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高考非谓语动词考点回顾和总结


高考非谓语动词考点回顾和总结 1.作状语时,doing, having done, being done , having been done 和 done 的区别 1) doing 表示非谓语动作与谓语动作同时发生或几乎同时发生,且表示一个主 动的动作。 ▲ e.g.: The students left the hall, laughing and talking. Hearing the news, we jumped with joy. (几乎同时发生) 2) having done 表示非谓语动作在谓语动作之前发生, 且表示一个主动的动作, 一般不作定语。 ▲ e.g.: Having finished his homework, he went to bed. 3) being done 常表示一个正在进行的被动动作。常作定语,宾语,宾补等, 但作状语非常少。 ▲ e.g.: She couldn't stand being laughed at. The project being discussed is very important. I heard an English song being sung when I came into the classroom yesterday. 4) having been done 表示非谓语动作在谓语动作之前发生, 且表示一个被动 的动作。 ▲ e.g.: Having been told that some guests were coming, they got the room ready. 5) done 一般表示非谓语动作在谓语动作之前发生或同时发生, 且表示一个 被动的动作。 ▲ e.g.: Given more time, I'll do it better. (之前) Supported by a young man, the old lady stood up. (同时) ※ 典型试题: 例 1.(2005 全国 II)“You can’t catch me!” Janet shouted, ____ away. A. run B. running C. to run D. ran

例 2.2005 湖北) ( ____ from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. A. Being separated B. Having separated

C. Having been separated separated

D. To be

例 3.(2005 上海)_____ into use in April 2000, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns. A. Put Being put 2.作定语时,done, being done 和 to be done 的区别 先看例句: This is a problem discussed. 这是一个已经讨论了的问题。(已经完成的被 动动作) This is a problem being discussed. 这是一个正在讨论的问题。(正在进行 的被动动作) This is a problem to be discussed. 这是一个将要讨论的问题。(将要进行 的被动动作) 通常 done 表示被动或者已经完成,being done 表示正在被做,to be done 表 示将要被做, 再如这三句话: The meeting ____ (hold) yesterday turned to be a great success. The meeting ____ (hold) now is about environmental protection. The meeting ____ (hold) tomorrow will attract much attention. 三个答案分别是 held, being held, to be held. ※ 典型试题: (2004 浙江) Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, ____ as 3M. A. knowing B. known D. to be known 3.作感官动词的宾补 doing, (to) do 和 done 的区别 Did you hear anyone singing in the next room ? (doing 表示主动、 正在进行) C. being known B. Putting C. Having put D.

Did you ever hear anyone sing the song in English? ((to) do 表示主动、已 经完成或动作的全过程) Did you hear the song sung in English? (done 表示被动、已经完成) ※ 典型试题: (NMET1994) The missing boys were last seen ____near the river. A. playing to play 4.作宾语时,doing 与 to do 的区别 (1)只能用-ing 形式作宾语的动词常用的有: dislike / delay / deny, mind / miss (错过), enjoy / escape (逃避) / excuse, practise / pardon / permit, suggest / stop / stand(忍受), consider , keep, advise / admit / acknowledge(承认) / allow / appreciate (欣赏、感激) / avoid (避免),risk(冒险) / resist(抵抗) / recommend(建议); finish / forbid, imagine 等。 (2)只能用 to do 作宾语的动词有: afford, agree, aim, choose, dare, decide, decline(拒绝), refuse, desire, determine, fail, offer, expect, hope, wish, manage, plan, pretend, promise, seek, tend, threaten 等。 (3)既能用-ing 形式又能用 to do 作宾语的动词分两种情况: 1)象 begin, start; continue; intend, attempt(试图), 等词用-ing 形式和 to do 作 宾语时意义相同。 ▲ e.g.: He started learning/to learn English at the age of three. 2)意义不同的动词有: ①remember / forget(not)doing / having done(记得/忘记(没)做过某事) ... (not)to do(记住/忘了(不)去做某事) ②regret(not)doing / having done(后悔(没)做过某事) ... (not)to do(遗憾(不)去做某事) ③try doing(试试做某事) ... to do(努力/设法做某事) ④mean doing(意味着做某事) B. to be playing C. play D.

... to do(打算/想做某事) ⑤go on doing(继续做同一件事) ... to do(接着做另外一件事) ⑥stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事 ... doing 停止正在或经常做的事 ⑦want / need /require to do (想/有必要/要求做某事) ... doing / to be done (需要被做) ※ 典型试题: 例: (2005 北京) When asked by the police, he said that he remembered ____ at the party, but not _____. A. to arrive; leaving C. arriving; leaving leave 5.-ing 形式作伴随状语与不定式作目的状语的区别 作伴随状语的-ing 形式与谓语动词的动作同时发生且前面常常带一逗号; 而作目的状语的不定式的动作要比谓语动词的动作后发生前面通常不用逗号。 ▲ e.g.: She wrote to the editor, hoping that the editor would be able to help her. She reached the top of the hill and stopped there to rest on a big rock. ※ 典型试题: (1991 全国)The secretary worked late into night, ____a long speech. A. to prepare was preparing 6.-ing 形式和不定式作结果状语的区别 -ing 形式作结果状语表示一定逻辑的结果,即结果在意料之中,其作用相 当于一个非限 制性的定语从句;而不定式作结果状语通常表示非逻辑的结果, 即结果在意料之外。 ▲ e.g.: A number of new machines were installed in the factory, thus resulting in an increase in production. =…, which thus resulted in an increase in production. B. preparing C. prepared D. B. to arrive; to leave D. arriving; to

He hurriedly finished his breakfast and went running to the station, only to find the train had left half an hour ago. ※ 典型试题: 例 1.2005 山东) prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, ( Oil ____ a record US$ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reached B. reaching

C. to reach

D. to be reaching

例 2. (2004 福建) The news reporters hurried to the airport, only ____ the film stars had left. A. to tell telling 7.非谓语动词的否定式 -ing 形式否定式由“not/never +-ing”构成, 不定式的否定式由“not/never to do”构成。 ▲ e.g.: I must apologize for not letting you know ahead of time. Not having done the work well, we decided to try again. The patient was warned not to eat oily food after the operation. ※ 典型试题: 例 1.(2003 北京卷)The teacher asked us ____so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make D. told B. to be told C.

例 2.(2004 广东)____ the program, they have to stay there for another two weeks. A. Not completing C. Not having completed completed 8.非谓语动词的复合结构 (1) 不定式的复合结构: 由“for/of sb to do”构成,在句中一般作主语和宾语。 B. Not completed D. Having not

▲ e.g.: It is necessary for us to start at once. It was cruel of him to beat the poor child. I find it difficult to persuade him to join us. (2) 动名词的复合结构:(以 Tom 为例) 由“Tom’s doing”或“his doing”构成,在句中一般作主语和宾语。 作主语时,形式为“名词所有格和物主代词+doing” ▲ e.g.: Tom’s being ill made his mother worried. Your coming here will help us a lot. 作宾语时, 物主代词 (可改为人称代词宾格) 和名词所有格 (可改为普通格) +doing ▲ e.g.: Would you mind his / him opening the window? He insisted on Tom’s / Tom going on to college. (3) 含不定式或分词的独立主格结构: 由介词“with+ 宾语+to do/doing /done”构成在句中一般作定语和状语。 ▲ e.g.: With so many eyes fixed upon her, the girl was too nervous to say anything. With a lot of difficult problems to settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. Linda came to a brook, with red flowers and green grass on both sides. ※ 典型试题: 例 1.(2002 上海春)With a lot of difficult problems ____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled C. to settle B. settling D. being settled

例 2.(2005 安徽)I really can’t understand ____ her like that. A. you treat C. why treat B. you to treat D. you treating


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