Unit 1 A land of diversity Section Ⅱ Warming Up &；Reading -Language Points
[同义] way; manner; method; approach
2.ministryn. (政府的)部；(全体)牧师； [词块] a means of communication 一种通
牧师的职责 3.hardshipn. 苦难；困苦 4.federaladj. 联邦制的；联邦政府的 5.railn. 铁路；扶手；(护栏的)横条 6.percentagen. 百分比；百分率 7.boomn. (人口、贸易的)繁荣 vi. 处于经济迅速发展时期 8.aircraftn. 飞行器；航空器；飞机 Ⅱ.拓展词汇
讯/交流工具 2.hardship n．苦难；困苦 [记法] n．/adj.＋?ship→n. hard adj.困难的→hardship n．苦难；困苦 [ 联 想 ] ①member n ． 成 员 →membership n．成员资格 ②friend n．朋友→friendship n．友谊 ③owner n．所有者→ownership n．所有权 ④relation n．关系；亲戚→relationship n．关系；关联
1.distinctadj. 清 晰 的 ； 明 显 的 ； 明 确 的 ⑤scholar n. 学 者 ； 奖 学 金 获 得 者
2.majorityn．大多数；大半→major adj.主 3.percentage n．百分比；百分率
[联想] percent n. 百分之……
3.electvt. 选 择 ； 决 定 做 某 事 ； 选 举 ( 某 4.“多数与少数”面面观
4.Italyn．意大利→Italiann. &adj.意大利 ②majority n. 大多数；大半
③in the majority of ... 占多数
5.racialadj. 人种的；种族的→race n．人 ④minor adj. 少数的；次要的
⑤minority n. 少数；少数派/人
⑥in the minority of ... 占少数
2 ． by_means_of__... 用 …… 办 法 ； 借
1.the third largest state
2．a land bridge 大陆桥
3．the native people 土著人
4．in the early 16th century 16 世纪初
5．a strong Spanish influence 很强的西
6．a first or second language 第一或第
7．in and around San Francisco 在旧金
8．the dream of becoming rich 发财梦
1.Exactly when the first
people arrived in what we now know as California, no one really knows. 最早一批人具体是在什么时 候来到我们现在了解的加利 福尼亚地区的，谁也说不清
what 引导的名词性从句在句 中作介词的宾语。
The picture reminded me of what_I_had_experienced in the village. 这幅画使我想起了我在那个 村子里的经历。
2.However, it is likely
that Native Americans were
It_is_likely_that a visit
living in California at
to the Great Wall for us
least fifteen thousand it is likely that ...“有
students is an
然而，可能至少在 15 000 年
3.That is why today over That is why ...“那就 He is addicted to computer
40% of Californians speak
games, and that_is_why he
Spanish as a first or
has to drop out of school.
4.It is believed that
before long the mix of
nationalities will be so
great that there will be no
distinct major racial or cultural groups, but
simply a mixture of many races and cultures.
It is believed that ...“人 们认为/相信……”，其构成 为：It＋be＋过去分词＋that
It_is_believed_that working hard can lead to
1．(教材 P1)The customs and languages of the immigrants live on in their new
①He died ten years ago, but his memory lives on. 他十年前就去世了，但他仍然活在人们的记忆中。
②The whale does not live_on_small_fish. 这种鲸鱼并不以小鱼为食。
live up to
live through 经历过
live by doing 靠……为生
③He hosted the Academy Awards again this year, and his talks always live_up_to
the expectation of most audience. 他今年又一次主持了奥斯卡颁奖典礼，他的语言总能满足大部分观众的期望。
④The old man lives by selling newspapers every day. 这位老人每天靠卖报纸谋生。
2．(教材 P2)Scientists believe that these settlers crossed the Bering Strait
in the Arctic to America by means of a land bridge which existed in prehistoric times.
by means of
by this means 用这种方法
by no means 绝不；无论如何也不(放在句首时，句子用部分倒
①In addition, we have more choices by means of “wild release”．(2015·重
此外，通过自由分享我们有更多的选择。 ②By no means was (be) he satisfied with the job.
[名 师点津] (1)means 是单复数 同形的名词。常见的单 复数同形的名词还有 ： species(种类), series(系列)，works(工厂)等。
(2)means 作主语且有 every, each 等表示单数意义的词对其进行修饰时，谓语动词用
单数。 (3)means 作主语且有 all, several, many, few 等表示复数意义的词对其进行修饰时，
③Every possible means has_been_tried (try), but none has worked. →All possible means have_been_tried (try), but none has worked.
3．(教材 P2)Of the first Spanish to go to California，the majority were religious
men，whose ministry was to teach the Catholic religion to the natives. 在首批移居加州的西班牙人中，大部分是宗教人士，他们的职责是向原住居民传授天主
(1)a/the majority of ...
be in the/a majority 构成大部分/大多数
(2)minority n. 少数；少数派/人
in the minority 占少数
①When I have a different opinion, I may choose to give it up and respect the
opinion of the majority.
②Only a_minority_of people in that city do not have a car while the people taking
subway to work are in the majority.
[名师点津] the/a majority of＋名词，表示“大多数”，谓语动词的数与 of 后面的
名词保持一致；the majority 单独作主语时，谓语动词用单复数均可。
③The majority of the damage is (be) easy to repair.
4．(教材 P2)By the time California elected to become the thirty?first federal
state of the USA in 1850, it was already a multicultural society.
到 1850 年加利福尼亚成为美国第 31 个联邦州的时候，它已经是一个有着多元文化的社
elect to do ...
elect sb.(to be/as) ... 选举某人为……
①It is said that only two students will be elected to take part in the coming
②In addition, I have such a good command of English that I am elected as
assistant to my English teacher.
[名师点津] 在“elect sb.＋职务”句式中，总统、市长等独一无二的职位前不用加
③We elected him Chairman.
5．(教材 P2)In 1911 immigrants from Denmark established a town of their own,
which today still keeps up their Danish culture.
keep up 坚持；维持；保持；沿袭(风俗、传统等)
写出下列句中 keep up 的含义
①I hope the fine weather will keep up so that we can go out for a picnic.(继
②The rain kept up for two days and the roads were flooded.维持；持续
③We should not keep up old customs.沿袭(风俗等)
keep up with
keep on (doing sth.) 继续(做某事)
keep away from 不靠近/远离……
keep off 不靠近；远离；勿踩；勿踏
keep back 阻止；保留；隐瞒
keep out of (使)不进入
④By studying hard she managed to keep_up_with her classmates.
⑤I told the children to keep_away_from the fire, but they wouldn't listen.
1．However, it is likely that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago.
然而，可能至少在 15 000 年以前美洲土著人就住在加利福尼亚了。 (1)It is likely that ...“……是可能的”，此句型可转化为 Sb./Sth.be likely to do ...“某人/物可能做……”。 ①It is likely that she was watching TV at home last night. 她有可能昨天晚上时在家里看电视。 ②It is likely that you will suffer from bad health if you keep smoking. →You are_likely_to suffer from bad health if you keep smoking. 如果继续吸烟，你的身体健康有可能会受到损害。 (2)其他表示“……可能……”的句型：
??It's probable that ... ?It's possible that ... ??It's possible for sb.to do sth.
③It is possible for her to set a world record again. →It is probable/possible that she will set a world record again.
她有可能会再次创造世界纪录。 2．That is why today over 40% of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language. 那就是今天超过 40%的加利福尼亚人仍然把西班牙语作为第一或第二语言的原因。 (1)This/That is why ...为表语从句的常用句型结构，意为“这/那就是……的原因”。 ①That is why I recommend another category of books：literary books. 这就是我推荐文学类图书的原因。 ②I know you find the subject difficult, but that_is_why you should work harder at it. 我知道你感到这门学科困难，但这就是你应该更加努力钻研它的理由。 (2)This/That is because ...“这/那是因为……”。 ③This_is_because each year millions of smokers die from this habit. 这是因为每年都有上百万的吸烟者死于这个习惯。 (3)The reason why ... is/was that ...“……的原因是……”，表语从句常用 that 引导。 ④The reason why the students favor the first one is that they can carry it with them wherever they go. 学生们喜欢第一个的原因是他们无论去哪里都可以随身携带它。 3．It is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups, but simply a mixture of many races and cultures. 人们认为，要不了多久，多种国籍的混合将会非常之大，以至于不可能存在一种明显主 要的种族或文化群体，而只是多种族、多文化的混合体。 (1)“It＋be＋过去分词＋that ...”结构中 it 是形式主语，that 引导的从句是真正 的主语，that 仅起连接作用，不作句子成分。 ①It is believed that reading increases our knowledge and broadens our mind. 人们认为阅读增长知识、拓宽视野。 (2)该句型中常用的过去分词有：said, reported, believed, hoped, suggested 等。 ②It_is_said_that he has passed the driving test. 据说他已经通过了驾驶考试。 ③It_is_reported_that the way people spend their holidays has changed a great deal in the past ten years. 据报道在过去 10 年里人们度假的方式已改变了许多。 (3) 该 句 型 可 转 换 为 “Sb./Sth. ＋ be ＋ 过 去 分 词 ＋ 不 定 式 ” 和 “People/Sb. ＋
say/think/report/ ...＋that ...”。 ④It is believed that the Internet has both advantages and disadvantages. →The Internet is_believed_to have both advantages and disadvantages. →People_believe_that the Internet has both advantages and disadvantages. 人们认为信息技术既有优点又有缺点。
Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1．The government has taken measures to make this custom live on. 2．By this means he turned our attention to what was good in the life. 3．So, let us assume that historical buildings are both attractive and important to the majority (major) of people. 4．Like men, women have the right to_elect (elect) and to_be_elected (elect)． 5．The climbers kept up in the hope of reaching the top with the last effort. 6．(2014·天津高考书面表达)If you come to our school, you are likely to_meet (meet) some difficult problems in your life. 7．I wouldn't like to go out; this is because I've got a cold. 8．It is_believed (believe) that education is the most important issue facing the government. Ⅱ.补全句子 1．Had she lived_up_to_her_promise,_she would have made it to Yale University. 如果她当年履行了自己的诺言，她就会进入耶鲁大学了。 2．By no means is_punishment_a_wise_choice to help them grow up mentally and physically. 在精神和身体方面帮助孩子们成长时，惩罚绝不是一个明智的选择。 3．The_majority_of_people find it quite hard to live_on the money they earn because prices hike in basic goods. 大多数人觉得靠他们赚的钱来维持生活相当困难，因为基本的日常生活用品价格飞涨。 4．She was_elected_as/to_be the new Prime Minister last year. 去年她被选为新一届首相。 5．She felt that she could not keep_up the pretence any longer. 她觉得这种假象再也维持不下去了。 6．I read about your reform of the school English newspaper, and that's_why I'm
writing to voice my opinion. 我获悉了你对英语校报的改革方案，那就是我写信发表观点的原因。 7．More than 50% students are_reported_to be short?sighted. 据报道超过百分之五十的学生近视。 8．It_is_likely_that the sports meet will be put off till next week. →The sports meet is_likely_to be put off till next week. 运动会有可能推迟到下周举行。
一、全练语言点，基稳才能楼高 Ⅰ.单词拼写 1．The majority (大多数) of students are against the bicycle trip. 2．We elected (选举) James chairman, for he is hard?working and responsible. 3．We have only a small percentage (百分率) of foreign books. 4．The most popular means (方式) of transportation are bikes and buses. 5．He made a lot of money during the property boom (繁荣)． 6．The Ministry (〈政府的〉部) of Transport made a searching enquiry to discover the cause of the plane crash. 7．In the USA foreign policy is decided by the federal (联邦制的) government and its laws are made by Congress. 8．There is a distinct (明显的) possibility that she'll be your teacher next term. 9．This would cause great hardship (困苦) and suffering. 10．He has devoted himself to fighting for racial (种族的) equality. Ⅱ.单句改错 1．It's likely the conference will be put off because of the weather.likely 后加 that 2．They tried all means, which possibly is helpful, but unfortunately not a means has worked so far.is→are 3．They all elected him the president of the Department.去掉 president 前的 the 4．Those who favour the proposal are in majority.majority 前加 the 5 ． Tom was very lazy. That was because he never achieved anything in his life.because→why
6．Where I disagree with you lies in you have said disagrees with what you have done.in 后加 what
7．Tobacco contains a large percent of nicotine，so smoking faces great opposition in China.percent→percentage
8．It is honorable to make life with your hands while depending on others is a shame.life 前加 a
Ⅲ.选词填空 by means of， a large percentage of， live on， in the majority， keep up， make a life， be distinct from， a boom in
1．In this club, young women members are in_the_majority,_so men have not much right to decide on things.
2．You can't live_on 200 calories a day, or you will be starved to death in a long time.
3．A_large_percentage_of school books now have pictures，so they look more attractive.
4．We are very anxious to keep_up the reputation of the firm. 5．Many young people are going to big cities to make_a_life for themselves. 6．More and more people tend to communicate with each other by_means_of the Internet. 7．There was a_boom_in population in the 1990s，so the generation had to face the pressure from all aspects of life. 8．They are_distinct_from each other in colour. Ⅳ.课文语法填空 California is the third 1.largest (large) state in the USA but has the largest population. It is the most multicultural state in the USA. This is not 2.surprising (surprise) when you know the history of California 3.which has attracted people from nearly every country in the world. No one really knows what time the first 4.settlers (settle) arrived in 5.what we now know as California. Scientists believe that the Native Americans reached Alaska 6.by means of a land bridge. In the 18th century California was ruled by Spain. Of the first Spanish to go to California, the majority were religious men. In 1848, gold 7.was_discovered (discover) in California and the dream of becoming rich quickly attracted people from all over the world. In fact，few achieved their dream, but most remained in California to make a life for themselves. In more recent decades, California
8.has_become (become) home to people from Asia. 9.It is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will be 10.so great that there will be no major racial or cultural groups.
Ⅴ.串点成篇微表达 大多数(majority)医生认为她没有活下去的可能。然而，她的妈妈绝不(by no means) 放弃，因为她认为她女儿很可能(be likely to)会康复。为了保持(keep up)她的勇气，妈 妈做了所能够做的一切来安慰她。尽管(despite)有很多困难(hardship)，他们最终得以成 功。 The_majority_of_doctors_agreed_that_she_had_no_possibility_to_survive._Howe ver,_by_no_means_did_her_mother_give_up_because_she_thought_that_her_daughter_w as_likely_to_recover_soon._To_keep_up_her_courage,_the_mother_did_all_she_could _to_comfort_her._Despite_much_hardship,_they_succeeded_at_last. 二、勤练高考题型，多练自能生巧 Ⅰ.完形填空 Once a mango lover climbed up to the top of a tree and picked up some fruit. When he tried to climb down, he accidentally missed a step and started __1__ towards the ground. Fortunately, he __2__ a branch and remained helplessly hanging on the tree. He started to call for help. Nearby villagers __3__ came with a ladder and sticks, but could do little. Then an old man arrived. People wanted to see what he would do, as he was famous for dealing with people's __4__. He was silent for a minute and then picked up a __5__ and threw it at the hanging man. Everybody was __6__. The hanging mango lover started to shout, “What are you doing？！ Are you crazy？！” The old man was silent and __7__ throwing stones at the man, even more __8__. The hanging man was very angry, screaming, “If I could just come down, I would show you! You will __9__ what you've done！” That's what everybody __10__ — he came down. But __11__？ Now everybody became __12__， not only because of the hanging man's dangerous __13__， but also the old man's. Some people advised the old man to stop, but he was still silent __14__ he was deaf. Now the hanging man on the tree developed a great __15__ to come down and take revenge (复仇). He used all his skill and __16__ and reached the branches which were safe to start going down. __17__， he made it! Everybody was amazed. __18__， the mango lover found the old man had gone. He stood there, realizing that the old man's crazy action had __19__ him to try his best and save himself. “I should be __20__ and not angry，” he said.
解析：选 A 他一不小心踩空了，从树上往下掉。
解析：选 C 幸运的是，他抓住了一根树枝，无助地挂在树上，下不来。
解析：选 D 他开始呼救。周围的村民听到呼救声后，立即赶来施救。尽管村民们搬来
解析：选 B 这时，一位老人来了。他因帮人们解决难题而出名。人们都想知道他会用
解析：选 D 老人想了一会儿，然后做出了让人们都吃惊的举动：他捡起一块儿石头，
解析：选 A 参见上题解析。
解析：选 C 被困者怒斥老人疯狂的举动，但是，老人还是一言不发，继续用石头砸被
解析：选 B 参见上题解析。
解析：选 D 被困者被激怒了，他吼道：“如果我能下去，有你的好看！你会为你所做
解析：选 C 这正是人们所希望的事情：被困者从树上下来。
解析：选 A 但是，被困者怎么才能下来呢？
解析：选 D 被困者被激怒了，想着要下来报复老人。而老人还在不停地用石头砸着被
解析：选 B 参见上题解析。
解析：选 A 于是，有人就建议老人停下来，但老人就像聋了似的，对人们的建议置若
解析：选 D 而这时，树上的被困者是怒火中烧，下定决心要从树上下来好好教训那位
解析：选 C 他拼尽全力，抓住了安全的树枝，然后顺着树枝往下挪动。
D．On the contrary
解析：选 B 最终，被困者下来了。
解析：选 A 但是，这个时候那位老人已经离开了。
解析：选 B 平静下来的被困者终于意识到，正是那位老人看似疯狂的举动才迫使他自
解析：选 C 他也明白了自己应该感激那位老人想办法救了他。
Last Friday evening, I had a talk about my grandma; she told me that she wanted
to visit Shanghai. She would like to see the great change in her hometown. Hear this,
I begin to book air tickets for her on the Internet. I checked the weather in Shanghai
as good. After which, I helped my grandma prepare her clothes and some things she
might need during his trip such as a cellphone and a camera. The next day, I went
to the airport see off my grandma. Although it was a busily weekend, I felt proud
because of I could do something for my grandma.
第六句：see 前加 to
第七句：busily→busy; 去掉 of
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