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虚拟语气全部


拟 虚





语气 英语的动词一般可带有三种不同的语气: 陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气。不同 的语气用动词的不同形式(有的还借助 句法形式)来表示。

Definition
陈述语气(the Indicative Mood)用来陈述一个事实,或提 出一个想法,有肯定、否定、疑问或感叹等形式。

虚语语气(the Subjunctive Mood)表示说话人的一种愿望、 建议、命令、要求、有时是一种非真实的假设、料想,或 是不可能实现的与事实相反的愿望。 简言之,即:不是事实或不大可能发生的事情,就用虚拟 语气来表述。

a. if真实条件句 表示条件是真的或 有可能实现的, 采用陈述语气。 b. if虚拟条件句 表示条件是虚拟的或 几乎无法实现的, 采用虚拟语气。

if真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况很 有可能发生,其中if是“如果”的意思

if条件从句

主句

I will sleep at home if it will \shall+ 动词原形 What will you do if it rains 一般现在时 rains tomorrow. tomorrow? 情态动词 + 动词原形

虚拟语气的考点
1、条件句中的虚拟语气的用法; 2、条件句中虚拟语气的倒装; 3、含蓄条件句。 4、名词性从句中虚拟语气的用法; 5、几种特殊结构中虚拟语气的用法;

if引导的虚拟条件句

if虚拟条件句 表示条件是虚拟的或几 乎无法实现的, 采用虚拟语气。

区别:
If it rains tomorrow, the crops will be saved. 陈述语气 If it rained tomorrow, the crops would be saved. 虚拟语气

if 引导的虚拟条件句
①与现在事实相反 ②与过去事实相反 ③与将来事实可能相反

与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句 If + 主 + did(were), 主+would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形 1. 如果我是你,我会再试一次。 If I were you, I would try it again. 2.如果我有一百万美元,我会买下这架飞机。 If I had one million dollars, I would buy the plane.

与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句 If +主 +had done, 主+ would /should /could /might +动词完成式(have done)
1.如果他努力学的话,他就通过这次考试。

If he had worked hard, he would have passed the examination.
2.要是当时我和她结了婚的话,那我是很不幸的。

If I had married her, I would have been unhappy.

与将来事实相反的虚拟条件句(通常有时间状语)

If + 主 + did(were to /should do), 主 +would/ should / could/might +动词原形
1.如果他明天来的话,我会告诉他这件事.

If he came here tomorrow, I would tell him about it.
2.如果他明天来的话,我会告诉他.

If he were to come here tomorrow, I would tell him.

If you __________tomorrow, you _________ find the new manager working in the office. A. should come; would C. will come; should B. would come; would D. comes; might

If the parents ______at the hospital earlier after the accident, the child would have been saved. A. arrives C. had arrived B. arrive D. has arrived

——If he _____he _______that food. —— Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. A. was warned; would not have taken B. had been warned; would not have taken C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken

I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she _______, she would have met my brother. A. has come C. came B. did come D. had come

If my lawyer _____here last Sunday, he ____ me from going . A. had been; would have prevented B. had been; would prevent C. were; would prevent D. were; would have prevented

总结: if虚拟条件句
  if虚拟条件句 与现在 事实相 反的假 设 与过去 事实相 反的假 设 与将来 事实相 反的假 设 If+主语+ 动词的过去式 (be动词一般用were) 即:If+一般过去时态 (be动词一般用were) If+主语+had +动词的过去分词 即:If+过去完成时态    主句

(4+1)

主语+would ( should / might / could )+动 词原形

主语 + would ( should / might / could )+ have done

1、If+主语+动词过去式 主语+would ( should 2、If+主语+were to+ 动词原形 / might / could )+动 3、If+主语+should +动词原形 词原形

错综时间 虚拟条件句

如果我是你,我就听从他的建议。 If I were you, I would have taken his advice. 从句表示现在,主句表示过去 如果你听我的话,现在就不会这么糟糕了。 If you had listened to me, you might not be in such trouble now. 从句表示过去,主句表示现在 如果这些天没一直下雨,我们现在可以工作了。 If it hadn’t been raining those days, we should be going on with the works. 从句表过去进行,主句表现在进行

If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work now.

如果你当时听了我的话,现在就能完成这份 工作了。(从句说明过去,主句说明现在。) If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party. 如果我是你,我就去参加她的生日晚会了。 (从句说明现在,主句说明过去。)

If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new house and most likely I would be still living in the dangerous house now.
假若你不借钱给我, 我不可能买下这幢新 房,很可能现在还住在危房里。 (从句说明过去,主句说明过去和现在。)

倒装的If虚拟句

条件状语的倒装:
如果条件状语中有were, had, should时, 可以倒装 成:Were / Should / Had +主+其他 I you, IfWere I were you, I would try it again. Had been there yesterday, If he he had been there yesterday, he would have seen the film. Should If it should it snow snow tomorrow, tomorrow, we wouldn’t go out. If it were to snow tomorrow, we wouldn’t go out. Were it to snow tomorrow,

注意点
If I were not here now, I would be in the bus.
Weren't I here now, I would be in the bus. Were I not here now, I would be in the bus.

+

If I had three books, I would give you one.

Had I three books, I would give you one.
had在此为实意 动词,不倒装

+

____the exam, he would have attend a college. A. If he passed C. Were he passed B. Had he passed D. If he should pass

_____five minutes earlier, you could have seen them off. A. If you should arrive B. If you arrive C. Had you arrived D. Should you arrive _____it rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the visit to the Science Museum. A. Were B. should C. would D. will

含蓄条件句

非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表示 出来,为了表达的需要,在虚拟语气中 并不总是出现if引导的条件句,而通过 其他手段来代替条件句。只暗含在上下 文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄 条件句大体有三种情况:

1. 条件暗含在短语中。如:

without和but for 构成虚拟。but for要不是。 Without sunlight, people’s life would be different from today. But for your help, I wouldn’t have finished the work. Without your help, I would have failed. But for water, it would be impossible to live in the desert.

but for /without


虚拟 过去 现在

but后跟从句,but for后跟短语

But for/without+N,后面的谓语形式
would / could / should /might have done sth would / could / should /might do

otherwise 否则
I was ill that day . Otherwise ,I would have danced on Christmas. Otherwise
前不虚拟(用一般过去时) 后虚拟(用would/could/should/might have done sth)

2. 条件暗含在上下文中。如:

名词性从句中的 虚拟语气

命令建议请求 should+ 动词原形
一坚持 insist 二命令 order, command 三建议 suggest , advise, propose 四要求 demand, request, require, ask

1. suggest, order, demand, propose, command,
request, desire, insist, require, advice etc.引导的

宾语从句要用虚拟语气,以(should) + v原 的形式出现。 We all suggest that he ( should ) finish his homework first.

The captain commanded that all the sailors ( should ) get down to work at once.

2. It’s suggested ( ordered, demanded, proposed, commanded, requested, desired, insisted, required ) that … 后面的主语从句 中要使用虚拟语气,也以 ( should ) + v原.的 形式出现。 It’s ordered that only German ( should ) be taught at schools in Alsas and Lorin.

It’s requested that all the students ( should ) wear school uniforms at school.

3. 以上这些动词的名词形式后面的表语从句 和同位语从句中也要用虚拟语气,也应以 (should) + v原. 的形式出现。 My suggestion is that you ( should ) go home first before coming here. My advice is that you (should) practise speaking English as often as possible His request that his cost ( should ) be paid by the hour is completely reasonable. The order came that the work (should) be finished two days ahead of time

注意:当suggest表“暗示”; insist 表示“坚持
认为”时不用虚拟!

1. His accent suggests he comes from JiangSu. 2. His silence suggested that he agreed with my decision. 3. I insist that he was wrong. 4. He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s health.

虚拟语气特殊句型:

1. wish + that

did/were 现在 had done 过去 might /would do 将来

How I wish

我要是记得地址就好了。(真可惜我忘了)

I wish I remembered the address. 要是他没有离开这里就好了。(他已离开) How I wish he had not left..
要是明天下雨就好了。(说话人以预料明天不会下雨)

I wish it would rain tomorrow.

2. If only (1) 要是…就好了 = I wish If only I knew his name now! If only we had followed your advice last time! If only I could see him again next year!
要是我们的父母能和我们住在一起就好了。

If only our parents could live with us!
要是我没错过火车就好了.

If only I hadn’t missed the train!

(2) = as long as 常用陈述语气. 如果我们紧密团结就一定能战胜一切 困难. We can surely overcome these difficulties if only we are closely united.

Exercises:
“ Have you visited the Science Museum?” “ No, but I really wish I _______.” A. had B. did C. have D. will

I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I _____there. A. was B. were C. had been D. went I wish I _________ you yesterday. A. see C. had seen B. did see D. were to see

-----He is a brave man. -----Yes, I wish I _________his courage. A. Have B. had C. will have D. would have

Tom can take his car apart and put it back together again. I certainly wish he _____me how. A. teaches B. will teach C. has taught D. would teach

The picture exhibition bored me to death. I wish I ___________to it. A. hadn’t gone C. didn’t go B. haven’t gone D. could not have gone

How I wish I _______that! Everybody present was angry with me. A. didn’t go C. wouldn’t do B. hadn’t done D. wasn’t doing

3.as if / though

区别:
He speaks English as if/ though he is from the USA. 陈述语气

{

He speaks English as if/ though he were from the USA. 虚拟语气

as if /though + Clause
现在:did /were(现在) 过去:had done(过去) 将来 : would+动词原形(将来)
She loves the baby as if it were her own son. He speaks as if he had been to the United States.

他看起来好象病了. He looks as if he were ill. 他感到他应该独自对发生的事情承担责任. He felt as if he alone were responsible for what had happened.

她英语说的很好就象是在英国学习的一样. She spoke English well as if she had studied English in England. 我记得整件事情就象是昨天发生的一样. I remember the whole thing as if it had happened yesterday.

史密斯太太哭得心都快碎了. Mrs. Smith sobbed as if her heart would break.

When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it __________. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken The actor is 58 years old. But he acts as if he _______ a young man. A. is B. will be C. am D. were The clouds are getting darker and darker. It looks as if it _______rain. A. is going to C. was going to B. will D. would

It looks as if you are tired.

现在:过去时
4. would rather that
宁愿,但愿

过去:过去完成时 未来:过去时

I would rather you paid me now. I would rather you had gone, too. Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow.

注意: 在主语+would (had) rather +that 宾语从句中,从句谓语一般 用过去式表示虚拟形式。例如:
我真希望你告诉我真相。 I’d rather you told me the truth. 我宁愿不再见着你。 I’d rather I didn’t see you again. 我倒希望他们和我一起去。 I would rather they went with me.

5. It’s (about/high) time +that 过去时 should +V. 你该走了。 It’s high time that you went. It’s high time that you were going. It’s high time that you should go. 我们该去睡觉了。 It’s time that we went to bed. It’s time that we should go to bed.

It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language. It is strange that she refuse to come to the party. It’s necessary that we should study hard.

7. otherwise 和supposing也可以引导 虚拟语气。例如:
The storm stopped, otherwise the sailors would have fallen into the sea. I’m getting cold, otherwise I would keep her. Suppose(supposing) your friends knew how you are behaving here, what would they think?

8. so that 与in order that
二者引导的目的状语从句谓语部分应该用 may /might/can /could /etc.+动词原形 She stayed at home for a few days so that she might have more time to study it. She listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what he wanted. He went to the station in a taxi so that he should not miss the train.

9.用 “may+动词原形”表示祝愿,但愿, 此时may须置于句

May good luck be yours!祝你好运! May you be happy!祝你快乐! May you do even better!祝你取得更 大成就 Long live the people! 人民万岁! “God bless you,” said the priest.牧 师说:“愿上帝保佑你!”

?1 He suggested that the meeting put off. A. not be B. should not C. wouldn’t D. be not 2 It is strange that so. A. thinks B. think C.thought D. will think 3 I wish I my uncle yesterday. A. met B. have met C. would meet D. had met 4 The old professor gave orders that the experiment before 6. A. was finished B. will finish C. be finished D. shall be finished

5. She says she’d rather he ____tomorrow instead of today. A. had B. should leave C. leaves D. left 6. It’s already 5 o’clock now. Don’t you think it’s about time____ ? A. we are going home B. if she leaves C. we went home D. if she had left

7 It’s high time he home. A. goes B. went C. will go D. is going to go 8 you succeed and you be healthy. A. May…may B. Wish…wish C. Hope…hope D. Should…may 9 Galileo insisted that the earth round the sun. A. should move B. move C. moves D. A or B

?10 If only I ____ to my parents’ advice! A. listening B. listen C. am listening D. had listened 11 ---Why didn’t you come to the party yesterday? ---I ____ , but an unexpected visitor came to see me. A. did B. would C. had D. was going to 12 I’d rather you ____ me the news. A. not tell B. not to tell C. didn’t tell D. hadn’t told

1. The boy who went swimming in the Noswimming Zone drowned in the river. If the boy hadn’t gone swimming in the No-swimming Zone, he wouldn’t have drowned in the river. Had the boy not gone swimming in the No-swimming Zone, he wouldn’t have drowned in the river.

2. Billy was badly bitten by mosquitoes because he forgot to use the mosquito net last night. If Billy had remembered to use the mosquito net last night, he would not have been bitten by…
`

Had Billy remembered to use the mosquito net last night, he would not have been bitten by…

3. The mother carelessly put the knife within the baby’s reach, and the baby cut herself while playing it. If the mother had carefully put the knife out of the baby’s reach, the baby wouldn’t have cut herself. Had the mother carefully put the knife out of the baby’s reach, the baby wouldn’t have cut herself.

`

4.The students got food-poisoning after eating the potatoes in the dining-room. If the students had not eaten the potatoes in the dinning-room, they wouldn’t have got food-poisoning. Had the students not eaten the potatoes in the dinning-room, they wouldn’t have got food-poisoning.

`

5. The parents put the thermos on the ground. Their son kicked it and got burnt. If the parents had put the thermos in a safe place, their son wouldn’t have kicked it and got burnt.
`

Had the parents put the thermos in a safe place, their son wouldn’t have kicked it and got burnt.


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