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名词性从句讲解与练习(含答案)


名词性从句讲解 在复合句中起名词作用的从句叫做名词性从句。它包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。分析历届高考 试题名词性从句考查的焦点主要有以下六个方面: 1. 考查名词性从句的语序问题 2. 考查引导词 that 与 what 的区别 3. 考查 it 在名词性从句中作形式主语或形式宾语的用法 4. 考查 whether 与 if 的区别 5. 考查名词性从句中的疑问词+ever 引导的名词性从句与 no matter+疑问词引导的状语从句的区别 6. 考查名词 性从句的虚拟语气问题 一、名词性从句 主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句,在整个句子中所起的作用,相当于一个名词. 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类: 连接词:that, whether, if (不充当从句的任何成分) 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词:when, where, how, why 1. 主语从句 作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。主语从句通常由从属连词 that,whether,if 和连接代词 what,who,which,whatever, whoever 以及连接副词 how,when,where,why 等词引导。that 在句中无词义,只起连接作用;连接代词和连接副词 在句中既保留自己的疑问含义、又起连接作用,在从句中充当从句的成分。例如: What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。 It is known to us how he became a writer. 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。 Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣布。 有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用形式主语 it 代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而把主语从句置于句末。主语从句后 的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下: (1)It + be + 名词 + that 从句 (2)It + be + 形容词 + that 从句 (3)It + be + 动词的过去分词 + that 从句 (4)It + 不及物动词 + that 从句 另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气“(should) +do”,常 用的句型有: It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that ? It is a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.) that? It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that? 2. 宾语从句 名词句用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。引导宾语从句的关联词与引导主语从句表语从句的关联词大致一样,在句中可以 作谓语动词或介词及非谓语动词的宾语。 1. 由连接词 that 引导的宾语从句 由连接词 that 引导宾语从句时, that 在句中不担任任何成分, 在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去, 但如从句是并列句时, 第二个分句前的 that 不可省。例如: He has told me that he will go to Shanghai tomorrow. 他已经告诉我他明天要去上海。 We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人 什么都不好。 注意:在 demand、order、suggest、decide、insist, desire, demand, request, command 等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等 意义的动词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。例如: I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。 The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令员命令部队马上出发。 2. 用 who,whom, which, whose, what, when, where, why, how, whoever, whatever, whichever 等关联词引导的宾语从句相 当于特殊疑问句,应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。 例如: I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。 She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。 She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。 3. 用 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句,其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒,仍保持陈述句语序。此外,whether 与 if 在作 “是否”的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用 whether,不用 if: a. 引导主语从句并在句首时;b. 引导表语从句时;c . 引导从句作介词宾语时;d. 从句后有“or not”时;e. 后接动词

不定式时。例如: Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。 Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。 4. 注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而使用不同时态。 例如: He studies English every day. (从句用一般现在时) He studied English last term. (从句用一般过去时) I know (that) he will study English next year. (从句用一般将来时) He has studied English since 1998. (从句用现在完成时) 当主句动词是过去时态(could, would 除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,如一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时 等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现象,则从句仍用现在时态。 例如:The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America. 5. think, believe, imagine, suppose 等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中 的否定形式移到主句中。例如: We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。 I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。 3. 表语从句 在句中作表语的从句叫表语从句。引导表语从句的关联词与引导主语从句的关联词大致一样,表语从句位于连系动词 后,有时用 as if 引导。其基本结构为:主语 + 系动词 + that 从句。例如: The fact is that we have lost the game. 事实是我们已经输了这场比赛。 That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。 It looks as if it is going to rain. 看上去天要下雨了。 需要注意的,当主语是 reason 时,表语从句要用 that 引导而不是 because。例如: The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning 4. 同位语从句 同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。同位语从句通常由 that 引导,可用于同位语从句的名词有 advice、demand、 doubt、fact、hope、idea、information、message、news、order、problem、promise、question、request、suggestion、truth、 wish、word 等。例如: The news that we won the game is exciting. 我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。 I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 同位语从句和定语从句的区别: that 作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that 引导同位语从句时,起连 词的作用,没有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般不能省略。 试比较下面两个例句: I had no idea that you were here.(that 引导同位语从句,不能省略) Have you got the idea(that)this book gives you of life in ancient Greece?(that 引导定语从句,作宾语,可以省略) 名词性从句练习一:

1. His success was because of ________ he had been working hard. A. that B. the fact which C. the fact that D. the fact 2. “Is Mary from New York City” “I don't know _______.” A. from what city does she come from B. from what city she come C. what city does she come from D. what city she comes from 3. ________ makes mistakes must correct them. A. What B. That C. Whoever D. Whatever 4. The reason why I didn't go to Shanghai was ________ a new job. A. because I got B. because of getting C. I got D. that I got 5. It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning grey. A. while B. that C. if D. for 6. Henry killed the dog. I'll ask him why ________. A. did he do that B. he did that C. he did D. he has done so 7. Have you seen Henry lately My boss wants to know ________. A. how he is getting along B. how is he getting along C. what he is getting along D. what is he getting along 8. It is generally considered unwise to give a child ____ he or she wants. A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever

9. He asked me ________ with me. A. what is the trouble B. what wrong was C. what was the matter D. what trouble it is 10. I am sure ________ he said is true. A. that B. about that C. of that D. that what
阅读理解练习一: When women sit together to watch a movie on TV, they usually talk simultaneously(同时的)about a variety of subjects, including children, men, careers and what' s happening in their lives. When groups of men and women watch a movie together, the men usually end up telling the women to shut up. Men can either talk or watch the screen -- they can' t do both -and they don' t understand that women can. Besides, women consider that the point of all getting together is to have a good time and develop relationships -- not just to sit there like couch potatoes staring at the screen. During the ad breaks, a man often asks a woman to explain the plot and tell him where the relationship between the characters is going. He is unable, unlike women, to read the subtle body language signals that reveal how the characters are feeling emotionally. Since women originally spent their days with the other women and children in the group, they developed the ability to communicate successfully in order to maintain relationships. For a woman, speech continues to have such a clear purpose: to build relationships and make friends. For men, to talk is to relate the facts. Men see the telephone as a communication tool for sending facts and information to other people, but a woman sees it as a means of bonding. A woman can spend two weeks on vacation with her girlfriend and, when she returns home, telephone the same girlfriend and talk for another two hours. There is no convincing evidence that social conditioning, the fact that girls' mothers talked them more, is the reason why girls talk more than boys. Psychiatrist Dr Michael Lewis, author Social Behaviour and Language Acquisition, conducted experiments that found mothers talked to and looked at, baby girls more often than baby boys. Scientific evidence shows parents respond the brain bias of their children. Since a girl' s brain is better organized to send and receive speech , We therefore talk to them more. Consequently, mothers who try to talk to their sons are usually pointed to receive only short grunts in reply. 1.While watching TV with others, women Usually talk a lot because they______. A. are afraid of awkward silence with their families and friends B. can both talk and watch the screen at the Same time C. think they can have a good time and develop relationships D. have to explain the plot and body language to their husbands 2. After a vacation with her girlfriend, a woman would talk to her again on the phone for hours in order to __________. A. experience the happy time again B. keep a close tie with her C. recommend her a new scenic spot D. remind her of something forgotten 3. What does the author want to tell us most? A. Women' s brains are better organized for language and communication B. Women love to talk because they are more sociable than men. C. Men do not like talking because they rely more on facts. D. Social conditioning is not the reason why women love talking. 4. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage? A. Women Are Socially Trained to Talk B. Talking Maintains Relationships C. Women Love to Talk D. Men Talk Differently from Women B: It was the first snow of winter -- an exciting day for every, child but not for most teachers. Up until now, l had been able to dress myself for recess(课间休息), but today I would need some help. Miss Finlayson, my kindergarten teacher at Princess Elizabeth School near Hamilton, Ontario, had been through first snow days, many times in her long career, but I think she may still remember this one. I managed to get into my wool snow pants. But I struggled with my jacket because it didn’t fit well. It was a hand-me-down from my brother, and it made me wonder why I had to wear his ugly clothes. At least my hat and matching scarf were mine, and they were quite pretty. Finally it was time to have Miss Finlayson help me with my boots. In her calm, motherly voice she said, "By the end of winter, you will be able to put on own boots.” I didn’t realize at the time that this was more a statement of hope than of confidence. I handed her my boots and stuck out my foot. Like most children, I expected the adult to do the work. After much wiggling and pushing, she managed to get first one into place and then, with a sigh, worked the second one on too. I announced, “They’re on the wrong feet.” With the grace that only experience can bring, she struggled to get the boots off and went through the joyless task of putting them on again. Then I said, “These aren’t my boots, you know.”As she pulled the

A:

offending boots from my feet, she still managed to look both helpful and interested. Once they were off. I said, “They are my brother’s boots. My mother makes me wear them,and I hate them!” Somehow, from long years of practice, she managed to act as though I wasn’t an annoying little girl. She pushed and shoved less gently this time, and the boots were returned to their proper place on my feet. With a great sigh of relief, seeing the end of her struggle with me, asked, she “Now, where are your gloves?’’ I looked into her eyes and said, “I didn’t want to lose them, so I put them into the toes of my boots.” 5.According to the passage, the little girl got from her brother. A.the wool snow pants and the jacket B. the jacket and the boots C.the jacket and the hat D. the boots and the gloves 6.What made it so hard for the teacher to help the little girl put her boots on? A.The gloves in the toes of the boots. B.The slowness of the teacher. C.The wrong size of the boots. D.The unwillingness of the girl. 7.It can be inferred that before the little girl finally went out to enjoy the first snow of winter,the teacher had to help her put on her boots .A.once B.twice C.three times D.four times 8.Which of the following sentences from the text BEST indicates that the teacher is very considerate? A.In her calm,motherly voice she said,“By the end of winter,…”(Paragraph 2) B.With the grace that only experience can bring,she struggled to…(Paragraph 4) C.….she still managed to look both helpful and interested.(Paragraph 4) D.…,she managed to act as though I wasn’t an annoying little girl.(Paragraph 4) M6U1 单元测试一: 1. The old couple have experienced so much that they want to live a _____ life in the country. A. quiet B. silent C. still D. calm 2. _________ the big earthquake, the local government tried every means to provide shelters for the victims. A. Before long B. Soon after C. Long before D. As soon as 3. Helen always helps her mother even though going to school________ most of her day. A. takes up B. makes up C. saves up D. puts up 4. While working in that country, he ________ a great deal of knowledge on planet life. A. picked up B. looked up C. put up D. called up 5. They were not prepared to __________ the olive branch to their enemies. A. hold on B. hold out C. hold back D. hold up 6. The moment their movie star appeared on the stage, the excited fans______ thunderous applause. A. ran into B. burst into C. came into D. turned into 7. Look at the timetable(时刻表). Hurry up! Flight 4097________ at 18:20. A. took off B. will take off C. has taken off D. takes off 8. His speech _______ for so long that people began to fall asleep. A. came on B. took on C. worked on D. went on 9. ---She is very tired. ----So she is. She _______ letters all day. A. types B. was typing C. has typed D. has been typing 10. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology _______ so rapidly. A. had changed B. is changing C. will change D. changed 11. With the business of the company expanding, the manager is considering______ more staff. A. taking over B. taking on C. taking away D. taking up 12. Please don’t punish him._______ he didn’t do it deliberately. A. At all B. After all C. In all D. First of all 13. In the ward above the bed is a bell which the patient can ring_______. A. in no time B. in a hurry C in an emergency D. in a while 14. We are not allowed to chase the playmates in the classroom for fear that we may_____ others. A. run to B. run at C. run into D. run off 15. He______ the resignation(辞职信)__________ the director and left the company without permission. A. presented; with B. presented ; to C. has showed; to D. showed ; with


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