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状语从句用法详解 在主从复合句中修饰主句的动词、形容词、副词等的从句叫状语从句。 一般可分为:时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语 从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句、比较状语从句、方式状语从句。 I 时间状语从句:起时间状语作用的从句。 (时间状语从句位置灵活,可以在句首,也可在句末) 常用来引导时间状语从句的引导词有:when, while, as, after, before, until/till, since, as soon as, immediately, the moment, every time, whenever 等。 1. when, while, as 1) when“当......的时候” ,表示主从句的谓语动作同时发生或先后紧接着发生。 I was very happy when I heard from you. 收到你的信时我非常高兴。 When you deal with them, you should be cautious. 跟他们打交道时,你应该谨慎。 when 引导时间状语从句中的谓语动词可以用非延续性动词,也可用延续性动词。 When I was young, I went to town myself. 当我还年轻时,我自己独自去城里。 (延续性动词) When I lived in country, I used to carry some water for him. 我住在农村时,常常为他担水。 (延续性动词) When he received the letter, he'll tell us. 当他接到信后,他会告诉我们的。 (非延续性动词) When the fire broke out, all the students were sleeping soundly. 火灾发生时,所有的学生正在熟睡。 (非延续性动词) 注意:当 when 引导的时间状语从句为系表结构,而且其主语和主句的主语一致,其表 语又是一个名词时,就可以用由 as 引导的省略句来代替 when 引导的从句。如: As a young man(=When he was a young man), he was fond of hunting. 他年轻时喜欢打猎。 2)while 引导的时间状语从句中谓语动词必须是延续性动词或表示状态的动词,侧重主句 动作和从句动作相对比。 My father was preparing a report while I was playing games. 爸爸在准备一个报告,而我在玩游戏。 Please don't talk so loud while others are working. 别人在工作时,别高声谈话。 3)as 表示从句和主句的两个动作交替进行或同时发生,可译为“一边......,一边......” 或“随着......” 。 He hurried home, looking behind as he went. 他匆匆忙忙回家去,一边走一边回头望。 As time goes on, it's getting warmer and warmer. 随着时间的推移,天气变得越来越暖和了。 注意: 如果主句表示的是短暂动作, 而从句用延续性动词的进行时态表示在一段时间内正在 进行的动作,此时 when, while 与 as 可互换使用。 When/ While/As I was walking down the street, I came across an old friend of mine. 当我沿大街行走时,碰巧遇到了我的一个老朋友。




2. till, until 和 not... until 1)肯定句:主句的谓语动词必须是延续性动词,主句、从句都为肯定式,意为“某动作 一直延续到某时间点才停止” 。 He remained there until/ till she arrived. 他在那一直等到她来。 You may stay here until/ till the rain stops. 你可以待在这里直到雨停。 2)否定句:主句的谓语动词必须是非延续性动词,从句为肯定式,意为“某动作直到某 时间才开始” 。构成 not...until/till,意为“直到......才” 。 She didn't go to bed until I come back. 你必须留在这儿直到我回来。 Don't worry. We won't set off until you arrive. 不要担心,你到了我们再出发。 3)till 不可以置于句首,而 until 可以。 Until you told me the news, I had no idea of it. 直到你告诉我,我才知道这个消息。 4)not...until 句型中的强调和倒装用法。 直到你告诉我,我才知道这件事。 强调句型:It was not until you told me that I had any idea of it. 倒装句型:Not until you told me did I have any idea of it. (not until 置于句首,主句要用部分倒装结构) Not until the clock struck 12 did she realize she must go home at once. 直到钟敲了 12 下,她才意识到她必须马上回家了。 3. before 1)before 作“没有来得及......就” “未......就” “......就......”解时,强调主句谓语动词表示 的动作发生得过早或过快。 Someone called me up in the night, but they hung up before I could answer the phone. 有人半夜给我打电话,但我还未来得及接他们就把电话挂了。 They had talked only a few minutes before they found they were quite different in opinion. 他们才谈了几分钟就发现他们的意见很不一致。 2)before 作“......才......”解时,强调从句谓语动词表示的动作发生得太慢或太晚。 The bus driver almost knocked me down before he saw me. 那位公交车司机差一点把我撞倒,他才看见我。 The fire lasted about four hours before the firefighters were able to control it. 大火持续了大约四个小时,消防员才把火控制住。 3)before 可译为“趁” “以免” “以防”等。 I'll do it before I forgot it. 趁还没有忘,我现在就把这事做了。 We'd better finish the work in time before the boss scolds us. 我们最好按时完成工作,免得挨老板骂。 4)before 可译为“ (宁可......而)不愿” 。 He'd die before he apologizes to them. 他宁死也不向他们道歉。 I'd give up the plan before I turn to him for help.
高中英语语法知识点详解(状语从句) 2


我宁可放弃计划也不向他求助。 注意: + be + 一段时间+ before 从句”中的主句和从句的时态有两种情况: “It 如果主句用一般将来时, 则从句用一般现在时, “多长时间以后某事即将发生” 意为 ; It won't be long before we meet again. 不久我们就会再见的。 如果主句用过去时,从句也用过去时,意为“多长时间以后某事才发生” 。 It was 3 years before he came back from abroad. 三年后他才从国外回来。 4. since 译为“自从......” ,主句常用现在完成时,从句常用一般过去时。 1)若 since 引导的状语从句的谓语动词是终止性的过去时,则从句表示的时间是“从动 作开始的那一刻起” ,这种情况比较常见。 He has studied very hard since he came to our school. 自从他来到我们学校,他学习就非常努力。 2)若 since 引导的状语从句的谓语动词是持续性动词或表示状态的动词的过去时,则从 句表示的时间是“从那持续动作或状态结束时算起” 。 I haven't heard any noise since I slept. 我醒后还未听到任何声音。 (sleep 为持续性动词,该动作结束时,即“醒来”时) He has written to me frequently since I was ill. 自从我病愈以来,他屡次给我写信。 (从句谓语为状态动词) He has written to me frequently since I fell ill. 自从我生病以来,他就屡次给我写信。 (从句谓语为终止性动词) 5. as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the minute, the instant, no sooner... than... , hardly/scarcely... when...和 once(一......就) 这些从属连词引导的从句都表示从句的动作一发生,主句的动作随即就发生,常译作 “一......就......” 。从句中用一般时态代替将来时态。 The moment I heard the voice, I knew father was coming. 我一听到那个声音,我就知道父亲来了。 No sooner had we arrived at the station than the train left. 我们一到车站,火车就离站了。 The boy burst into tears immediately he saw his mother. 那男孩一见到他妈妈便放声大哭。 注意:no sooner...than; hardly... when...这一结构的时态搭配: no sooner 与 hardly 引导的句子的谓语动词应用过去完成时, 而 than 与 when 引导的句子的谓语动词应用一般过去时。 此外:当把 no sooner 和 hardly 提到句首时,应用倒装语序。 I had hardly got home when it began to rain. Hardly had I got home when it began to rain. 我一到家天就下起雨来。 6. every time, each time, next time, the first time, any time, all the time 等名词短语用来引 导时间状语从句,表示“每当......;每次......;下次......”等。 Every/ Each time I was in trouble, he would come to help me out. 每当我处于困境,他就会来帮助我。 Next time you come, do remember to bring your son here.
高中英语语法知识点详解(状语从句) 3


下次你来的时候,一定记着把你儿子带来。 The last time she saw James, he was lying in bed. 上次她看见詹姆斯的时候,他正躺在床上。 7. 名词性短语充当连词引导时间状语从句 表示时间的名词短语也可以引导时间状语从句,且意义丰富,如: any time 任何时候都 by the time 到......时候 every time/ each time 每当......时 the frist time 第一次......时 I think of the things and the people when we studied there every time I go by my mother School. 每当我经过母校时都会想起我们在那儿学习时的事情和人们。 II 地点状语从句:在句中作地点状语的从句称为地点状语从句,可置于句首、句中或句尾。 地点状语从句常用的引导词有 where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere 等。 Make marks where you have questions. 在有问题的地方作出标记。 You can go anywhere you like. 你可以到你想去的任何地方。 Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者事竟成。 注意:地点状语从句与定语从句的区别 where 引导定语从句时,从句前应有一个表示地点的词作先行词; 而状语从句前则无需用先行词。 Go back where you came from. 你从何处来回何处去。 (where 引导地点状语从句) Go back to the village where you came from. 回到你来的那个村子里去。 (where 引导定语从句,修饰 village) You'd better make a mark where you have any questions.(状语从句) You'd better make a mark at the place where you have any questions.(定语从句) where 引导的地点状语从句一般可以转化为定语从句,只要在 where 前加上 “to/in/from+the place/places/any place(s)等”结构即可。 III 让步状语从句 引导让步状语从句的连词有 although, though, as, even if, even though, while, whether...or..., whether(...) or not, whatever, no matter what/ how/ why 等。 1. though/although 引导的让步状语从句 1)although 和 though 意义相同,都意为“虽然,即使” ,表示让步,一般情况下可互 换使用,区别在于 although 语气较重,大多置于句首。 2) though/ although 引导让步状语从句时, 主句若用 yet 或 still 引出, 更加强调对比性, 但不可出现 but。 3)though 引导的从句可以把表语、状语、动词等提至句首。在 as though, even though 中一般不可用 although 代替。同时 although 不可当副词用,而 though 则可。 Although it's raining, they are still working in the field. 虽然在下雨,但他们仍在地里干活。 Short though it is, the article is very important. 那篇文章虽然很短,但很重要。



注意:though 还可用作副词,意为“可是,然而” ,置于句末。 He said he would come; he didn't, though. 他说他会来,可是没有来。 2. even though/ even if 引导的让步状语从句 这两个短语表示语气更强的让步,常常意为“再退一步说” 。 even though 更强调对“既成事实”的让步: Even though he is poor, she loves him. (= He is poor, yet she loves him.) 尽管他很穷,但她还是爱他。 even if 则强调对“假设”的让步。 Even if he is poor, she loves him. (= He may be poor, yet she loves him.) 即使他很穷,但她还是爱他。 3. as 引导的让步状语从句 as 引导让步状语从句时, 从句中的表语、 状语以及谓语中的实义动词需提前至从句句首, 作表语的单数可数名词前如有冠词,冠词需要省去。 Child as/ though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do. = Though he was a child, he knew what was the right thing to do. 虽然他是一个孩子,但他知道该做什么。 Much as/ though I like it, I won't buy it, for it's too expensive. 虽然我很喜欢它,但我不会买,因为它太贵了。 Try as you may, you will never succeed. 你尽管试,但你绝不会成功的。 注意:though 引导的从句也可以像 as 引导的从句一样用倒装语序,但是 although 引导的 从句只能用正常语序。 Smart though/ as she is, she doesn't study hard. Though she is smart, she doesn't study hard. Although she is smart, she doesn't study hard. 4. whether.. or/ whether (...) or not 引导的让步状语从句 whether... or/ whether (...) or not 表示“不论是否” “不管是......还是”之意。该复合连词 引导的让步状语从句表示正反两个方面的可能性都不会影响主句的意向或结果。 You'll have to attend the ceremony whether you're free or busy. 不管你忙不忙,都必须要参加这个典礼。 Whether you believe it or not, it's true. 无论你是否相信,这都是真的。 5. while 引导的让步状语从句 while 也可以引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管” ,比 though/ although 语气弱。while 引导 的让步状语从句一般要位于句首。 While I like the color, I don't like the shape. 我虽然喜欢那颜色,但不喜欢那形状。 While I understand what you say, I can't agree with you. 虽然我理解你的意思,但我还是不同意。 6. what-ever 类词引导的让步状语从句 在英语中,wh-ever 类词可作疑问词,也可引导名词性从句,还可引导让步状语从句。 这类词在引导让步状语从句时常可换成“no matter+wh-词” ,但在引导名词性从句时只能 用 wh-ever 类词。
高中英语语法知识点详解(状语从句) 5


I'll wait for you however (no matter how) late it is. 不管有多晚我都会等着你。 Whoever (No matter) you are, you must keep the law. 不管你是谁,你都要遵纪守法。 注意: “no matter+疑问词”结构只能引导让步状语从句,而 wh-ever 类词还可以引导名词 性从句或其他状语从句。 I'll eat whatever you give me. 你给我吃什么,我就吃什么。 (what 引导宾语从句) Whoever comes will be welcome. 不管谁来都受到欢迎。 (whoever 引导主语从句) IV 原因状语从句 在主句中作原因状语的从句称为原因状语从句,可置于句首,也可置于句尾。 引导原因状语从句的常用词可分为两类:单词引导如 because, as, since 等,短语引导如 now that, for the reason that, in that, seeing that 等。 1. because, as, since 用法 这三词都有“因为”之意,但用法和具体内涵各异。 1)because 语气最强,用以回答 why 引起的提问,可表示已知或未知的事实。它可和 强调词 only, merely, just 及否定词 not 连用,所引导的从句常位于主句之后,只有强 调时才置于主句之前。它还可用于强调结构。 She was afraid to move because a snake was lying beside her. 她不敢动弹,因为一条蛇就躺在她旁边。 - Why did they fail? 他们为什么失败? - It was because they didn't do their best. 因为他们没尽力。 2)as 语气弱,较口语化,所表达的原因比较明显,或是已知的事实,故不需要强调。 as 从句之前不可用强调词和 not,且不可用于强调结构,as 从句多置于主句之前。 As he was in a hurry, he left his bag home. 由于他太匆忙才把包丢在家里了。 As it was a public holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于这是一个公共假日,所有商店都关门了。 3)since 的语气比较弱,常表示对方已知的事实,往往相当于汉语的“既然” 。它和 as 一样,其前亦不可用强调词和 not,不可用于强调结构,since 从句多置于主句之前。 Since Monday is Bob's birthday, let's give him a party. 既然星期一是鲍勃的生日,咱们举行一个宴会吧。 Since you are free tonight, why not drop in and play chess with me? 既然你今晚没事,为什么不来和我下棋呢? 注意:上述三个词为从属连词,而 for 是一个并列连词。for 有时可用来作附加说明,必 须把其引起的句子放在某一句子之后。 We should be more careful, for it is already dark. 天已晚了,我们应更小心些。 2. now that 的用法 now that 主要用于口语, 表示微弱的原因, 主、 从句的因果关系不明显, 常译为 “既然” 。 that 有时可以省略。 Now that you have come, you may as well stay. 既然你已经来了,最好留下来。



Now that everything is settled, I have no reason here. 既然事情办完了,我就没有理由留在这儿了。 3. for the reason that 的用法 that 后是一个同位语从句,解释说明 reason 的内容。 I often go to the concert for the simple reason that I love music. 我经常去听音乐会,原因很简单,那就是我喜欢音乐。 For the reason that I haven't worked hard, I'll have to cram before the coming examinations. 由于平时不努力,考试前我只好临时抱佛脚。 4. in that 的用法 这个短语常用于书面语中,表示“由于某种原因” 。 The experiment is worth trusting in that it is based on scientific facts. 这个实验值得信赖,因为它是建立在科学事实基础上的。 I like the city, but I prefer the country in that there's fresher air. 我喜欢城市,但我更喜欢乡村,因为那里有更清新的空气。 5. that 后的从句 be happy that, be surprised that 等中的 that 从句有时也被认为是原因状语从句。 I'm sorry that I haven't done so much as I should. 对不起我没有做我该做的那么多。 We feel proud that our country is getting stronger and stronger. 我们为我们的国家越来越强大而感到自豪。 V 方式状语从句 在主句中作方式状语的从句称为方式状语从句。方式状语从句常用的引导词有 as, as if/though 等。 1. as 引导方式状语从句。 You must do the experiment as I do. 你要像我这样做实验。 You are fine just as you are. 你现在这样子就好极了。 2. as if/ though 引导方式状语从句。 1)as if/ though 引导的方式状语从句所表示的情况是事实或具有很大可能性时,通常用陈 述语气; She closed her eyes as if she was tired. 她闭上了眼睛好像累了。 (事实,谓语用陈述语气) 2)如果从句所表示的情况不是事实,而是主观的想象或夸张性的比喻,通常用虚拟语气。 (现在的情况用过去的时态,过去的情况用过去完成时。 ) They completely ignore these facts as if/ though they never existed. 他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它们从未存在过。 (与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。 ) 注意:as if/though 也可以引导一个分词短语,不定式短语或无动词短语。 He stared at me as if seeing me for the first time. 他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我试的。 He cleared his throat as if to say something. 他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。 The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger.
高中英语语法知识点详解(状语从句) 7


波涛冲击着岩石,好像很愤怒。 VI 条件状语从句 在主句中作条件状语的从句称为条件状语从句。 引导条件状语从句的常用引导词有 if, unless, as/ so long as, once, in case, on condition that, supposing (that), providing (that), provided (that), given (that)等。 注意: 在条件状语从句中, 通常用一般现在时表示一般将来时, 一般过去时表示过去将来时, 现在完成时表示将来完成时。 1. if 引导的条件状语从句 if 是引导条件状语从句最常用的连词,表示在某种条件下很可能发生某事。 If you ask him, he will help you. 如果你请他帮忙,他会帮你的。 If you fail in the exam, you will let him down. 如果你考试不及格,你会让他失望的。 2. unless 引导的条件状语从句 unless 意为“除非,若不” 。 You will fail to arrive there in time unless you start earlier. 除非你早点动身,否则你就不能及时赶到那儿。 Unless it rains, the game will be played. 除非下雨,否则比赛将照常进行。 3. on condition (that) 引导的条件状语从句 on condition (that) 引导的条件从句是主句事件发生的前提条件或唯一条件,意为“在...... 条件下” 。 I can tell you the truth on condition that you promise to keep it a secret. 我可以告诉你真相,条件是你答应保守秘密。 I will do it on condition that you help me. 只要你肯帮助我,我就愿意做此事。 4. supposing/ provided 等引导的条件状语从句 supposing/ proving/ provided/ given (that)可以用作连词,意为“如果” ,引导的条件从句表 示一种假设条件。 Supposing (that) it rains, shall we continue the sports meeting? 倘若下雨,我们的运动会还要继续进行吗? Providing/ Supposing/ Given/ Provided (that) you promise not to tell anyone else, I'll tell you The details. 只要你保证不告诉任何人,我就把细节告诉你。 5. in case 引导的条件状语从句 in case 引导的条件状语从句常放在主句前,表示“如果,假使” 。 In case he comes, tell him to wait a while. 如果他来了,让他等一下。 In case anything important happens, please call me up. 万一发生什么重要事情,请给我打电话。 6. as/ so long as 引导的条件状语从句 as/ so long as 意思是“只要” 。 So long as you're happy, it doesn't matter what you do. 只要你高兴,你做什么都没关系。



As/ So long as we don't lose heart, we'll overcome any difficulty. 只要我们不灰心,我们就会克服一切困难。 7. once 引导的条件状语从句 once 是从属连词,引导条件状语从句,意为“一旦,一......就” ,从句可置于主句前或后。 Once virtue is lost, all is lost. 一旦道德丢失了,什么都丢失了。 Once you show any fear, the dog will attack you. 一旦你露出怯意,这条狗就会扑向你。 VII 目的状语从句 在主句中作目的状语的从句称为目的状语从句。 常用来引导目的状语从句的有 so, so that, in order that, for fear that, in case (that), for the purpose that, lest 等。 1. in order that, so that 引导的目的状语从句 两个连词都意为“以便......;为了......” ,它们引导的状语从句中需要用情态动词,如 may/ might/ will/ would/ shall/ should/ can/ could 等。 They carved the words on the stone so that/ in order that the future generation should/ might remember what they had done. 他们把名字刻在石头上以便后代能记住他们的所作所为。 in order that 常用于正式文体,引导的状语从句可置于主句之前或之后。 In order that we might see the sunrise, we started for the peak early. 为了能看到日出,我们很早就出发去了山顶。 so that 引导的从句只能置于主句之后,其中 that 有时可以省略。 We climbed high so (that) we might get a better view. 我们爬高以便于能看到更好的景色。 2. for fear (that), in case, lest 引导的目的状语从句 for fear (that) 表示“害怕/担心发生某事” ; We had a meeting and talked the matter face to face, for fear that there should be any misunderstanding. 我们开了一个面对面的会议讨论这个问题,以免引起误会。 in case 表示以防(万一)发生某种情况。Lest 意为“以防” 。 Take an umbrella with you in case/ lest it should rain. 带着伞以防下雨。 注意:目的状语从句与不定式、介词短语的互换。 当 so that, in order that 引导的目的状语从句中的主语与主句主语一致时,可将状语 状语从句简化为不定式作状语。如果主语不一致,转化时则需在不定式前加 for 短语 作其逻辑主语。前面两个例句可分别改为: They carved the words on the stone on order for the future generation to remember what they had done. We climbed high so as to get a better view. VIII 结果状语从句 在主句中作结果状语的从句称为结果状语从句, 通常位于主句之后, 常用来引导结果状 语从句的引导词或短语有:that, so, so that, so...that...,such that, such...that...等。 1. so that 引导的结果状语从句 so that 既可引导目的状语从句也可引导结果状语从句,在引导目的状语从句时,从句
高中英语语法知识点详解(状语从句) 9


中往往含有一些如 can/could/may/might/will/would/shall 等的情态动词; 而引导结果状语从句时,里面通常不需要用情态动词。 We moved to the country so that we were away from the noisy and dull city. 我们搬到了乡下,以便远离吵闹、单调的城市。 He spoke at the top of his voice so that the students at the back heard him. 他用最大的声音讲话,后面的学生都听见了。 2. so... that... 引导的结果状语从句 so + 形容词/副词 + that 从句 Lisa left home so hurriedly that she left her cellphone home. 丽萨出门时太匆忙,结果将手机忘在家里了。 so + 形容词 + a/an + 可数名词单数形式 + that 从句 Tom is so kind a boy that they all like to make friends with him. 汤姆是一个如此好的男孩以至于他们都愿和他交朋友。 so + many/ much/ few/ little + 名词 + that 从句 There is so little time left that we have to speed up. 几乎没时间了,我们只好加快速度。 3. such...that... 引导的结果状语从句 such + a/an + 形容词 + 可数名词单数形式 + that 从句 He is such a good teacher that we all respect him. 他是一个如此好的老师,我们大家都尊敬他。 such + 形容词 + 可数名词复数形式/不可数名词 + that 从句 These were such difficult questions that none of us could answer. 这些问题如此难,以致我们每人能回答。 We had such terrible weather that we couldn't finish the work on time. 天气这么糟以致我们没能按时完成工作。 so... that... 与 such... that...的区别 1)so 是副词,其修饰的中心词是形容词、副词; such 是形容词,其修饰的中心词是名词。 He spoke so fast that no one understand him. 他说话太快了,结果没人能听懂。 They are such fine teachers that we all hold them in great respect. 他们是非常好的老师,我们都很尊敬他们。 2)名词前有 many, much, few, little 等修饰时用 so。 He got so little money that his family had to live on welfare. 他的工资很少,他的家人不得不靠救济金生活。 3)单数可数名词前有形容词修饰时用 so 或 such 均可,但在 so...that 中,不定冠词位于 形容词后,在 such...that 中不定冠词位于形容词前。 Jack is so honest a worker that we all believe him. = Jack is such an honest worker that we all believe him. 杰克是一个如此诚实的工人,我们都相信他。 注意:为了强调形容词或副词,so/such...that...引导的结果状语从句,可把 so/such 部分置于 句首,主句用倒装语序。 So excited was he that he could not fall into sleep. 他太激动以致无法入睡。



Such good news did we get that everyone was excited. 我们得到这么好的消息,以至每个人都很兴奋。 IX 比较状语从句 在主句中作比较状语的从句称为比较状语从句,一般位于句尾。 比较状语从句常用 as...as, not as/so...as..., than 等连词引导。 “the + 比较级...,the + 比较 级...”结构也可引导比较状语从句。 1. 同级比较 同级比较常用“as... as...”结构。 He speaks English as well as you do. 他英语说得和你一样好。 He woke up as suddenly as he had fallen asleep. 他醒得和入睡一样突然。 2. 不同级比较 不同级比较常用“not as/so...as...”结构。 His handwriting is not as good as yours (is). 他的书法不如你的好。 He doesn't speak English as well as you do. 他英语说得不如你好。 3. 差级或最高级比较 差级或最高级比较常用结构“...than...” 。 He was more successful than we had expected. 他比我们想象的要成功得多。 He can earn no more money than you can. 他挣的钱和你挣的一样多。 4. 比较关系的状语从句 比较关系的状语从句常用结构为“the + 比较级...,the + 比较级...” 。 The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you will make. 你越小心出的错越少。 The sooner you are back, the better it will be. 那你回来得越早越好。 注意:what/as 也可引导对称或对比关系的状语从句。 Food is to men what/ as oil is to machine. 食物之于人,犹如油之于机器。 Engines are to machines what/ as hearts are to animals. 引擎对于机器而言就好比心脏对动物一样。 状语从句中的省略 在表示时间、地点、条件、方式、比较或让步等的状语从句中,如果谓语含有动词 be, 主语又和主句的主语一致,或其主语是 it,那么从句中的主语和谓语的一部分(尤其是 be 动词)往往可以省略。使用这些省略结构可达到言简意赅的作用。常用的状语从句的省略式 如下: 1. “从属连词 + 名词”式 Though (he is) a young man, he has made several inventions. 虽然还是个年轻人,但他已经有好几项发明了。 As (he was) a child, he became interested in art.
高中英语语法知识点详解(状语从句) 11


当还是个孩子时,他就对艺术感兴趣。 2. “从属连词 + 形容词”式 When (they are) ripe, the grapes will be delicious. 葡萄成熟之后就会很好吃。 Though (he was) young, he had to live on himself. 虽然很小,但他不得不养活自己。 3. “从属连词 + 副词”式 Once (you are) inside, begin to work. 一进去,就开始工作。 Unless (you are) here, you can't find this kind of plants. 除非在这里,其他地方找不到这种植物。 4. “从属连词 + 介词短语”式 When (you are) in doubt, please look up the dictionary. 有疑问的时候,请查字典。 The waves dashed on the rocks as if (they were) in anger. 波涛愤怒般地冲击着岩石。 5. “从属连词 + 不定式”式 He moved his lips as if (he were) to speak something. 他的嘴唇动着仿佛要说什么。 He wouldn't solve the problem even if (he were) to take charge. 即使他来负责,也解决不了这个问题。 6. “从属连词 + 动词-ing”式 Look out for cars when (you are) crossing the street. 过马路时要小心。 Before handing in the papers, check them carefully. = Before you hand in the papers, check them carefully. 上交试卷前要仔细检查。 注意: 在引导时间状语从句时, as 其后不能运用省略形式; 若用省略式则要用 when, while 替代。 When/ While living in London, I picked up English. 在伦敦期间,我学会了英语。 (不能用 As) 7. “从属连词 + 动词的-ed”式 When (it is) taken according to the directions, the drug has no side effects. 按照说明吃,这种药没有副作用。 Don't come in until (you are)asked to. 没叫你就不要进来。 She has finished the work earlier than (it has been) expected. 这项工作她比预料的提前完成了。 8. “if possible, if so, once”式 if necessary, if possible, if true, if so, if not, if anyone, unless, once, as long as 等词或短语也 运用了省略形式。这种省略式的状语运用频繁,有的已经成了习惯表达,而对于其完整 的状语从句用的越来越少。 If (it is) necessary, you can refer to the dictionary. 如果有必要的话,你可以参考字典。



If (it is) possible, I'll come to help. 如果可能的话,我会去帮忙的。 9. 状语从句中“there be”常省略 如果状语从句和主句都含有“there be”的某种形式或只有状语从句含有“there be”的某 种形式,从句中的“there be”常常可以省略。 Correct the mistakes, if (there are) any (mistakes)in these sentences. 如果这些句子里有错,请你改正。 We shouldn't lose heart as long as (there is) any hope with us. 只要有一线希望我们就不能灰心。







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