体现在最后一个词上。 go-between→go-betweens(媒人) 3.第一个名词是 man 和 woman 时,两个组成部分都有复数。 man doctor→men doctors(男医生) woman teacher→women teachers(女教师)

有些名词既是可数名词,又是不可数名词,但意义有所不同。 work(工作)-a work(著作,工事) paper(纸)-a paper(报纸、证件、试卷) wood(木头)-a wood(小森林) glass(玻璃)-a glass(玻璃杯) tea(茶)-a tea(一种茶)(表示种类) room(余地,空间)-a room(房间)

(六)字母、数字、引语或缩略(词)语的复数形式是在其后加’s 或 s。 1.There are two“f”s in the word“office”. 2.Many VIPs are coming to our city. 三、不可数名词量的表示方法 1.在汉语中不少名词是可数的,但在英语中却是不可数的;因而不能说 a bread, a news, a paper 等, 如果要表示这些不可数名词的数量时,要用一类“可数”的词做定语来表示其量,即用“计量词”+of 表示。 a piece of news 一则新闻 a piece of bread 一块面包 a piece of advice 一条建议 单词 office 里有两个 f。 许多重要人物将到我们市来。

a piece of work 一件工作 a bottle of ink 一瓶墨水

2.用 much, a little, little, a lot of 等表示多少。 I have a little time left. 我还剩下一点时间。 There is much water in the lake. 湖里有很多水。有些名词后以 s 结尾,但它们不是复数。 physics, maths, politics, news 四、名词变形容词 (一)在某些国名后加 ese 构成形容词,表示“……国的”。 Japan→Japanese(日本的),China→Chinese(中国的) (二)在某些地名或人名后面加 ian 构成形容词。 Egypt→Egyptian(埃及的),Dickens→Dickensian(狄更斯的) (三)在以元音结尾的地名上加上 an 或 n 构成形容词。 Hungary→Hungarian(匈牙利的),Australia→Australian(澳大利亚的)
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(四)在名词后面加 ful 构成形容词,表示“具有……性质的;充满的”。 use→useful,care→careful(小心的)help→helpful(有帮助的), joy→joyful(十分喜悦的) (五)在表示人的名词后加 ly 构成形容词,这种形容词通常具有赞美的意味。 friend→friendly(友好的),brother→brotherly(兄弟般的), comrade→comradely(同志般的),love→lovely(可爱的) (六)在某些名词后面加 y,表示“充满……的”。 cloud→cloudy(多云的),wind→windy(有风的),sun→sunny(阳光充足的), rain→rainy(有雨的)dirt→dirty(脏的) (七)在某些名词后加 less 构成形容词,表示“没有……的”。 hope→hopeless(无助的),use→useless(无用的), care→careless(粗心的),fear→fearless(无畏的) (八)在物质名词后面加 en 构成形容词。 wood→wooden(木制的),wool→woolen(羊毛的),earth→earthen(土制的) (九)在某些名词后面加 ous 构成形容词,表示“具有……的性质的”。 danger→dangerous(危险的),fame→famous(著名的), courage→courageous(英勇的) (十)在部分表示学科的名词后加 al 构成形容词。 physics→physical(物理的),politics→political(政治的)

五、名词所有格的构成 名词情况 有生命的单数名词 有生命的复数名词 表示时间、距离、国家等的 名词 表示几个人共同拥有的名 词 表示每个人各自拥有的名 词 表示无生命的名词 注意: 1.名词所有格修饰的名词,如果前面已经提到,这个名词往往省略,以免重复。 This dictionary is not mine; its Lucy’s. 2.名词所有格后面跟表示住宅、学校、店铺等名词时,这些名词习惯上可省略。 go to Uncle Wang’s (去王叔叔家) at the doctor’s (在医务室)
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构成方法 +’s 以 s 结尾+’ 不以 s 结尾+’s

举例 Jack’s father, Tom’s pen the Teachers’ Office the Children’s homework half an hour’s walk(步行半小时的路程)

只在最后一个词 后+’s

Mike and John’s desk(两人共有) Mike’s and John’s desks(每个人都有,desk 用复数) the legs of the desk

在每个名词后+’s of+名词

3.双重所有格。’s 结构也可以用于 of 结构之后, a friend of my father’s(我父亲的一位朋友),a play of Shakespeare’s (莎士比亚的一部戏剧)。这种形式叫做双重所有格。

六、名词在句中的作用 名词的作用 主语 表语 宾语 宾语补足语 定语 同位语 状语 强调: (一)做主语 名词在句中能做很多成分,但做主语是它的主要用途之一。下面我们应注意名词做主语时的几种 情况: 1.名词本身是以 s 结尾,其谓语动词应为单数。 They think maths is very easy to learn. 他们认为数学很容易学。(切不可将 maths 误认做复数,再将动词错用成 are。) 2.表示时间、金钱、距离的名词加 s 后,应视为一个整体,故谓语动词用单数。 Two hours is enough for us to get there. 对我们来说两个小时足够到达那儿的。 My father teaches English. He is a student. She borrowed a book from the library. They called him Uncle Wang. Can you come to my birthday party? Miss Gao, our English teacher, is very young. I have told you many times. 例句

3.短语 neither…nor, either…or, not only…but also 连接主语时,像 there be 一样应根据就近原则决定 动词的形式。 There is a truck and two cars on the road. he nor I am a Frenchman. 他和我都不是法国人。 路上有一辆卡车和两辆小汽车。 Neither

4.短语 a pair of+名词复数时,其主语是 a pair,故谓语动词应用单数。 A pair of shoes is under the bed. 一双鞋在床下面。 5.名词+介词(with, except…)+名词,其谓语动词应视前面的名词而定,与后面名词无关。 The teacher with the students is planting trees on the hill. 那位老师和同学们正在山上种树。

6.兼有双重身份的人做主语时,其谓语动词用单数形式。 A worker and writer is going to give us a talk this afternoon. 今天下午一位工人作家要给我们做报告。 (二)做定语 1.名词做定语时,一般用单数形式。 paper tigers(纸老虎),work places(工作的地方) 2.名词做定语时,个别情况也用复数形式。 goods train(货车),sports meet(运动会) 3.名词做定语时,少数情况修饰词和被修饰词都有复数形式。 woman teacher→women teachers man doctor→men doctors
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语法专项练习—名词
一、根据句意及所给首字母或音标写出完整正确的单词。 1.China joined WTO at the b of the 21st century. . and Sunday. with you.

2.Titanic is one of the most interesting m 3.When we say weekend, we mean S 4.It’s going to rain. You’d better take an u 5.Roy quickly pushes the 6.Last week we saw many old things on s 7.Jim is an English boy. He’s from E 8.There are three members in my f 9.The policeman asked her to give a d .

t Paul. in the museum.

. They are my father, mother and I. of the man who grabbed her handbag. .

10.The poor people who received money from Bill Gates thanked him for his g 11.In autumn most tree l turn yellow and fall down to the ground. ( )very quickly.

12.Computers can work out difficult 13.-Shall we go on a p

on the hill this Sunday?-Good idea. I’ll take some food and drink. for the information.

14.A lot of people often search the I 15. is the seventh month of the year.

二、用所给单词的适当形式填空。 1.The _______ was amazed at what he said. (library) 2.Do you know the _______ between the two words? (different) 3.My uncle is a very good _______. I will learn surfing from him. (surf) 4.March 8th is _______ Day(woman). 5.The New Year _______ are so beautiful that everyone is looking forward to the party in the hall this afternoon(decorate). 6.The _______ in our school library look very old.(shelf) 7.One day a box with cards on the streets_______ with“Tr”fell out of her window and landed on top of a bus.(begin) 8.They played so _______ that they lost the football match.(care) 9.Tsunami(海啸)attacked South-east Asia. Many people died and a number of children became_______. (home) 10.Your present is in one of the _______. Can you guess? (box)

三、单项选择 1.It is said that two ______and three ______ are going to visit our school next week.
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A.German; Japaneses

B.Germany; Japan

C.Germanys; Japans

D.Germans; Japanese

2.There’re ______ students in our grade. A.hundreds of B.three hundreds of C.three hundreds D.three hundred of

3.After playing football for more than half an hour, the students took _______ rest. A.a few minute’s B.a few minutes’ C.a little minute’s D.a little minutes’

4.-Who made a phone call for me just now, David? -I don’t know, but it was a girl’s_______. A.sound B.number C.answer D.voice

5.Which sign can be seen on the box with glasses? A.DANGER B.NO PARKING C.FRAGILE D.ENTRANCE

6.We should have _______in ourselves and we will make it if we have a try. A.success B.confidence C.progress D.knowledge

7.Excuse me, waiter. We’re leaving. Can you bring me the _______, please? A.money B.note C.bill D.list

8.She has been in Tianjin for ten years. Tianjin has become her second _______. A.family B.house C.home D.room

9.John is an active language learner. He always takes a _______ with him. A.story B.sentence C.dictionary D.conversation

10.The sign“BUSINESS HOURS”can be seen in a _______. A.shop B.school C.park D.museum

11.Lucy tried her best to find a good job in the city, but she had no _______. A.trouble B.idea C.luck D.time

12.The Englishman, Stephenson, invented _______. A.the ship B.the car C.the plane D.the train

13.If you don’t take more _______, you’ll get fat. A.medicine B.lessons C.exercise D.photos

14.-Dad, when will you be free? You agreed to go to the seaside with me four days ago. -I am sorry, Jean. But I think I will have a _______ holiday soon. A.four-days B.four-day C.four days D.four day

15.Twelve _______ were hurt, but no _____ were lost in that accident. A.person; life B.people; lives C.peoples; lives D.persons; life

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