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分词作状语
分词在句中作状语,修饰谓语动词或整个 句子,表示动作发生的原因、时间、方式、 结果、条件、伴随状况等。

1.分词作状语形式的选择

形式 v.ing (doing)

Having+v.-ed (having done) v.-ed (done)

意义 与句中主语构成逻辑 上的主谓关系,与句 中谓语动词同时发生, 或基本上同时发生。 与句中主语构成逻辑 上的主谓关系,先于 谓语动词发生。 与句中主语构成逻辑 上的动宾关系

being+v.-ed (being done)

与句中主语构成逻辑 上的动宾关系,且与谓 语动词同时发生,一 般作原因状语置于句 首。
与句中主语构成逻辑 上的动宾关系,且先于 谓语动词发生。

having been+v-ed (having been done)

2.分词作状语的基本原则
1)分词作状语时,分词的逻辑主语必须与 句子的主语保持一致。 2)分词作状语必须和句中主语含有逻辑上 的主谓或动宾关系,否则不能使用分词作 状语。 1)Being ill, he didn’t go to school. 2) Given much more time, he would do it better.

Eg. Hearing the bell, the students began to enter the classroom. (听见和进入两个动 作同时发生)
The building being built now is our new library. (being built为现在分词的被动形 式,表示动作正在进行之中。) Having done the work, he went home. 完成 了工作,他就回家了。

分词作状语
1.作时间状语 1)Having finished his homework, he went to play football. 2) Hearing the news, they got excited. 2.作原因状语 1)Not knowing his address, she went to a policeman for help. 2) Being ill, he was late for school. 3. 作伴随状语 1) He stood against the door, reading a newspaper. (表伴随情况) 2) I stayed up very late, preparing my speech.(说明细节情况)

4.作条件状语 1)Given a chance, I can surprise the world. 2) Seen from the top of the hill, our school looks very beautiful.
5.作让步状语 Having been told many times, he still repeated the same mistake. 6.作结果状语 1)She was caught in a heavy rain, falling ill. 2) The cup dropped to the ground, breaking into pieces.
注:现在分词作结果状语,表示由谓语 动词部分所造成的结果。

1)表时间状语
Walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine. (=When I was walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine.) While waiting for the bus, he read a copy of China Daily.

2)

表原因状语

Being ill, he didn’t go to school.
既然你是一个学生,你就应该努力学习。 Being a student, you should study hard. (=Since you are a student, you should study hard.) 由于想到它或许在家,所以我就给他打了电话。 Thinking he might be at home, I called him.

(As I thought he might be at home, I called him.)

3)表方式、伴随情况的状语 :作伴随状语的分 词表示的动作,必须是主语的一个 动作,或是 与谓语所表示的动作(或状态)同时发生,或 是对谓语表示的动词(或状态)作进一步地补 充说明。 Eg. He sat on the sofa, watching TV. (=He sat on the sofa, and watched TV.)

他们笑着谈着走进了教室。
Laughing and talking, they went into the classroom. __________________ 他斜靠(lean)着墙站着。 He stood leaning against the wall.(=He stood

and leaned against the wall.)

4) 表结果 Eg. Her mother died in 1990, leaving her with her younger brother. (=Her mother died in 1990, and left her with her younger brother.) 全国到处在传唱这首歌曲,使它成了一首最受欢 迎的歌曲。 The song is sung all over the making it the most popular song country,________________________________.

5)表条件
Using your head, you will find a way.

(=If you use your head, you will find a way.) 一直往前走,你就会看到一座白色的房子。
Walking ahead you will see a white house. ______________,

6)表让步

Having been told many times, he still repeated the same mistake.

1) Four people entered the room looking around in a curious way.
( 伴随动作)

2) Being poor, he couldn’t afford a TV

set.

(原因)

Using your head, you’ll find a good way. 条件

3) Working hard, you’ll surely succeed.
条件

4) The boy sat in front of the farmhouse, cutting the branch. 伴随 5) He came running back to tell me the news. 方式

6) (When) Hearing the news, he got frightened. = When he heard the news, he got frightened. (时间, 可以在分词前保留when )

7) The child slipped and fell, hitting his head against the door. 结果

Practise:
(1)They set out ____ for the ____ boy. B A. searching; losing B. searching; lost C. to search; lost D. searched; losing

(2) The student sat there, ____ what to do. D
A. doesn’t knowing B. didn’t knowing

C. not know

D. not knowing

现在分词的否定式是在一般式和完成式的 前面加not (never)

(3)He sat there _____ , with his head on his hand. B
A. and think C. thought B. thinking D. being thought

高考链接
1.The secretary worked late into the B night, _____a long speech for the president. A. To prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing 现在分词作伴随状语 2.European football is played in 80 countries, A ______ it the most popular sport in the world. A. Making B. makes 现在分词表结果状语 C. made D. to make

A 3. “Can’t you read?” Mary said _______ to the notice. A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily

C. angrily point

D. and angrily pointing
现在分词作伴随状语

4. ____ a reply, he decided to write again. C A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 作原因状语 A 5.______ his telephone number, she had some difficulty getting in touch with Bill.

A. Not knowing
C. Not having known

B. knowing not
D. Having not known

现在分词作原因状语,分词结构中否 定词通常放在现在分词前面。


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