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GRE作文Argument模板之5错误类比


19.(错误类比或草率推广) Even if Ad Lib’s serves are necessary to chieve the manage’s goal, it is entirely possible that [the experiences/measures/policy in A] Ad Lib’s service would not suffice to ensure similar [the result in B] sucess elsewhere—due to the sort of factors mentioned above that might have contributed to [the result in A] the Megalopolis success but would not come into play in other cities. 152. The mere fact that on nearby Batia replenishing beach sand has served to protect shore-line buildings is scant evidence that Tria would achieve its goals by following Batia’s example. Perhaps the same course of action would be ineffective on Tria due to geological differences between the two islands. Or perhaps Batia is in a far better position than Tria financially to replenish its sand on a continual basis. In short, lacking evidence that conditions on the two islands are relevantly similar, the author cannot convince me on the basis of Batia’s experience that the proposed course of action would be effective in attaining Tria’s goals. 155. The editorial continues by claiming that listening to audiocassettes will make children better readers beacuse when parents read aloud to their children these children become better readers. This argument by analogy is wholly unpersuasive. The latter allows for interaction between parent and child, while the former does not. The latter allows for the child to view written words as the parent reads—that is, to read—while the former does not. Besides, common sense and experience tell us that audiocassettes, which provide for passive listening, are likely to serve as crutches that dissuade children from active reading—instead of encouraging them to read.

160. A threshold problem with the argument is that it assumes that what improves memory and learning in rats will also improve memory and learning in humans. Although this is entirely possible, the argument provides no evidence to support this assumption. Without such evidence the argument can be rejected out of hand. 162. The argument assumes that the difference in soy consumption is the only possible explanation for this disparity in the occurrence of fatigue and depression. Yet the argument fails to substantiate this assumption. Common sence informs me that any one of a myriad of other differences—environmental, dietary, and genetic—might explain why North Americans suffer from these problems to a great extent than asians do. Without considering and ruling out alternative reasons for this disparity, the argument’s conclusion that soy is the key to the disparity is indefensible. 168. Even assuming that the survey data accurately reflect the auto industry, the argument unfairly assumes that supervision affects worker productivity similarly at PPC. Perhaps PPC employs

certain unique equipment or processes that require close worker supervision—even for older, more experienced workers. For that matter[同样 pehaps youth or inexperienced is an advantage in 同样] 同样 working productively at PPC, whereas in the auto industry either is a disadvantage. In short, without accounting for possible differences between PPC and auto manufacturers the director cannot convince me that his recommendation for PPC is sound. 210. The argument depends on the hasty assumption that the kinds of tasks robots perform in space are similar to the ones they would perform in factories, and that there are no differences between the two environments that would render robots less effective in factory jobs than in space missions. Perhaps the effectiveness of robots in space missions is due largely to the weightless environment of space. Or perhaps the average space-mission robot performs less work than a typical factory robot would be required to work. In either case, the fact that robots are effective in space would amount to scant support for the author’s argument. 214.(错误类比及总量和比例混淆) A Third assumption upon which the argument rests is that the percentage of residents who attend public schools is about the same in both cities. The argument indicates only that the total population of the two cities is about the same. If a comparatively small percentage of Blue City residents attend public schools, then the comparatively small amount of money Blue City devotes to those schools might be well justified despite an equal level of concern about the quality of public-school education among residents in the two cities.


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