2013 届高考英语实战演练专题阅读理解（66-70） 《附详析》 (第 66 篇) In the quest for better health, many people turn to doctors, self ? help books or herbal supplements. But they overlook a powerful weapon that could help them fight illness and depression, speed recovery, slow aging and prolong life: their friends. Researchers are only now starting to pay attention to the importance of friendship and social networks in overall health. A 10 ? year Australian study found that older people with a large circle of friends were 22 percent less likely to die during the study period than those with fewer friends. A large 2007 study showed an increase of nearly 60 percent in the risk for obesity among people whose friends gained weight. And last year, Harvard researchers reported that strong social ties could promote brain health as we age. “In general, the role of friendship in our lives isn’ t well appreciated， ” said Rebecca G. Adams, a professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina, Greensboro. “There are a lot of things on families and marriage, but very little on friendship. It baffles me. Friendship has a bigger impact on our psychological well ? being than family relationships.” Bella DePaulo, a visiting psychology professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara, whose work focuses on single people and friendships, notes that in many studies, friendship has an even greater effect on health than a spouse or a family member. It isn’ t entirely clear why friendship has such a big effect. It may be because people with strong social ties also have better access to health services and care. Beyond that, however, friendship clearly has a profound psychological effect. People with strong friendships are less likely than others to get colds, perhaps because they have lower stress levels. Last year, researchers studied 34 students at the University of Virginia, taking them to the base of a steep hill and fitting them with a weighted backpack. They were then asked to estimate the steepness of the hill. Some participants stood next to friends during the exercise, while others were alone. The students who stood with friends gave lower estimates of the steepness of the hill. And the longer the friends had known each other, the less steep the hill appeared. “People with stronger friendship networks feel like there is someone they can turn to， ” said Karen A． Roberto, director of the center for gerontology (老年医学) at Virginia Tech. “ Friendship is an undervalued resource. The consistent message of these studies is that friends make your life better.” [语篇解读] 如何保持身心健康？相信每个人对此都很感兴趣并能给出自己的答案。本文作 者向我们介绍了一个有利于身心健康的，很重要又长期被人们忽视的因素——友谊。 1．What’ s the main idea of the passage? A. People should make friends as many as possible. B. Friendships do great good to human health. C. People with friends have optimistic attitude. D. Several studies have been done on friendships. [解析] 主旨大意题。文章通过几个研究结果说明友谊在促进人类身心健康方面作用巨大。 [答案] B 2．Which of the following is true?
A. People haven’t attached importance to friendships. B. A friend can replace doctors and self ? help books. C. People with many friends may have higher stress levels. D. People who have friends tend to be fat. [解析] 正误判断题。从文章第三段可知，人们尚未认识到友谊对人们身心健康的重要性。 其他选项均与原文信息不符。 [答案] A 3．The author mentioned the study in the last three paragraphs to indicate that ________. A. students should climb the steep hill with friends B. it takes a long time to make friends C. a friend in need is a friend indeed D. people accompanied by friends remain optimistic in the face of difficulty [解析] 推理判断题。 倒数第二段中 “The students who stood with friends gave lower estimates of the steepness of the hill。 ”表明与朋友在一起的学生估计出来的坡度更小，这意味着他们 面对困难能保持相对乐观的心态。 [答案] D 4．In Paragraph 2 the author aims to tell us ________. A. friendship has a strong physical effect on people’s health B. we cannot be too careful when making friends C. older people are likely to have fewer friends D. 60 percent of the people without friends will become fat when they get old [解析] 段落大意题。根据本段开头(主题句)可知答案。而且主题句后的三个研究结论都与 “友谊影响身体健康”有关。 [答案] A 5．According to Karen A. Roberto, ________. A. the effect of friendships is overvalued B. studies on friendships make our life better C. friends are more important than family members D. friends can help each other when faced with problems [解析] 推理判断题。由文章最后一段的第一句可推断出，有问题的时候朋友之间可以相互 帮助，A、B、C 三项不符合原文。 [答案] D [长难句解读] 1.But they overlook a powerful weapon that could help them fight illness and depression, speed recovery, slow aging and prolong life: their friends. that 引导定语从句，修饰 a powerful weapon；该定语从句中有四个并列的谓语动词；their friends 和 a powerful weapon 构成同位关系。 2．Bella DePaulo, a visiting psychology professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara, whose work focuses on single people and friendships, notes that in many studies, friendship has an even greater effect on health than a spouse or a family member. 本句中 a visiting psychology professor at the University of California，Santa Barbara 是 Della DePaulo 的同位语；whose work focuses on...是定语从句，修饰 Bella DePaulo；notes 是本句 的谓语动词，后面接宾语从句。 (第 67 篇)
“Sesame Street” has been called “the longest street in the world”. That is because the television program by that name can now be seen in so many parts of the world. That program became one of American’s exports soon after it went on the air in New York in 1969. In the United States more than six million children watch the program regularly. The viewers include more than half the nation’s pre-school children, from every kind of economic(经济的), racial(种族的), and geographical group. Although some educators object to certain elements in the program, parents praise it highly. Many teachers also consider it a great help, though some teachers find that problems arise when first graders who have learned from “Sesame Street” are in the same class with children who have not watched the program. Tests have shown that children from all racial, geographical, and economic backgrounds have benefited from watching it. Those who watch it five times a week learn more than occasional(偶 然的) viewers. In the US the program is shown at different hours during the week in order to increase the number of children who can watch it regularly. The programs all use songs, stories, jokes, and pictures to give children a basic understanding of numbers, letters and human relationships. But there are some differences. For example, the Spanish program, produced in Mexico City, devotes more time to teaching whole words than to teaching separate letters. Why has “Sesame Street” been so much more successful than other children’s shows? Many reasons have been suggested. People mention the educational theories(理论) of its creators, the support by the government and private(私人的) businesses, and the skillful use of a variety of TV tricks. Perhaps an equally important reason is that mothers watch it along with their children. This is partly because famous adult stars often appear on it. But the best reason for the success of the program may be that it makes every child watching feel able to learn. The child finds himself learning, and he wants to learn more. 1. “Sesame Street” is actually _______. A. a street in the US B. a program for children C. a program for teachers D. a program for students 2. Children who often watch the program _______. A. can have problems in school B. will find it a great help C. will take no interest in their studies D. will be well educated 3. What is special about the program? A. It offers great fun. B. It makes children feel able to learn. C. It is shown at different hours during the week. D. Children learn and enjoy themselves while watching. 4. Why is “Sesame Street” so popular in the world? A. Because it is supported by the government and businesses. B. Because it uses a variety of skillful tricks. C. Because mothers watch it along with their children. D. Because it makes every child watching it feel able to learn. 5. The best title for this passage can be _______. A. TV Programs B. Educating Children C. Sesame Street D. A Great Success
本文介绍了电视节目 Sesame Street 所产生的社会影响及它成功的原因。 1. B。 细节题。 根据文章第 2 段第 1 句 more than six million children watch the program regularly 可推知此题答案为 B。 2. B。推断题。根据文章第 4 段第 1 句 Tests have shown that children?have benefited from watching it 可推知此题答案为 B。 3. D。 推断题。 根据文章第 5 段第 1 句 The programs all use songs, stories, jokes, and pictures to give children a basic understanding of numbers, letters and human relationships 可推知此题答 案为 B。 4. D。 推断题。 根据文章最后一段倒数第 2 句 the best reason for the success of the program may be that it makes every child watching feel able to learn 可推知此题答案为 D。 5. C。主旨题。本文主要介绍电视节目 Sesame Street 所产生的影响及它成功的原因，所以 选 C。 (第 68 篇) Ruben lived in a small village. There was no school there and he had to study in a school in the town. It was nearly five kilometres away from his village. His father couldn't buy a bike for him and he had to go to school on foot. He got up early in the morning. Usually he had to run there in order not to miss the first class. He kept running every day and it was helpful to him. He’s strong and tall now and he ran faster than any other man in his village. He took part in several sports meetings and won some medals. The young man is proud of and always wants to have a race with others. One day his mother was ill and his father told him to buy some medicine for headache in the town. The young man got there soon. There were many people in the chemist's shop while he was waiting there. And when his turn came, he couldn’t find his money. An old woman hinted （暗 示）a young man had stolen it. He saw the thief had already left the shop. He ran towards him quickly. The thief found it and began to run. He was happy and tried to catch up with him. “Let’s have a race and see who will run faster,” Ruben called out behind. Soon after that he caught up with the thief. But he didn't stop and went on running. At a crossing one of his friends asked, “What are you running for, Ruben?” “I’m running after（追）a thief. ” “Where’s the thief, then?” “He wants to show that he’ll run faster than me, but he’s fallen behind!” 1. Ruben had to run to school because ______________. A. he had no bike B. he hoped to win some medals C. his village was a little far from the school D. he was afraid to be late for class 2.______________ , so he won some medals. A. Ruben is good at running B. Ruben went to school on time C. Ruben often took part in the sports meetings. D. Ruben likes to have a race with others 3. The phrase “a chemist’s shop” in the story means ______________. A. 化工商店 B. 药店 C. 化工厂 D. 制药厂 4. Ruben’s money was stolen ______________. A. on his way to the town
B. before he went in the shop C. when he was waiting in the shop D. after he had left the shop 5. Ruben was happy because ______________. A. he could easily catch the thief B. he had a chance（机会）to have a race C. he knew who had stolen his money D. he would win another medal that day 1. D。细节理解题。在所给的几个原因当中, Ruben 怕迟到才是最主要的。 2. A。细节理解题。Ruben 赢得奖牌是因为他跑得快。 3. B。猜测词义题。Ruben 要买的是零售药品。自然在药店, 因此, B 项是正确选项。 4. C。细节理解题。 5. B。推理判断题。 (第 69 篇) 1970 was “World Conservation Year”. The United Nations wanted everyone to know that the world was in danger. They hoped that the governments would act quickly in order to conserve nature. Here is one example of the problem. At one time there were 1300 different plants, trees and flowers in Holland, but now only 860 remain. The others have been destroyed by modern man and his technology. We are changing the earth, the air and the water, and everything that grows and lives. We can’t live without these things. If we continue like this, we shall destroy ourselves.? What will happen in the future? Perhaps it is more important to ask “What must we do now?” The people who will be living in the world of tomorrow are the young of today. A lot of them know that conservation is necessary. Many are hoping to save our world. They plant trees, build bridges across rivers in forests and so on. In a small town in the United States a large group of girls cleaned the banks of eleven kilometres of their river. Young people may hear about conservation through a record called “No, One’s Going to Change our World.” It was made by Scatles, Cliff Richard and other singers. The money from it will help to conserve wild animals.? 1. There are few plants, trees and flowers in Holland now because _______. A. there has been a lot of conservation in Holland ? B. Holland does not need so many plants, trees and flowers ? C. many plants, trees and flowers don't grow there any more ? D. some plants, trees and flowers are dangerous ? 2. We shall destroy ourselves if we don't _______. A. improve our technology in planting trees ? B. hear about the record called “No, One’s Going to Change our World”? C. try our best to save the world ? D. change the earth ? 3. “No, One’s Going to Change our World.” was _______. A. an important book published in 1970 ? B. a record calling on people to conserve nature ? C. an idea that nobody would accept ? D. a rule worked out by the United States ? 4. What is the most important thing for us to do to save our world?
A. We should clean the banks of our rivers.? B. We should know what will happen in the future.? C. We should know what we should do and do it now.? D. We should plant more trees and flowers.? 5. What’s the main idea of the passage? A. 1970 was “World Conservation Year”.? B. The United Nations wanted everybody to know that the world is in danger.? C. Conservation is necessary.? D. It is the young people who are helping to save our world. 1.C。推理判断题。根据第一自然段内容可知。? 2.C。细节理解题。根据第一自然段最后两句 We can't live without these things. If we continue like this, we shall destroy ourselves.可知。 3.B 。推理判断题。根据文章最 后一自然段倒数第三句 Young people may hear about conservation through a record called “No, One's Going to Change our World. ”可知。 4.C。推理判断题。根据文章第二自然段可推出此答案。 5.C。主旨大意题。文章最后一自然段中点明了主题：A lot of them know that conservation is necessary. (第 70 篇) Five years ago, David Smith wore an expensive suit to work every day. “I was a clothes addict,” he jokes. “I used to carry a fresh suit to work with me so I could change if my clothes got wrinkled.” Today David wears casual clothes-khaki pants and sports shirt-to the office. He hardly ever wears a necktie. “I’m working harder than ever,” David says, “and I need to feel comfortable.” More and more companies are allowing their office workers to wear casual clothes to work in the United States. The change from formal to casual office wear has been gradual. In the early 1990s, many companies allowed their employees to wear casual clothes on Friday(but only on Friday). This became known as “dress-down Friday” of “casual Friday”. “What started out as an extra one-day-a-week benefit for employees has really become an everyday thing.” said business consultant Maisly Jones. Why have so many companies started allowing their employees to wear casual clothes? One reason is that it’s easier for a company to attract new employees if it has a casual dress code. “A lot of young people don’t want to dress up for work,” says the owner of a software company, “so it’s hard to hire people if you have a conservative dress code.” Another reason is that people seem happier and more productive when they are wearing comfortable clothes. In a study conducted by Levi Strauss and Company, 85 percent of employers said that they believe that casual dress improves employee morale. Only 4 percent of employers said that casual dress has a negative impact on productivity. Supporters of casual office wear also argue that a casual dress code helps them save money. “Suits are expensive, if you have to wear one every day,” one person said. “For the same amount of money, you can buy a lot more casual clothes.” 1. David Smith refers to himself as having been “a clothes addict,” because _______. A. he often wore khaki pants and a sports shirt B. he couldn’t stand a clean appearance C. he wanted his clothes to look neat all the time D. he didn’t want to spend much money on clothes 2. David Smith wears casual clothes now, because _______.
A. they make him feel at ease when working B. he cannot afford to buy expensive clothes C. he looks handsome in casual clothes D. he no longer works for any company 3. According to this passage, which of the following statements is false? A. Many employees don’t like a conservative dress code. B. Comfortable clothes make employees more productive. C. A casual clothes code is welcomed by young employees. D. All the employers in the U. S. are for casual office wear. 4. According to this passage, which of the following statements is true? A. Company workers started to dress down about twenty years ago. B. Dress-down has become an everyday phenomenon since the early 1990s. C. “Dress-down Friday” was first given as a favor from employers. D. Many workers want to wear casual clothes to impress people. 5. In this passage, the following advantages of casual office wear are mentioned in the passage except _______. A. saving employees’ money B. making employees more attractive C. improving employees’ motivation D. making employees happier 从 20 世纪 90 年代起， 美国许多公司开始允许员工星期五可以不统一着装上班。 现在越来越 多的公司许可领员工穿便装上班了，这对调节他们的心情，调动其工作热情有一定的作用。 1. C。语义理解题。大卫自嘲以前是服装爱好者，衣服一起皱，他就得换上备穿的服装。 2. A。 语义理解题。 从第 1 段最后一句话 “I’ m working harder than ever,” David says, “and I need to feel comfortable.”可找到答案。 3. D。细节判断题。根据最后一段中的 Only 4 percent of employers said that casual dress has a negative impact on productivity 可知还有一些雇主不赞同穿便装上班。 4. C。细节判断题。从第 2 段最后 1 句“What started out as an extra one-day-a-week benefit for employees has really become an everyday thing.”可以做出正确判断。 5. B。推断题。通读最后一段可知选项 A(为雇员省钱)、B(提高雇员的工作热情)、D(使雇主高 兴)在原文中均被提到，只有 A 未被提到。
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