当前位置:首页 >> >> Introduction to Wireless Networking The Biggest Telecommunications Revolution IBM

Introduction to Wireless Networking The Biggest Telecommunications Revolution IBM


Introduction to Wireless Networking: The Biggest Telecommunications Revolution
Common Session 409127

Laura Jeanne Knapp IBM Technical Evangelist 1-919-224-2205 laura@lauraknapp.com www.lauraknapp.com
IBM

Tom Hadley Network Consultant 1-919-787*5999 Tom@lauraknapp.com
Wireless_010

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Agenda

Background Technologies Mobile Wireless Fixed Wireless Wireless LAN Summary

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_020

Wireless Drivers
Consumer and business In the US 67 million people use the Internet; 114 million use cell phones Traditional office Roaming Information access PDA Cell phone Notebook Network computers Alpha paging Information distribution Audio and video Web Business applications “Look Ma no cables!!!!” Always on
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_030

IBM

Financial Drivers
12

10

Airtime 8 ?/Kilopacket
6

4

2

0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

0 -10 -20 -30 -40

-28 -33 -42 -33 -39 -57

-50 -60

Source: Nortel Networks
IBM

N. America

Europe

Asia Pacific

Africa & M. East

Latin America

Average

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_040

What is Radio

RADIO The wireless transmission through space of electromagnetic waves in the approximate frequency range from 10 kilohertz to 300,000 megahertz
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_050

Radio Basics
Waves are measured by frequency of movement Radio devices operate in bands or a designated frequency range Radio Frequency (RF) is a scarce and a regulated resource in each and every country Spectrum can be allocated for government or licensed users

Frequency = F= V / 1 Second 1 Cycle ( )

(M/sec)

Time

2 cycles in 1 Second = 2 Hertz

Unlicensed or Industrial, Scientific, Time and Medical (ISM) bands Different Frequencies Share the 902-928 MHz (US only) Same Electromagnetic Space 2400 MHz 5800 MHz worldwide
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_060

ISM Unlicensed Frequency Bands
Short Wave Radio FM Broadcast Infrared Wireless LAN AM Broadcast Television Audio Cellular (840 MHz) NPCS (1.9 GHZ)

Extremely Very Low Low Low

Medium High Very Ultra Super Infrared Visible Ultra- X-Rays High High High Light Violet

902–928 MHz 26 MHz

2.4–2.4835 GHZ 83.5 MHz (IEEE 802.11)

5 GHZ (IEEE 802.11) HyperLAN HyperLAN2

Spread Spectrum Radio Frequency (RF) technology Data sent over the air waves Two-way radio communications Same frequency for sending and receiving No licensing required
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_070

Spectrum Availability
+ Ultra High-Speed LAN/WAN
>100 Mbps

Voice, Data, Fax, ISDN
256 Kbps

+ High Speed Internet and Multimedia
1 to 50 Mbps 100 200

+ TDM Leased Lines
10 to 100 Mbps

Bandwidth 20 30 200 (Mhz)

300

400 1000 1350 1400 2000

5000

1 GHZ 2.5

3.5

5.8

10

24

26

28

38 40

60

Less than 6 GHZ Up to 45 km Not affected by weather No line of sight (NLOS)
IBM

Greater than 6 Ghz 1 to 5 km Affected by weather More spectrum Line of sight (LOS)
Wireless_080

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Basic Elements of a Wireless System

Signal processing (analog/digital) Modulation Access technology (TDMA, FDMA, CDMA) (Frequency Hopping, Direct Sequence) Antenna theory Range Interference

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_090

Signal Processing

Analog
High Frequencies Changes reduced

Digital
To Radio Modulator

Filter

Microprocessor

Audio Signal

Audio Filter

Analog Signal

Performs Sampling And Coding

Digital Signal

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

100 Wireless_

Radio Modulation
More information = more frequency used High speed modems use encoding to use same spectrum as 300 baud modem More noise less speed Complex modulation requires better signal strength, therefore less coverage
3K
Signal Strength Strong Low Med Med Noise Level Weak
175K 4500K

CB Radio TV FM Radio

Bandwidth in KHz
High

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

110 Wireless_

Access Technology

Voice Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) Time division multiple access (TDMA) Code division multiple access (CDMA) Data Frequency hopping Direct sequence
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

120 Wireless_

TDMA and FDMA
GSM D-AMPS PDC IDEN 1 2 3 1 2 3

AMPs

Frequency

Channel 1

Frequency

Channel 2 Channel 3

Time
1.5GHz

Time

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

130 Wireless_

CDMA

1

1

1

4 3 1 2 6 4 5 3 1

2 5 2 3 2 3
2 3 3 2 2 2

Frequency

6 1

1

1

3 3

Time
1 bit

A long code is used to generate a mask for each radio Think of an international airport lounge with conversations in different languages. Each listener only understands one language -concentrates only on his/her conversation and ignores the rest Advanced by Qualcom (royalties paid to Qualcom) Greater capacity Used by the military (based on original patents from Heddy Lamar)
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

140 Wireless_

Wireless Data
Frequency Hopping 6 Direct Sequence

4 8 9 5 3

Channel 1

Frequency

79 channels/1MHz each Changes frequency every 0.4 seconds Synchronized hopping Interference is possible in a multichannel system Lower cost
IBM

Frequency
1
2.4 Ghz

7 2

2.4 GHZ

Channel 2 Channel 3

Time

Time

Single 22MHz wide channel Different channels used Range is 25 miles (2x FH)
*Infrared also exists but limited in scope. Requires direct line of sight
150 Wireless_

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Antenna Concepts

Directionality Omni directional (360 degree coverage) Directional (decrease coverage, increase range) Gain Measured in dBi and dBd More gain means more coverage Coverage areas or radiation patterns are measured in degrees and have a horizontal and vertical component
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

160 Wireless_

Range Dependencies
For cellular:
Each cell covers about 10 miles Each cell phone carrier gets 56 channels in each cell Non-adjacent cells can reuse channels Number of cell towers tripled in us to 185,000 from 1994-2000
Point to point Frequency Transmit power Radio sensitivity Interferences Point to multipoint

2.5 GHZ 6 GHZ

2.5 Ghz

6 GHZ 24 GHZ 28GHz
50 20 7.5 5.0

24 GHZ 28GHz
38GHz 3.57 5.34 6.92 14 40

Reach in Km

900 MHz
Greater

2.4 GHZ

5 GHZ
Lesser

RANGE

Less Speed Complexity Cost Antenna impact

More

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_ 170 Wireless_

Agenda

Background Technologies Mobile Wireless Fixed Wireless Wireless LAN Summary

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_180

Wireless Technologies in Perspective
802.11B HomeRF Bluetooth

LAN

1-11 mbps
LMDS/MMDS Fixed WDSL

1-2 mbps
CDMA GSM/GPRS TDMA CDMA/1G/3G Data GSM/GPRS TDMA/EDGE
UMTS WDMA

Mobile IP

Mobile

9.6 kbps
2000

115-380 kbps
2002

2 Mbps
2004

WDSL - wireless digital subscriber line TDMA - time division multiple access LMDS - local multipoint distribution system GSM - global system for mobile communications MMDS- multichannel multipoint distribution system GPRS - general packet radio service 802.11b - 2.45 GHZ 11 Mbps LAN CDMA - code division multiple access HomeRF - 2.45 GHZ 2 Mbps LAN EDGE - enhanced data rates for global evolution Bluetooth - wireless linking standard UMTS - Universal mobile telecom system (a.k.a. WCDMA, 3GSM) Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 190 IBM

Cellular Technologies in Perspective Confusion
PCS CDMA(1.9GHz) (worst quality) TDMA (1.5 GHz) (good quality) Efficient GSM European digital standard (900 MHz) Designed with European unification in mind TDMA based using time coding techniques Best quality of all technologies Capacity limitations requires large infrastructure High security Customization features due to SIM card Mor identity to new phone using SIM (subscriber Identity module) By 2001 162 countries with over 400 GSM Networks Japan uses PHS or PDC standards (Personal Handyphone Standard or Personal Digital Cellular) Japan and Korea (CDMA) only countries without any GSM
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 200

Mobile Wireless Overview
2G 2.5G 3G

TDM/Voice Backbone

TDM/Voice TDM/Voice Backbone Backbone

Packet Backbone

Packet Backbone

TDM/Voice Access

TDM/Voice Access Access

Packet Access

Packet Access

Circuit voice + Low speed data only

Circuit voice + high speed Packet data as separate networks

Unified packet Voice + high speed data

It will take 5 times the towers and access points to reach 3G vs 2G German companies spent $45.5B for spectrum licenses
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 210

Moving to 3G : The Spectrum Issue
3G to use spectrum in range 1710 - 1855 MHz and 2520 - 2670 MHz US has significant problem DOD uses the 1700 MHz band DOD uses to control satellites and for other military purposes DOD relocation would cost billions of dollars NextWave 3G licences involved in bankruptcy Resold in Jan 2000 illegally by FCC Resolution expected in November 2001 but Congress got involved North America uses TDMA, FDMA, GSM, and CDMA (GSM clear winner worldwide) Europe uses GSM and is moving to WCDMA Asia was moving to CDMA2000 now more GSM Sprint PCS, Verizon, Nextel ...............CDMA.....1x ................. ??? Nextel....................................................IDEN.......IDEN+............ ??? ATT, Cingular, Rogers ........................TDMA....GSM/GPRS.... UMTS/ WCDMA PDC/POHS ................................................................................. UMTS/WCDMA Voicestream .........................................GSM .....GPRS............. UMTS/WCDMA
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 220

GPRS Promise
Constant connection Higher speeds to 56 Kbps (Move between WAP sites in 2-3 seconds) Allows amount of data tracking for billing Allows pushing of information Voice calls simultaneously with data Lack of handsets still a challenge Vendors are targeting youth market not business Current rollouts are variable in connection speeds Security work needed ATT Wireless has GPRS in Seattle, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Portland and soon Detroit Canada (Microcell) has begun GPRS rollout
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 230

3G Promise
DoCoMo launched in Japan in Fall 2001 Initially 4000 handsets on first day Inhibitors: lack of roaming poor connections lack of multimedia downloads extra cost for service DoCoMo to launch in Europe in 2002 DoCoMo to launch in North America in 2003 Europe is moving only to WCDMA China and South Korea moving to CDMA2000???? Two providers in Korea implementing WCDMA in 2002
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 240

UMTS Infrastructure
Uses hierarchical cell structure Pico Cells Private indoor services Uses unpaired frequency band Laptop networking/conferencing Micro Cells Outdoor coverage with high capacity City streets hidden by large buildings Canyon like topography Macro Cells Hexagonal shape with wide coverage Based on existing 2G cell structure Satellite Cells Global wireless communication High capacity
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 250

Agenda

Background Technologies Mobile Wireless Fixed Wireless Wireless LAN Summary

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_260

Fixed Wireless
Internet

802.16 Broadband Wireless DAMA (Demand Assignment Multiple Access) Assignment of slots to channels varies dynamically 2M bps-155Mbps Mass deployment

10BaseT

MMDS (Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System) 2.5 GHZ/5.7GHz Not affected by weather 10-25 mile range Mass market deployments
IBM

LMDS (Local Channel Distribution System) 28 Ghz Affected by weather 1-3 mile range Urban deployments
Wireless_ 270

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Ultrafast Wireless
Internet

10BaseT

IBM

Does not require spectrum allocation Uses same frequency as electronic noise - pulse based transmissions Fast, short pulses (0.5 nanoseconds) Needs little power (0.05 milliwatt) FCC approved Feb 2002l More users Higher speeds (Gigabit range) Lower cost Right now limited distance, but can penetrate through brick Simpler transmitters and receivers Could bump into GPS, CDMA?
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 280

Agenda

Background Technologies Mobile Wireless Fixed Wireless Wireless LAN Summary

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_290

Wireless LAN Solutions
SWAP (Shared Wireless Access Protocol) HomeRF Working Group (www.homerf.org) Around $100 per node, plus $200 for gateway Spectrum hopping to overcome interference 1-10 Mbps - relaxed 802.11 specification Uses 2.4 gigahertz band (public, unlicensed band) Supports an average home and yard (150 ft) Integrated 56 bit encryption Less popular because of price drop for 802.11b Release 2.0 ratified in April 2001 10Mbps speed September 2001 release of products Focused on home networks of Pcs, cordless phones, stereos, etc Uses a hub called a home gateway that can connect to DSL or cable modem. Overlap with 802.11?????
802.11b (Wi-Fi) Wireless Networks www.wi-fi.org 2.4 GHz spread spectrum DS - Direct-sequence (FS - Frequency Hopping limited to 802.11 at 2 MBPS) Nodes $70 to 230, plus access point $220 to 800+ (higher price may include access router) 11 Mbps standard, negotiates down Multi-floor support 32 or 64 bit encryption Bridges to wired ethernet abound Standard chip sets, many vendors Uses up to 14 channels (FCC lets US use 11, Europe 13, Japan 1) Some overlap with adjacent channel’s frequency range Using channel 1 and 2 will degrade performance Channel 1, 6 and 11 are far enough apart not to overlap 802.11a will increase speeds to 56 MBPS and use 5 GHz frequency but will require more infrastructure because the cells are smaller Over 90 vendors currently have products on the market

HomeRF

Bluetooth
Too many competing wireless standards (www.bluetooth.com) PC’s, cell phones, etc, use different standards Frequency hopping always on 2.4 GHZ 1 Mbps 10 meter distance Technology Point-point or multipoint High and low power levels Radio transmission technology Voice and data in real time Microchip based Many players -- as of May 2001 163 qualified devices Ericsson, Fujitsu, IBM, Intel, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola all involved –

802.11

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_ 300

Bumping into Each Other
Bluetooth, 802.11, and HomeRF all use 2.4 GHz frequency If 802.11 device is 20 meters from the access point and a Bluetooth device is active the 802.11b signal will die Bluetooth is always active and is always polling Interference mitigation techniques exist (Starbucks and Microsoft are using these in the Starbucks rollout)

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_310

Wireless LAN Holes
802.11 uses WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) for security 40,56, or 128 bit key RC4 stream cipher Once Scenario a) Attacker eavesdrops on wireless traffic Sends a plain-text packet to a legitimate mobile station b) The station encrypts the packet and relays to the Access Point c) Attacker intercepts the encrypted packet and compares it to original plain-text message allowing them to deduce the key Work is underway to replace (fix?) WEP or you can use in conjunction with other security measures like IPSec or other VPN technology IBM has announced a Linux PDA system that will automatically monitor 802.11 networks and collect security related information
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 320

IBM

Wireless 802.11b Roaming

Connection WISP

Owning ISP

A) Wireless subscriber connects to local access point Unique tag identifies user’s home Wireless ISP (WISP) B) The connection WISP passes the user data to a clearing house that coordinates the transaction with the users WISP C) The users WISP authenticates the user, connects him to his services, bills the users, and pays the connection WISP
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 330

Summary

High-Level Wireless Market Segments Residential/ Premise/Campus Fixed Broadband GSM IP Phone Wireless LAN 802.11B Mobile

2G Cellular

3G Cellular

Multiservice IP-Based Applications Services LMDS and 802.16 MMDS

Data Packet Services Data/Voice GPRS UMTS Mobile IP

IBM

Networking - Connecting people to information through technology

Wireless_ 340

References
www.shorecliffcommunications.com - primer on mmds and lmds www.bbwexchange.com - broadband service providers www.mobilian.com - wireless interference information www.infowold.com/opinions/morewirelessworld.html - trends www.gsmworld.com - gsm association www.gsmdata.com - gsm information www.pcsdata.com - run by intel for pcs data www.itu.int/imt2000 - standardization process www.3gpp.org - third generation project www.cdgl.org - cdma development group www.umts-forum.org - wcdma information www.uwcc.org - universal wireless communication consortium www.homerf.org - information on homerf technology www.nwfusion.com - many articles related to wireless topics grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/16/index.html www.fcc.gov www.intel.com - ultrawideband research Bandwidth Burst by Grahame Lynch Wireless Communications and Networks by Bill Stallings (Prentice Hall)
IBM
Networking - Connecting people to information through technology Wireless_ 350


更多相关文档:

modelling_the_wireless_propagation_channel_a.pdf

telecommunications and electrical engineering fields, who are seeking to familia...The Directional Wireless Channel 10.1 Introduction 10.2 MIMO Systems 10.3 ...

...TELECOMMUNICATIONS THE INTERNET AND WIRELESS TEC....ppt

Pearson Education 2012 Management Information Systems CHAPTER 7: TELECOMMUNICATIONS, THE INTERNET, AND WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications and Networking in Today...

Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Tech....doc

Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless ...have up to twenty-four 64-Kbps channels. ...medium, which could be any networking technology....

无线通信原理双语lecture1_图文.ppt

Introduction to Wireless Communications ylshi@njupt....Wireless Communications (ch.9) Wireless Networking ...Widely supported by telecommunications, PC, and ...

MCT-1-The history and evolution of communication_图文.ppt

in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern...This will enable wireless communication between ...networking (DTN) DTN is an approach to computer...

SF Progs in Electronic Eng_图文.doc

wireless networking technologies, wireless ...EESM 5546 EESM 5540 Introduction to Telecommunication...EESM 5910 Topics in Telecommunications and Network ...

Fundamentals of wireless networks-I_图文.ppt

Introduction Yang Zhihua yangzhihua@hitsz.edu.cn...telecommunications network whose interconnections ...Networking Wireless network refers to any type of...

电子类专业英语电子教案第三 课_图文.ppt

Introduction to Mobile Communications 用户稀少 The ...13 The increased reliance on computer networking ...high reliability wireless telecommunications systems. ...

Wireless-Access-Protocol-WAP-architecture.pdf

telecommunications business are members of the WAP ...WAP is a kind of fusion of mobile networking ...To create an interoperable wireless protocol ...

Wireless Sensor Network for MonitoringApplications_图文_ ....pdf

The goal of the project is to build a ...I. 1 INTRODUCTION A wireless sensor network is ...range of specialized telecommunications applications. ...

...and Performance Evaluation for 5G Wireless Netwo....pdf

Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing ...Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China ...the European Mobile and wireless communications ...

更多相关标签:
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com