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定语从句易错易混点训练加解析


定语从句七大盲点
定语从句作为各省高考英语历年必考语法项目,近年来其考查形式日趋灵 活、新颖、多变,常常让考生感觉无从下手或措手不及。根据笔者的教学经验, 对于定语从句,考生常常存在以下七大盲点。 盲点 1 先行词为地点,关系词不一定用 where he worked ten years ago? C. which you visited the other day? C. in which D. the one D. the one

【例题 1】Is this the factory A. that B. where

【例题 2】Is this the factory A. that 【例题 3】Is this factory A. that 破解: B. where

some foreign friends visited last Friday? B. where C. which D. the one

对于以上三题,同学们如果稍一疏忽,不仔细分析句子结构,弄清关系词 的功能,很有可能全选 B。我建议大家解此类题时分两步走一一“瞻前”、“顾 后”。所谓“瞻前”,即确定先行词;所谓“顾后”,即判断代替先行词的关系 词在后面的定语从句中充当何种成分。诚然,以上三题先行词 factory 是表地点 的名词, 但是代替它的关系词在后面定语从句中充当的成分却不一样。我们将其 还原到从句中可以看到, 在第一句中它搭配介词 in 充当地点状语, “he worked 即 in the factory ten years ago.”所以关系词选 where 毋容置疑。 在第二句中它充当 visit 的宾语,即“you visit the factory the other day.”所以关系词只能选 that。在第三句 中,主句缺表语,将题干还原为陈述句可得“this factory is some foreign friends visited last Friday”. 我们需要先把主句补充完整才便于考虑 后面的定语从句, 因而此处填入的词既要能充当主句的表语,还要能在从句中作 visit 的宾语,只有 D 项“the one”符合。但要注意:“the one”不是关系词, 是先行词,作定语从句先行词时,关系词 that 可以省略。 【小结】 定语从句关系词的选择, 不仅仅要看先行词是人物/时间/地点/原因, 而且还要重点关注它在定语从句中充当的成分。

盲点 2

先行词若是被抽象成地点的名词,关系词应考虑用 where

【例题 4】一 What do you think of teaching, Bob? 一 I find it fun and challenging . It is a job serious but interesting. (2009 北京卷) A. where that 破解: 此题要先判断考查的是否是定语从句。由于空格后面的句子不缺成分,且主 句表语不是介词短语,不能作后一句的状语,而去掉“it is a job”后,整个句子 意义还不完整,所以不会是强调句。排除 D 后,确认此句是定语从句。先行词 是“a job”,带入定语从句中还原后为“you are doing something serious but interesting in the job”.所以关系词应为 where,相当于“in which”。 B. which C. when D. you are doing something

【例题 5】It’s helpful to put children in a situation differently.(2009 福建卷) A. that where 破解: B. when

they can see themselves

C. which

D.

这里的先行词是“a situation”,带入定语从句中还原后为“they can see themselves differently in the situation”,所以关系词应为 where,相当于“in which”。 类似的例题大家还可以参考 2009 年重庆卷的第 34 题和 2009 年浙江卷的第 14 题。 【小结】定语从句中常见的容易被抽象成地点名词功能的先行词有“the case”,“the situation”, “ the point”, “the job”, “ the race”等。

盲点 3

先行词和关系词被分割开,应先找准先行词 she found her son who had gone

【例题 6】She’ll never forget her stay there missing two years before. (2009 四川卷) A. that 破解: B. which

C. where

D. when

很多考生之所以误选 C 是因为把先行词看成了 there,殊不知定语从句的定义 为:在复合句中修饰名词或代词的句子,修饰的主体一定要是名词或者是代词, 而 there 却是个副词, 真正的先行词实际上是 “her stay”. Stay 作名词时可表示 “逗 留期间”,还原到后面的定语从句中为“she found her son who had gone missing during her stay two years before”, 在从句中充当时间状语,所以答案选 D ,相当 于“during which time”.

【例题 7】Because of the financial crisis, day are gone charged 6,000 yuan for one night. (2009 江苏卷) A. if 破解: B. when C. which

local 5-star hotels

D. since

这里真正的先行词是 days,只不过谓语动词 “are gone”将它和定语从句给隔开 了。Days 在后面的定语从句中搭配介词 during 充当时间状语,还原后即: “local 5-star hotels charged 6,000 yuan for one night during those days.”所以答案选 B

【例题 8】 have reached a point in my life I my own.(2009 浙江卷) A. which 破解: B. where

I am supposed to make decisions of

C. how

D. why

这里真正的先行词是“a point”,只不过已经被介词短语“in my life”和定语从 句给隔开了,它在后面定语从句中搭配介词 in 充当时间状语,意为“关头、时 候”,即“I am supposed to make decisions of my own in that point.” 所以选 B. 【小结】整个高中阶段定语从句中先行词和关系词被隔开一般分为三种情 况:1.被副词分隔开(例题 6);2. 被谓语动词分隔开(例题 7); 3.被介词短 语分隔开(例题 8)。
盲点 4 定语从句和强调句型的区别 【例题 9】 一 Where did you get to know her? 一 It was on the farm A. that B. there we worked.(2007 山东卷) C. which D. where

破解: 这道题很多考生误选 A 项,因为他牢牢记住了强调句型的经典结构“it is+被强调的 部分 + 从句”。殊不知,此题中,“that + 从句”已被省略,正确答案为 where。“it was on the farm where we worked”中的“where we worked”是定语从句,修饰“the farm”, 被省略的部分为“that I got to know her”, 即完整的答句应为:“it was on the farm we worked( that I got to know her).” 【小结】 强调句型中的 “it be---that”实际上并没有什么特别的含义, 去掉这个部分, 句意还完整无缺,那就是强调句。在此,有同学肯定有疑问,认为上题如果选 that 的话, “it was on the farm that we worked.”去掉“it was”和 that 后,变为“we worked on the farm”也说得通。但大家不要忘了这是个答句,不仅本身要说得通,还要和问句“where did you get to know her?”相匹配。由此可见,解题时一定要明晰主次,读懂题干。

盲点 5 定语从句和 what 引导的名词性从句的区分 【例题 10】 The companies are working together to create means of transport in the 21 A. which 破解: 此句中我们发现主句“The companies are working together to create 宾语,而后面的“ will be the best means of transport in the 21
st st

they hope will be the best

century. (2008 北京卷) C. what D. who

B. that

”中缺 century”缺

主语(“they hope”作插入语)。四个选项中,由于只有 what 在引导名词性从句时,指物, 等同于“the things that”,既可在从句中作成分,又可引导从句作主句的宾语,所以选 C. 【小结】定语从句和 what 引导的名词性从句最大的差别在于:定语从句的主句肯定是 完整的,而包含 what 引导的名词性从句的复合句,主句和从句肯定缺少主语/宾语/表语这 样的成分。只要仔细分析句子成分,就很容易区分这两类从句。

盲点 6 定语从句和同位语从句的区分 【例题 11】

There is a feeling in me 上海卷) A. that 破解: B. which

we’ll never know what a UFO is 一 not ever. (2002

C. of which

D. what

此句中我们发现前面的 “There is a feeling in me” 结构完整, 不缺成分,“a feeling” 但 这样的先行词极其抽象,需要一个句子来解释。而从句“we’ll never know what a UFO is” 结构完整,不缺成分,且刚好可以解释“a feeling”.但这两句话显然不是并列关系,也不 是修饰关系,中间需要 that 这样的没有实际含义的链接词,所以选 A.这也正体现了同位语 从句的本质:1、先行词极其抽象;2、关系词只能用 that. That 仅起连接作用,不充当从 句成分;3、句法功能相当于名词,对前面的名词进行解释。 【小结】定语从句和同位语从句最大的差别在于: 1、定语从句中的先行词可以是任意名词或代词,不能省略;但是同位语从句中的先行 词必须是可以被进一步阐释的抽象名词,如:dream, truth, hope, idea, feeling, news, order, fact, question, reason, belief, doubt, evidence, conclusion, result 等。 2、 同位语从句中的关系词只能由 that 来充当, 而定语从句的关系词则由先行词的性质 来决定,that/which/who/whom/when/where/why 均可充当,关系词在从句中作宾语时可省 略 。 3、同位语从句是用来解释说明先行词的具体内容,而定语从句则是用来修饰限定先行 词的。

盲点 7

介词和副词的区分

【例题 12】 A man with a bleeding hand hurried in and asked,“Is there a hospital around can get some medicine for my wounded hand?” A. that 破解: 有考生看到 around 认为是介词马上就选了 which,殊不知选了 which 后, 句意变为: “有 没有哪家医院的附近能找到治我伤手的药?” 根据常理, 我们可以推断他实际想问的是: “附 近有没有医院能让我找到治我伤手的药?”是在找医院,而不是找医院附近的某个场所。也 就是说,这里的 around 不是介词,而是副词,在此隔开了先行词“a hospital”和其对应 B. which C. where D. what I

的定语从句。可以说,这又回到了盲点三讲的先行词和关系词被分开的第一种情况,即被副 词分开。 【小结】像 around 这样既可作介词又可作副词的词,考生做题时一定要结合具体句意 来判定它到底是介词还是副词,以免误将副词当做介词用,按照“介词+关系代词”结构而 误选。

总之,定语从句考查形式千变万化,花样百出,考生只有掌握好定语从句的三个基本概 念;先行词和定语从句中的四大重要成分(主语/宾语/表语/状语),扎扎实实分析好句子 成分,才能屡战屡胜、百战不殆。

再次练习: 【例题 1】Is this the factory A. that
【例题 11】 There is a feeling in me 上海卷) A. that 【例题 10】 The companies are working together to create means of transport in the 21 A. which 【例题 9】 一 Where did you get to know her? 一 It was on the farm A. that B. there we worked.(2007 山东卷) C. which D. where B. that
st

he worked ten years ago? C. which D. the one

B. where

we’ll never know what a UFO is 一 not ever. (2002

B. which

C. of which

D. what

they hope will be the best

century. (2008 北京卷) C. what D. who

【例题 7】Because of the financial crisis, day are gone charged 6,000 yuan for one night. (2009 江苏卷) A. if B. when C. which

local 5-star hotels

D. since

【例题 2】Is this the factory A. that B. where

you visited the other day? C. in which D. the one

【例题 4】一 What do you think of teaching, Bob? 一 I find it fun and challenging . It is a job serious but interesting. (2009 北京卷) A. where B. which C. when D. that you are doing something

【例题 6】She’ll never forget her stay there missing two years before. (2009 四川卷) A. that B. which

she found her son who had gone

C. where

D. when

【例题 12】 A man with a bleeding hand hurried in and asked,“Is there a hospital around can get some medicine for my wounded hand?” A. that B. which C. where D. what I

【例题 5】It’s helpful to put children in a situation differently.(2009 福建卷) A. that B. when

they can see themselves

C. which

D. where

【例题 3】Is this factory A. that

some foreign friends visited last Friday? B. where C. which D. the one

【例题 8】 have reached a point in my life I my own.(2009 浙江卷) A. which B. where

I am supposed to make decisions of

C. how

D. why


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