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高考英语陷阱题总结归纳—定语从句(附详解)


高考英语陷阱题总结归纳——定语从句
◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. The factory was built in a secret place, around ______ high mountains. A. which was B. it was C. which were D. them were

【陷阱】容易误选 A 或 B,将 A、B 中的 which 和 it 误认为是其后句子的主语。 【分析】最佳答案是 C,around which were high mountains 是一个由“介词+which”引出的 非限制性定语从句,而在该从句中,主语是 high mountains,around which 是表语,所以句 子谓语应用复数 were,而不是用单数 was.请做以下类例题目(答案均为 C): (1) Yesterday we visited a modern hospital, around _______ some fruit shops. A. which is B. it is C. which are D. them are

(2) The murder happened in an old building, beside ______ the city police station. A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

(3) Next month we’ll move to a new building, next to _______ a nice restaurants where we can have Chinese food. A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

2. A man with a bleeding hand hurried in and asked, “Is there a hospital around ______ I can get some medicine for my wounded hand?” A. that B. which C. where D. what

【陷阱】容易误选 B,认为 around 是介词,选 which 用以代替前面的名词 hospital, 在此用作介词 around 的宾语。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。以上语法分析并不算错,但问题是,照此分析,此句的意思即 为: 有没有这样一个医院, 我在它的附近可以买药治我的手伤?这样的语境显然有点不合情 理,因为人们通常是在医院里面治伤,而不是在医院附近治伤。此题选 C 的理由是:句中 的 around 不是介词,而是副词,意为“在附近”;其后的 where 引导定语从句用以修饰其 前的地点名词 hospital,句意为:附近有没有一家医院,我可以去治我的手伤? 3. _____ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What

【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为此处应填一个形式主语。 【分析】最佳答案是 B。as 引导的是一个非限制性定语从句。比较下面一题:

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_______ is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What

此题答案选 A,it 为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的 that 从句。 再比较下面一组题,其中第(1)题选 B,第(2)题选 D: (1) ______ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior school is increasing. A. Which B. As C. That D. It

(2) ______ is mentioned above that the number of the students in senior school is increasing. A. Which B. As C. That D. It

4. David is such a good boy _______ all the teachers like. A. that B. who C. as D. whom

【陷阱】此题容易误选 A,许多同学一看到题干中的 such,再联系到选项中的 that,便 认为这是考查 such … that …句式。况且,这样理解意思也还通顺。 【分析】最佳答案为 C,不是 A,因为在 such … that … (如此……以至……)结构中, that 引导的是结果状语从句,并且 that 在从句中不充当句子成分,若在上句填入 such … that …,句末的动词 like 缺宾语。选 C 的理由如下:as 用作关系代词,用以引导定语从句, 修饰其前的名词 boy,同时 as 在定语从句中用作动词 like 的宾语,句意为“所有老师都喜 欢的一位好男孩”。有的同学可能还会问,假若选 A,能否将其后的 that 视为引导定语从句 的关系代词呢?不能, 因为当先行词受到 such 的修饰时, 其后的定语从句应用关系代词 as 来引导,而不用 that.比较下面一题,答案为 A,因为 like 后有自己的宾语 him: David is such a good boy _______ all the teachers like him. A. that B. who C. as D. whom

请再做以下试题(答案选 D): It was not such a good dinner _______ she had promised us. A. like B. that C. which D. as

5. The buses, most of _______ were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd. A. that B. it C. them D. which

【陷阱】容易误选 C,用 them 代指 the buses. 【分析】 最佳答案是 D。 most of which were already full 为非限制性定语从句, 修饰 the buses. 类似地,以下各题也选 D: (1) His house, for _______ he paid $10, 000, is now worth $50, 000.
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A. that

B. it

C. them

D. which

(2) Ashdown forest, through _______ we’ll be driving, isn’t a forest any longer. A. that B. it C. them D. which

(3) This I did at nine o’clock, after _______ I sat reading the paper. A. that B. it C. them D. which

类似地,以下各题选 whom,不选 them: (4) George, with _______ I played tennis on Sundays, was a warm-hearted person. A. that B. him C. them D. whom

(5) Her sons, both of ______ work abroad, will come back home this summer. A. that B. who C. them D. whom

(6) I met the fruit-pickers, several of _______ were still university students. A. that B. who C. them D. whom

6. He had thousands of students, many of ______ gained great success in their own field. A. whom B. them C. which D. who

【陷阱】容易误选 B,用 them 代指 students. 【分析】最佳答案是 A,many of whom gained great success in their own field 为非限制性 定语从句。 假若在 many of… 的前面加上连词 and, 则选答案 B.比较以下各题 (答案均选 A) : (1) He asked a lot of questions, none of ______ was easy to answer. A. which B. them C. what D. that

(2) He asked a lot of questions, and none of ______ was easy to answer. A. them B. which C. what D. that

(3) He told me that he had two girl-friends, neither of _______ knew anything about the other. A. whom B. them C. which D. who

(4) He told me that he had two girl-friends, and neither of _______ knew anything about the other. A. them B. whom C. which D. who

7. He had a lot of friends, only a few of ______ invited to his wedding. A. whom B. them C. which D. who

【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为这是非限制性定语从句。
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【分析】最佳答案是 B,这不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格 后的动词 invited 并不是一个完整的谓语,而是一个过去分词。当然,假若在 invited 前加 上助动词 were,则是一个非限制性定语从句,答案便应选 A.比较: (1) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _______ carried out in their work. A. which B. them C. what D. that

答案选 B,none of them carried out in their work 是独立主格结构,其中的 carried out 为 过去分词。 (2) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _______ were carried out in their work. A. which B. them C. what D. that

答案选 A,none of them were carried out in their work 是非限制性定语从句,注意与上例 比较句中多了一个助动词 were. (3) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, but none of _______ were carried out in their work. A. which B. them C. what D. that

答案选 B,由于两句之间增加了一个并列连词 but,使得该句成了一个并列句。 8. On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents seated together joking. A. their B. whose C. which D. that

【陷阱】容易误选 B,认为这是非限制性定语从句。 【分析】最佳答案是 A.与上面一题相似,their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性 定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 seated 不是谓语,而是一个过去分 词,因为 seat 作动词用时,是及物动词。比较以下相似题: (1) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents were seated together joking. A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选 B.whose parents were seated together joking 为非限制性定语从句, 因为其后有完整的谓 语 were seated. (2) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, and _______ parents were seated together joking.
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A. their

B. whose

C. which

D. that

选 A.因为句中有并列连词 and,整个句子为并列句。 (3) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents sitting together joking. A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选 A.their parents sitting together joking 为独立主格结构。 (4) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents sat together joking. A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选 B.whose parents sat together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为句中有完整的谓语 sat. (5) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents were sitting together joking. A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选 B.whose parents were sitting together joking 为非限制性定语从句, 因为句中有完整的谓 语 were sitting. 9. If the man is only interested in your looks, _____ just shows how shallow he is. A. as B. which C. what D. that

【陷阱】容易误选 A 或 B,误这是非限制性定语从句。 【分析】正确答案为 D,注意逗号前是一个条件状语从句,逗号后是该状语从句的主句, that 在此代表前文所述的情况,用作主句的主语。类似地,下面几道题也选 that,而不选 which: (1) If you promise to go with us, _____ will be OK. A. as B. which C. and it D. that

(2) If you want a double room, _____ will cost another £15. A. as B. which C. what D. that

(3) Whether you go or not, _______ is quite all right with me. A. that B. which C. and it D. so

(4) When I say two hours, _____ includes time for eating. A. as B. which C. what D. that

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10. She says that she’ll never forget the time ________ she’s spent working as a secretary in our company. A. which B. when C. how D. where

【陷阱】容易误选 B,机械地认为时间名词后必须用关系副词 when,地点名词后用关系 副词 where. 【分析】正确答案为 A.在时间名词和地点名词后是否用关系副词要看它在定语从句中充 当什么句子成分。一般说来,若用作主语或宾语,用关系代词; 若用作状语,则用关系副词。 上面一题中的动词 spent 缺宾语,故应用关系代词 which 或 that.比较下面一题,由于空格 后的句子不缺少主语或宾语,所以选关系副词 when: She says that she’ll never forget the time ________ she works as a secretary in our company. A. which B. when C. how D. where

请再做一组试题(答案均选 A): (1) Our company will move to a tall building _______ we bought last month. A. which B. when C. how D. where

选 A,which 在定语从句中用作动词 bought 的宾语。 (2) Our company will move to a tall building _______ has just been complete. A. which B. when C. how D. where

选 A,which 在定语从句中用作主语。 (3) Our company will move to a tall building _______ we worked two years ago. A. where B. when C. that D. which

选 A,where 在定语从句中用作状语。

◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. All of the flowers now raised here have developed from those _______ in the forest. A. once they grew B. they grew once C. they once grew D. once grew

2. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 pm, _____ many people have gone home. A. that B. which C. whose time D. by which time

3. Is this the reason _______ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?
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A. he explained

B. what he explained

C. how he explained

D. why he explained

4. Luckily, we’d brought a road map without ______ we would have lost our way. A. it B. that C. this D. which

5. When he was working there he caught a serious illness from _____ efforts he still suffers. A. which B. that C. whose D. what

6. It’s said that he’s looking for a new job, one ______ he can get more money to support his family. A. when B. where C. that D. which

7. We are living in an age ______ many things are done on computer. A. which B. that C. whose D. when

8. The little time we have together we’ll try _____ wisely. A. spending it B. to spend it C. to spend D. spending that

9. The old building, behind _______ was a famous church, was _______ we used to work. A. that, the place B. it, the place C. which, where D. what, where

10. We will be shown around the city: schools, museums, and some other places, _______ other visitors seldom go. A. what B. which C. where D. when

11. The modern history of Italy dates from 1860, ______ the country became united. A. when B. if C. since D. until

12. All of the flowers now raised here have developed from those _____ in the forest. A. once they grew B. they grew once C. that once grew D. once grew

13. You could see the runners very well from ______ we stood. A. which B. where C. that D. when

14. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, _______ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose

15. What have you got _____ will help a cold? A. what B. that C. it D. who

16. He was very angry and I can still remember the way _____ he spoke to me. A. how B. that C. what D. which

17. Do you know the man from ________ house the pictures were stolen?
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A. which

B. that

C. what

D. whose

18. I can think of many cases _______ students obviously knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn’t write a good essay. A. why B. which C. as D. where

19. Is this all that you need? If you married me, I’d give you everything you _____. A. want B. wanted C. had wanted D. are wanting

20. I met the teacher in the street yesterday ________ taught me English three years ago. A. which B. when C. where D. who

21. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation _____ he is likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. while D. why

22. He made another wonderful discovery, ______ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think is

23. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ____, of course, made the others unhappy. A. who B. which C. this D. what

24. Their problem today is somewhat similar to _____ they faced many years ago. A. that B. which C. that which D. it

25. I saw some trees the leaves of _____ were black with disease. A. that B. which C. it D. what

26. The famous basketballer, _______ tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention. A. where B. when C. which D. who

27. When they went into the shop and asked to look at the engagement rings, the girl brought out a cheaper one, _______ she had arranged with James. A. the which was what B. what was that C. which was what D. that was that

◆答案与解析◆

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1. 选 C.先行词是 those,可视为 those flowers 之省略。they once grew 前省略了关系代 词 which.全句意为:这儿所养的花是由他们曾在森林里种植的花培养出来的。 2. 选 D.by which time 引出的是一个非限制性定语从句,其中 by which time 相当于 and by that time. 3. 选 A.注意不能选 D,因为动词 explained 缺宾语。 4. 选 D.which 指 the road map. 5. 选 C.from whose efforts he still suffers 为修饰 a serious illness 的定语从句,whose 在 定语从句中用作定语,修饰 efforts. 6. 选 B.where 引导定语从句修饰 one.注:one 在此指 a new job.类似地,下面一题的答案 是 C,因为 one that 相当于 a problem that: The problem is _____ has caused us a lot of trouble. A. one C. one that B. that D. that one

7. 选 D.先行词是表时间的 age(时代),由于关系词在定语从句中作状语,故用 when. 8. 选 C.该句的正常词序为 We will try to spend the little time we have together wisely. 9. 选 C.第一空填 which,指 the old building;第二空填 where,用以引导表语从句。 10. 选 C.先行词是地点名词 places,由于关系词在定语从句中作状语,故用 where. 11. 选 A.when 引导的是非限制性定语从句。 12. 选 C.that once grew in the forest 为修饰 those 的定语从句。 13. 选 B.where 在此相当于 the place where. 14. 选 B.the price of which was very reasonable 为非限制性定语从句,其中的 the price of which 相当于 and its price 或 and the price of it.假若空格前有并列连词 and,则可选 C. 15. 选 B.that will help a cold 为修饰 what 的定语从句。比较:Have you got anything that will help a cold? 以及 I’ve got nothing that will help a cold. 16. 选 B.the way 后不接 how 引导的从句,换句说,how 不是关系代词或关系副词,不 能引导定语从句。以 the way 为先行词的定语从句通常用 that 或 in which 来引导,在非正 式文体中也可省略 that 和 in which. 17. 选 D.from whose house the pictures were stolen 为修饰 the man 的定语从句, whose 在 定语从句中用作定语,修饰 house. 18. 选 D.先行词是 many cases,关系副词 where =in which.
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19. 选 A.尽管句中用了 if you married me, I’d give you everything 这样的虚拟语气句子, 但修饰 everything 的定语从句 (that) you want 却要用陈述语语气,因为它是回答前面 Is this all that you need? 这一提问的。 20. 选 D.因定语从句缺主语,且关系代词指人,故选 D. 21. 选 A.where 所引导的为修饰 a dangerous situation 的定语从句。 22. 选 A.选项中的 I think 是插入语,若略去不看便可清楚地看出答案。 23. 选 B.of course 为插入语,若将项其去掉,则答案显然是 B. 24. 选 C.that which 相当于 the problem which. 25. 选 B.the leaves of which 相当于 whose leaves. 26. 选 D.先行词是 The famous basketballer(著名的篮球明星),故要用 who 来引导定 语从句,因为其余三项均不用于指人。 27. 选 C.which 引导一个非限制性定语从句,其中 which 指代 a cheaper one,且在定语 从句中用作主语。which was what 中的 what 引导一个表语从句,它相当于 the one that.

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