I.词语辨析： 1、through / across / past / over
through：穿过，指动作是在某一空间进行的。 e.g. We walked through the forest and reached the mountain village. across：横穿，表示动作是在某一物体的表面进行。 e.g. Can you see anything walking across the playground? past：经过，指从某一物体的旁边经过。 e.g. I went past their classroom and found them working hard. over：越过，指从上方跨越而过。 e.g. He ran faster and faster, jumped over the small river and disappeared in the trees.
Planes flew over the city many times a day. 2、clean / clear
clean：adj. 干净的、清洁的，与 dirty 相反。 e.g. Please wear clean clothes and polished shoes.
vt.把……擦干净 e.g. Please clean the blackboard before class begins. clear：adj. 清澈的、清晰的、晴朗的 e.g. The s ky was clear, so we decided to go for a picnic.
vt. 清除、放晴 clear away：收拾、清除…… ； clear up：放晴、 整理……
e.g. Who will clear away the rubbish and clear up the room for me? Hopefully it will clear up this afternoon.
3、all / whole all：着重“整体”，“全部的、所有的”，修饰可数名词时，指所有的数 量，修饰不可数名词时，指整个范围或全部数量；位于定冠词、物主代词、 指示代词、基数词的前面。 e.g. All these years we were busy with the research. He stayed indoors all the afternoon. 注：all 作代词：代替可数名词时，即为复数，代替不可数名词时，为单数， 作“所……的一切”解释时，为单数。 e.g. All were here just now, but none is / are seen now. There is much water in the sea, but all is salty. All we need is time and your help. whole：之“完整的”整体、统一体，于名词连用时，放于冠词之后。 e.g. He spent a whole night repairing the radio. The whole city was flooded by sea water.
4、almost / nearly almost：“几乎”，用来：1）修饰不定代词，2）与 not、no、nobody、nothing、 nowhere、never 连用时，应放于它们之前。 e.g. Almost everyone in our class has bought a copy of the book.
There is almost no snow in Hainan Island in winter. nearly：“将近、接近”，用于：1）修饰数词，2）与 not 连用时，要说： not nearly：远不及、根本没有…… e.g. He is nearly 70 years old but he is still in good health.
— Has she finished her homework? — No, not nearly. 在其它的场合，almost 与 nearly 可以互换。 5、trip / journey / travel / voyage / tour trip：指短距离的旅行，常回到出发地，不强调旅行的方式；到某地走一趟 也可称为 a trip； e.g. I think I’d like to take a trip during the weekend.
He has made three trips to the teachers’ office this morning. journey：指长距离的花时较长的陆路旅行，不含有回到原出发地的意思； e.g. The journey from Shanghai to Xi’an by train will take about 12 hours travel：常指到国外或某个遥远的地方去，不强调目的地； How was your travel to the USA last month? voyage：指：不论路程长短的水上或空中旅行； The voyage across the Pacific is long but pleasant. tour：指：周游、游览一系列的地方 后回到原地。 e.g. A thorough tour of Shanghai will take months 6、be worth / be worthy
be worth：“值得”，后接：1）名词(常是与钱有关的名词）2）doing(用 主动式代被动式）
e.g. The pen is worth the price. This new film is worth seeing a second time.
be worthy：“值得”，后接：1）of + 名词（常是与钱无关的名词） 2） of + being done
3) + to be done e.g. Tom is worthy of his good fame.
This place is worthy of a visit. = This place is worthy of being visited = This place is worthy to be visited 注：1) worth …. / worthy of ….可以用作定语，修饰名词。 e.g. He gave me a watch worth a lot of money. These are places worthy of a visit. 2) worthless：没有价值的； valueless：没有价值的； priceless： 无价的、宝贵的。 7、expect / wait expect：是一种心里的“期盼、期望、（思想上）等候” e.g. We will expect you at the dinner party. I’m expecting a letter from my parents. wait：是实际上的等待 e.g. Who are you waiting for?
He waited here for a long time.
II.重点词语和句型 1、explore：vt. 探测（未知的地方）、探究（问题、可能性）
e.g. We Chinese will send man to the moon to explore the our satellite. He explore the cause of the big fire and will give us a report.
exploration：n. 勘探、实地调查，（与 of 连用） e.g. man’s exploration of outer space 2、challenge：n. 挑战
a challenge to do sth：做……的挑战；accept / respond to / take up a challenge：接受挑战；send a challenge：下调战书 e.g. Swimming across the wide river is a real challenge for me. vt. 向（人）挑战 challenge sb. to（do）sth：向某人挑战做某事 e.g. When I said I ran faster, she challenged me to a 1500-meter race.
He challenged me to sw im across the river in three minute. challenging：有挑战性的 e.g. It is challenging work to do it in such bad weather. 3、comfortable：舒适的、安逸的 e.g. I have a comfortable home.
We are living a comfortable life. comfort：n.安慰、舒适 vt. 安慰、慰问 e.g. His letter gave me much / great comfort.
I tried my best to comfort him, but what could I say at such a time? 4、expect：vt. 预料、期望、认为
1）+ sth. e.g. I am expecting a letter from my father.
We will expect you at the party. Your parents expect much of you, so you should work hard. 2) + sb. to do sth. e.g. We expect you to come alone tomorrow. What do you expect me to say about it? 3) + that …. e.g. I do expect that all of you will succeed in the exam. She expects that I can give her a chance. 4) than expected：比预料的； as expected：如预料的那样 e.g. She came earlier than expected. He was late again as expected. expectation：n. 期待、预期 e.g. What he said is quite beyond our expectation. 5、our big thick sleeping bag：我们的厚厚的大睡袋 英语中经常出现几个并列的形容词修饰同一个名词的情况，要注意以下几 点： 1）一般情况下，并列的形容词不会超过三个；
2）并列的形容词的排列顺序是有规律的 ，请记下面的口诀：“美小圆旧黄， 法国木书房”。这一口诀告诉了并列的形容词的一般排列顺序：美：指美、 丑、好看、漂亮等的形容词；小：指大小；圆：指方、圆，指形状；旧： 指新酒；黄：指颜色；法国：指国籍；木：指质地、材料；书房：指用途。 当然，像冠词、人称代词、指示代词等的限定词应放于最前面。 e.g. the pretty round French wood desk 3) 有时候形容词的顺序可能与口诀不同，那是因为为了强调某一个形容词。 e.g. a. yellow old coat：一件黄颜色的旧衣服(强调 yellow）。
an old yellow coat：一件旧的黄衣服（强调 old)。 6、in case：以防、万一，后接句子或置于句末。
e.g. I’ll stay home in case she comes to see me. It looks like rain, so you’d better take an umbrella incase.
c.f. in case of：“以防、万一”，后接名词。 e.g. Please take an umbrella in case of rain.
In case of fire, please turn off the gas and call 119. case 的其它短语：as is often the case：这是常见的事； in any case： 不管怎样； in no case：决不、在任何情况下都不；in that case：假如那样的话 e.g. As is often the case, she made the same mistake in the exercises.
In any case you should try your best, for you are our only hope now.
You’ll be late. In that case, the teacher will not be pleased.
In no case shall I tell you the truth of the matter. 7、begin with = begin … with..：用（以）……开始……
e.g. Usually I will begin my class with some questions. The meeting began with a song that everyone could sing.
sim.：start with c.f. to begin with = to start with：首先、第一（表示顺序) 8、can：可用来表示理论上可能性，解释为“能够、有时会” e.g. It can be very cold on the top of the hill.
Sometimes a teacher can make such a simple mistake. I know you have tried your best, but the result can be better. c.f. 表示实际的可能性，用 may/could。 e.g. It is such bad weather so he may not come today. Mary may / could be at home now. 9、can’t wait to do sth.：等不及要做某事 e.g. I can’t wait to see my parents back home. When Saturday comes, the students can’t wait to go home. c.f. can not / never … too…：怎么……也不为过，要多……就得多……。 e.g. You can never be too careful when driving on the road. cannot but：不得不、不能不 e.g. In this case, I cannot but wait here for the next bus.
In cold winter the animals cannot but sleep in different places. 10、look forward to：盼望、期望，to 是介词，后接名词、代词或动名词。
e.g. We are looking forward to it / the holidays / seeing you again. 英语中，动词短语中的“to”基本上都是介词，如： stick to, refer to, pay attention to, be used to, get down to… e.g. Let’s get down to (doing) our work. 但：have to, be glad to 等短语中的 to 是不定式符号，后接动词原形。 e.g. We have to go home now. 11、keep sb. warm：使某人（保持）暖和，这是 keep 后跟了一个复合宾语， 由：“keep sb./sth. + adj./ doing.”构成。 e.g. Getting in the crops kept us busy all day long in the fi eld.
The bad news kept me awake in bed all the night. Don’t keep him standing outside. Ask him to come in. c.f. keep sb./ sth. from doing：阻止某人干……/某事的发生。 e.g. The snowstorm kept the train from leaving the station. keep 的短语有： keep back： 后退；抑制；扣除 e.g. She could not keep back her anger/ tears. keep off：使离开；不接近 e.g. Keep off the grass . keep on：继续下去；继续留用（sb.）；使不停 e.g. The boss kept him on as a secretary. keep out (of )：不进去；不使入内 e.g Keep out of the railroad track . keep up：（价格；工资）保持高水准；（士气）不低落；（天气）保持不 变/ 持续
e.g. Will the weather keep up ? keep up with：不落在……后面 e.g. keep up with the changes in fashion 12、bring back：带回、使回忆起…… e.g. He brought back many things when he returned from abroad.
The picture brought back to me many happy memories. bring 的其它短语： bring about：引起、导致。e.g. His words brought a bout our discussion. bring along：拿来、带来。e.g. Please bring your wife along when you come. bring down：拿下、使……下跌 e.g. We’ll bring down the prices. bring forward：提出、提前 e.g. He brought forward a suggestion in class.
bring in：拿进来、赚入、产生 e.g. The shop can bring in 100 yuan a day for him
bring on：引起（疾病） e.g. Flies brought on the wide spread of the disease.
bring up：养育、提出（话题） e.g. He is a poor boy brought up at the orphan’s. 13、place of interest：名胜
e.g. We visited some places of interest in Shandong Province, such as Mountain Tai, Qingdao, etc.
of interest：adj. 有意思的、使人感兴趣的（作定语）
e.g. Is there anything of interest in today’s paper? That is a question of interest to us all.
interest：n. 作名词用，可与动词构成一下短语： have / take an interest in…：对……感兴趣； lose interest in…： 失去对……的兴趣 14、at dawn：在黎明时 用 at 表示时间，往往表示的是时间点。 e.g. at 5: 40, at noon, at dusk, at mid-night, at lunchtime, ….
III. 语法点拨：将来进行时 将来进行时表示：
1、将来某段时间内肯定会发生的动作； e.g. They will be waiting for you at the station until you arrive. She will be flying to Tokyo next Sunday morning.
2、有礼貌地询问对方对将来的安排、打算； e.g. What will you be doing tomorrow evening? Will you be studying in your classroom this Sunday?
3、仅指一些自然发生的事，不含有说话者的主观倾向 e.g. It will be turning cold when October comes. The snow and ice on the top of the mountain will be melting when
it is warm enough.
1、He made his way ______ the crowd but still reached home late.
2、She _____ her throat and told us to keep the room ______ .
A. cleared…clear B. cleared … clean C. cleaned…clear D.
cleaned … clean
3、Don’t intend to eat ______ at a time. Things should be done bit by
A. the all cake
B. an all cake C. whole the cake D.
4 、 Peter ____ come with us tonight , but he isn't very sure yet.
5、— Is John coming by train?
— He should, but he _____ not. He likes driving his car.
6、Prices are high and we will try our best to _______ .
A. cut down B. bring them down C. go down D. put it down
7、You’d better keep me _____ of everything when it happens.
A. informed B. informing
C. to form D. b eing informed
8、They made a round _____ to Jiangsu Province.
C. journey D. voyage
9、At the pawn, he bought a/an _________ table.
A. old red round wood
B. red wood old round
C. old round red wood
D. round old red wood
10、The day we have been looking forward to _______ .
D. will come
11、She is more friendly than _______ .
A. expects B. to expect
C. expected D. expecting
12、Though I don’t want to buy anything, I will take some money ______ .
A. in case
B. in that case
C. in no case D. in
13、I will _____ my hotel by the time you return from America.
A. be changing B. change
C. have changed D.
14、_____, I’ll introduce myself to you. Then I’ll explain the text
A. Beginning with B. Starting with C. To start from D. To
15、His advice is _______ .
A. worth being taken
B. worthy to be taken
C. worth of being taken
D. worthy taking
16、— My uncle is a famous writer.
— _______. What kind of book is he writing?
A. Thank heavens for that
B. Mind your own business
C. He must be
D. You don't say
17、— I don't imagine Russ and his poor dog had a good time on the deserted
— I have no idea.
A. didn't they
B. do you
C. do I
18、— Will you go to Tom's birthday party tomorrow?
— No, _____ invited to.
19、— What would I need , besides a sewing-machine, ______ a dress?
— You'd have to have some material and a pair of scissors.
C. to make D. making
20、More and more people in China prefer to choose ____ cheap wireless
known as _____ “little smart”.
A. a ; the
B. the ; the
C. a ; 不填
D. the ;
On May 27, 1995, our life was suddenly changed. It happened a few minutes past three, 21 my husband, Chris, fell from his horse as it 22 over a fence. Chris was paralyzed (瘫痪) from the chest down, 23 to breathe normally. As he was thrown from his horse, we entered into a life of 24 with lots of unexpected challenges (挑战). We went from the “haves” to the “have-nots”. Or so we thought.
25 what we discovered later were all the gifts that came out of 26 difficulties. We came to learn that something 27 could happen in a disaster (灾难). All over the world people 28 Chris so much that letters and postcards poured in every day. By the end of the third week in a 29 center in Virginia, about 35,000 pieces of 30 had been received and sorted.
As 31 , we opened letter after letter. They gave us 32 and became a source of strength for us. We used them to 33 ourselves. I would go to the pile of letters marked with “Funny” if we needed a 34 , or to the “Disabled” box to find advice from people in wheelchairs or 35 in bed living happily and 36 .
These letters, we realized, had to be shared. And so 37 we offer one of them to you.
My husband and I were so sorry to hear of your 38 accident last week. No doubt your family and your friends are giving you the strength
to face this 39 challenge. People everywhere are also giving you best
wishes every day and we are among those who are keeping you 40 ….
21. A. since
22. A. walked B. climbed C. pulled
23. A. able
C. suitable D. unsuitable
24. A. disability
B. possession C. convenience D.
25. A. So
26. A. sharing
B. separating C. fearing
27. A. terrible
28. A. wrote for B. cared for
C. hoped for
D. sent for
29. A. medical
C. experimental D. metal
30. A. news
31. A. patients
B. a family C. nurses
D. a group
32. A. effect 33. A. encourage 34. A. cry
B. effort B. express B. laugh
C. comfort D. explanation
35. A. much
36. A. bitterly
37. A. here
38. A. driving
C. running D. riding
39. A. technical B. different
40. A. nearby
Keys: 1-10: DBDBD, BAADD 11-20: CACDB, DBDCC 21-30: CDBAD, ACBAD 31-40: BCABC, DADCB
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