当前位置:首页 >> >> 李观仪第七册-1单元-课堂

李观仪第七册-1单元-课堂


February 28, 2011

外国语学院 Integrated English I
Teacher: LüWenpeng(吕文澎)

综合英语 VI

Unit One English and American Concepts of Space (pp.2-4)

Edward T. Hall
1

It has been said that the English and the Americans are two great

people separated by one language. The differences for which languages gets blamed may not be due so much to words as to communications on other levers beginning with English intonation(which sounds affected to many Americans) and continuing to ego-linked ways of handing time, space, and materials. If there ever were two cultures in which differences of the proxemic details are marked it is in educated (public school) English and middle-class Americans. One of the basic reasons for this wide disparity is that in the United States we use space as a way of classifying people and activities, whereas in England it is the social system that determines who you are. In the United States, your address is an important cue to status (this applies not only to one?s home but to the business address as well). the joneses from Brooklyn and Miami are not as “in as the joneses from Newport and Palm Beach. Greenwich and Cape Cod are worlds apart from Newark and Miami. Businesses located on
1

Madison and park avenues have more tone than those on seventh and eighth avenues. A corner office is more prestigious than one next to the elevator or at the end of a long hall. The Englishman, however, is born and brought up in a social system. He is still lord-no matter where you find him, even if it is behind the counter in a fishmonger?s stall. In addition to class distinctions, there are differences between the English and ourselves in how space is allotted.
2

The middle-class American growing up in the United States feel he

has a right to have his own room of office, invariably drew it for themselves and no one else. When asked to draw their present room of office, they drew only their own part of a shared room and then drew a line down the middle. Both male and female subjects identified the kitchen and the master bedroom as belonging to the mother or the wife, whereas father?s territory was a study or a den, if one was available; otherwise, it was “the shop,” “the basement,” or sometimes only a workbench or the garage. American women want to be alone can go to the bedroom and close the door. The closed door is the sign meaning “Do not disturb” or “I? m angry.” An American is available if his door is open at home or at his office. He is expected not to shut himself of but to maintain himself in a state of constant readiness to answer the demands of others. Closed doors are for conferences, private conversations, and business, work that requires concentration, study, resting, sleeping,
2

dressing, and sex.
3

The middle-and upper-class Englishman, on the other hand, is

brought up in a nursery shared with brothers and sisters. The oldest occupies a room by himself which he vacates when he leaves for boarding school, possibly even at the age of nine or ten. The difference between a room of one?s own and early conditioning to shared space, while seeming inconsequential, has an important effect on the Englishman?s attitude toward his own space. He may never have a permanent “room of his own” and seldom expects one or feels he is entitled to one. Even Members of Parliament have no offices and often conduct their business on the terrace overlooking the Thames. As a consequence, the English are puzzled by the American working in England may become annoyed if they are not provided with what they consider appropriate enclosed work place. In regard to the need for walls as a screen for the ego, this places the Americans somewhere between the Germans and the English.
4

The contrasting English and American patterns have some

remarkable implication, particularly if we assume that man, like other animals, has a built-in need to shut himself off from others from time to time. An English student in one of my seminars typified what happens when hidden patterns clash. He was quite obviously experiencing strain in his relationship with Americans. Nothing seemed to go right and it was
3

quite clear from his remarks that did not know how to behave. An analysis of his complaints showed that a major source of irritation was that no American seemed to be able to pick up the subtle clues that there were times when he didn?t want his thoughts intruded on. As he stated it, “I?m walking around the apartment and it seems that whenever I want to be alone my roommate starts talking to me. Pretty soon he?s asking ?What?s the matter?? and wants to know if I?m angry. By then I?m angry and say something.”
5

It took some time but finally we were able to identify most of the

contrasting features of the American and British problems that were in conflict in this case. When the American wants to be alone he goes into a room and shuts the door---he depends on architectural features for screening. For an American to refuse to talk to someone else present in the same room, to give them the “silent treatment,” is the ultimate form of rejection and a sure sign of great displeasure. The English, on the other hand, lacking room of their own since childhood, never developed the practice of using space as a refuge from others. They have in effect internalized a set of barriers, which they erect and which others are supposed to recognize. Therefore, the more the Englishman shuts himself off when he is with an American the more likely the American is to break in to assure himself off that all is well. Tension lasts until the two get to know each other. The important point is that the spatial and architectural
4

needs of each are not the same at all.

★ Pre-reading 读前 ▲ Lines for recitation: ll.14-19 “A corner office is…space is allotted. ” ll.27-33 “American women who … and sex.”

▲ Author
Edward T. Hall

5

Edward T. Hall(1914-), U.S. anthropologist ( 人 类 学 家 ), author and teacher. He conducted many experiment and research projects in anthropology, especially in

communication.

The silent language (1959), a
study of nonverbal communication
6

(非言语交际 body language, e.g. “V”, set the thumb upright), which is a hot topic today. Edward T. Hall is the pioneer in such a research field. ▲Two kinds of communication: Verbal communication
言语交际

non-verbal communication 非言语交际

Difference?

7

Verbal

communication

consists of words / language and the changes/variations in meaning, which a person puts into words through the way they are said. Thus different intonation may

express/show different meanings.

睡觉---水饺?
A British student in Beijing.

Nonverbal consists visual of

communication language and

non-word like
8

such as gestures and bodily action, asides graphs

photos, time,

certain

activities, materials

and as

space,

and

mentioned by the author. The author means here is: If there are differences between the two peoples (the British & the American), nonverbal levels of both verbal & (2 communications

communications)

account for them.

Edward T. Hall is the pioneer in studying nonverbal communication. ▲ Title
English and American Concepts of Space
9

Space

△ personal space, e.g. one’s room, one’s address. address: Traditional idea about

city — town—village richer—rich —poor

△ “space”, a keyword in the text. A special science related to “ space ” — proxemics [prok`si:miks](空间关系学/身距 学: 研究各种身体姿势、谈话时的距离、身 体接触所具有的社会价值,即传达的信息). Proxemics [prok`si:miks](空间关系学/ 身 距 学 ), a branch of sociology, studies
10

spatial relations, people’s sense of space and their need of space in different situations, etc. TEM-8, 2010, mini-lecture of listening comprehension:

Paralinguistic Features of Language
parabeyond, subordinate 辅助的,从属的

paralinguistic paralinguistics

副语言/辅助语言(指手势语等)的 副语言学,辅助语言学,超语言学

Synonyms: gestures the silent/body language non-verbal communication physical postures(姿势)
11

Proxemics is a branch of paralinguistics. 空间关系学/身距学是副语言学的一个分 支学科。
Proxemics: proxemics is the study of the communicative value of space and distance in various cultures. It includes the study of the physical distance between people when they are talking to each other, as well as their postures and whether or not there is physical contact during their conversation. These factors can be looked at in relation to the sex, age, and social and cultural background of the people involved, and also their attitudes to each other and their state of mind. Of interest are such features as the physical; distance considered proper or comfortable between two people engaged in conversation or standing near each other in public places. These and other nonverbal behavioral features, which vary from culture to culture, have been called “silent language” by Edward T. Hall.

proxemics (空间关系学): the study of communicative value of space and distance in
various cultures. (study of the physical distance between people when they are talking to each other, th eir postures and whether or not there is physical contact during their conversation) Of interest are such features as the physical distance considered proper or comfortable between two people engaged in conversation or standing near each other in public places. These and other nonverbal behavioral features, which vary from culture to culture, have been called “silent language” by Edward T. Hall.

△ proxemic [prok`si:mik] adj. (空间关系学/身距学) Line.6 “The proxemics details” ( 空间

关系事例/情形/情况) refer to facts or
12

pieces

of

information

related

to

proxemics, e.g., how closely two people should stand or sit apart when talking to each other, whether one should have his office door open or closed, etc. (两个人 座谈或站着交谈时,应保持多大的距离;上 班时,办公室的门应该打开还是关上)

△ Who

has

any

examples

about

“proxemics details” ( 空间关系事例/情形 /情况)?

13

校园同学 A pair of girls/boys are always together (library, playground, restaurant…), and they are so close to each other. Are they unusual in China?

For Chinese, it is usual, but for westerners, unusual. “Oh, China is a world of homosexuals.”(中国是同性恋者的天堂。) Chinese Westerners

A boy 2 boys or A boy and 2 boys or and a 2 girls are a girl are 2 girls are girl are together. together. together.
14

together. unusual usual usual unusual

Culture difference △The text is about the culture difference between the English and the American.
English and American Concept of Space Concept of Space:

one aspect of culture

difference △ The text is expository. The author contrasts English and American Concept of Space. Hall explains why they behave differently when they have the same need to satisfy.

★ While-reading 读时

15

A detailed study of the text

Unit One English and American Concepts of Space (pp.2-4)

Edward T. Hall
1

It has been said that the English and Americans are two great people

the

separated by one language. The differences for which languages gets blamed may not be due so much to words as to communications on other levels beginning with English intonation (which sounds affected to many Americans) and continuing to ego-linked ways of handling time, space, and materials. If there ever were two cultures in which differences of the proxemic details are marked it is in educated (public school) English and middle-class Americans. One of the basic reasons for this wide disparity is that in the United States we use space as a
16

way of classifying people and activities, whereas in England it is the social system that determines who you are. In the United States, your address is an important cue to status
[-ei-]

(this applies not only to one?s

home but to the business address as well). the Joneses from Brooklyn and Miami are not as “in as the Joneses from Newport and Palm Beach. Greenwich and Cape Cod are worlds apart from Newark
[nju:w k]

and

Miami. Businesses located on Madison and Park avenues have more tone than those on Seventh and Eighth avenues. A corner office is more pres`tigious than one next to the elevator or at the end of a long hall. The Englishman, however, is born and brought up in a social system. He is still lord-no matter where you find him, even if it is
17

behind the counter in a fishmonger?s

[-g-]

stall. In addition to class distinctions, there are differences between the English and ourselves in how space is a`llotted. 1. ll.1-2 It has been said that the English

and the Americans are two great people ( race / nation ) separated by one language(English, Br. & Am. ). ▲ It has been said that the English and the Americans are two great people by one ( race/nation ) separated language.
Question: In what sense does Hall use the word “separated” in the first sentence?

18

(Made culturally different)

▲ Meaning: It has been said that the English and the Americans are the two great people who are made culturally different by using the same language. I.e. although the British and the Americans share the same language, they are culturally different.

▲ the English the rich

the Americans the young

the innocent

e.g. It used to be thought that the rich ___ the oppressors and the poor ___ the oppressed. A. is… is…. C. is… are… B. are… are… D. are… is…
19

(B) 2. ll.2-5 The differences for which language gets blamed may not be due so much to words as to communications on other levels beginning with English intonation(which sounds affected (unnatural) to many Americans) and continuing to ego-linked (personal/individual) ways of handling time, space, and materials. 有人责怪/抱怨,由于英美英语之不同 (言语交际),才造成了(英美)两个民族 之间的文化差异。然而,这种文化差异并非 语言本身使然,而其根源在于英美人非言语 交际方式的不同。 这种差异起因于英语语
20

调之差别(言语交际,许多美国人认为英国 人的发音不自然),进而也包括个人处理时 间、空间和事物的不同方法。
▲ Main structure?

ll.2-5 The differences for which language gets blamed may not be due so much to words as to communications on other levels beginning with English intonation(which sounds affected(unnatural) to many Americans) and continuing to ego-linked (self-connected , personal / individual) ways of handling time, space, and materials.

The (cultural) differences for which language gets blamed may not be due so much to words as to communications on other levels beginning (logical subject: “The differences”) with English intonation(which sounds
21

affected to many Americans) and continuing to ego-linked ways of handling time, space, and materials. ▲ not so much to A as to B: not A, but B ▲ due to: because of, be caused by
e.g. Our thanks are due to him. 我们要感谢他。 Her illness was due to bad food. 她的病是坏了的食物造成的。

▲ affected: not natural or sincere 假装的;做作的 ▲ ego-linked: self-connected, personal / individual

22

▲ The (cultural) differences for which language gets blamed may not be due so much to words(verbal communication) as to communications on other levels(non-verbal communication, e.g. gestures, time, space etc.) …

▲ Two kinds of communication: Verbal communication: linguistic 言语交际 non-verbal communication: paralinguistic (gestures, time, space
非言语交际

etc.

nodding,

23

shaking hands, waving hands…). ▲ Paraphrase: There are cultural differences between the English and the Americans. The differences are not caused by the

language/verbal communications, but by the non-verbal they ones are although caused at the their

beginning

by

differences in English intonation. The non-verbal communications include their differences in personal ways of dealing with time, space and materials, etc. 有人责怪/抱怨,由于英美英语之不同 (言语交际),才造成了(英美)两个民族 之间的文化差异。然而,这种文化差异并非 语言本身使然,而其根源在于英美人非言语
24

交际方式的不同。 这种差异起因于英语语 调之差别(言语交际,许多美国人认为英国 人的发音不自然),进而也包括个人处理时 间、空间和事物的不同方法。
English and American Concepts of Space

Paraphrase: Some people complain about the English language for its being so different in the two countries. These differences, however, may have resulted not from the words people use, but rather from individual linguistic habits, which are displayed in the adoption of a particular intonation (English intonation sounds unnatural to Americans), and extend down to the individual way of people?s dealing with time, space and materials.

3. ll.5-7 If there ever were two cultures in which differences of the proxemic details are marked (noticeable, obvious) it is in the educated (public school) English and the middle-class Americans. ▲thesis of the text △ proxemic [prok`si:mik] adj.
25

(空间关系学/身距学) Line.6 “The proxemics details” ( 空间

关系事例/情形/情况) refer to facts or pieces of information related to proxemics, e.g., how closely two people should stand or sit apart6 when talking to each other, whether one should have his office door open or closed, etc. (两个 人座谈或站着交谈时,应保持多大的距离; 上班时,办公室的门应该打开还是关上)

▲the educated (public school) English: public school in Britain(英国公学)

26

英国公学

Prince William and Kate Middleton
Education Prince William attended the Mrs Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-prep Wetherby School both in West London. He later attended Ludgrove School in Berkshire. William was the first British prince to attend a primary school. He later attended the prestigious Eton College in Eton, Berkshire. He studied geography, biology and
27

history of art at A-level. The prince is left handed.

Eton College (1440, Henry VI) of U.K. 伊顿贵族公学 英国 Eton College (1440, Henry VI) of U.K. Usu. only for noble people (aristocrat) and royal family.

28

Harrow School (1571) of U.K.

英国名校哈罗公学

Harrow School (1571) of U.K. Usu. only for noble people (aristocrat) and royal family.

Public school(a special expression in Br., but common one in Am.): an elementary or secondary school in the United States supported by public funds and providing free education for children of a community or district. (AmE) A private boarding school in Great Britain for pupils between the ages of 13 and 18 (BrE).

29

e.g. Eton College (1440, Henry VI) and Harrow School (1571) of U.K. Usu. only for noble people (aristocrat) and royal family. A public school generally prepares students academically for higher education. So public school students are supposed to be better educated than others.

英国公学:一种私立寄宿中学,开设大学预 科课程。普遍认为,公学的毕业生比其他普 通中学的学生文化素养更高一些。

▲the middle-class Americans

美国中产阶级的家(villa 别墅)

30

Middle-class

Americans

are

a

heterogeneous

socioeconomic grouping composed principally of business and professional people such as managers, doctors, lawyers, teachers, government officials, some farmers and skilled workers. They are characterized by a comfortable material standard of living, and respect for property. Since World War II, the middle class has been the largest social class in the United States. In the U.S.A., most people identify themselves as “middle-class”.

31

A garage 车库

32

▲Meaning: If the two peoples are in two cultures, and obviously they are different in handling space, the examples of these differences may be found in educated English and the
33

middle-class Americans. 假如说有两种文化,而且空间关系的差 异是这两种文化差异的显著标志之一,那 么,这种差异主要存在于有教养的英国人与 美国中产阶级之中。

4. ll.7-9 One of the basic reasons for this wide disparity is that in the United States

we use space as a way of classifying people and activities, whereas in England it is the social system that determines who you are.

Bone?

ll.7-9 One of the basic reasons for this wide
34

disparity is that in

the united states we use

space as a way of classifying people and activities, whereas in England it is the social system that determines who you are. ▲ Disparity: (between, in, of): (fml)

difference or inequality TEM-8, 2007 Some people think that financial

disparity affects friendship. What do you think? Write an essay of about 400 words. You should supply an appropriate title for your essay. E.g. There is a great disparity of (in) age between him and his wife. ▲ The history of the UK & the USA

35

Difference?

Britain has a long history of feudal social hierarchy(封建社会等级制度 根深蒂固). Aristocratic titles(贵族头衔) are regarded as a mark of a person?s social status, i.e. one?s family background is very important for his/her social status.

36

The USA has a short history of over 200 years. One?s social status is often determined by his/her own efforts/achievements, i.e. one?s family background is not decisive for his/her social status.

▲ Meaning: The English and Americans are different in concepts of space. To the Americans, the address (the place where one lives) can symbolize one?s status or activities; while to the English, the class one belongs to identifies one?s social position. This is one of the important reasons for such a great difference. 英国人与美国人的空间观念大相径庭。
37

对于美国人来说,一个人的住址标志着其社 会地位的高低与活动能力的强弱;而对英国 人来说,一个人的社会地位是由其所属的阶 级决定的。这是造成英美人空间观念差异的 重要原因之一。

5. ll.11-12 The Joneses (people in general) from Brooklyn and Miami are not as “in” as the Joneses from Newport and Palm Beach. ▲ “in”: noteworthy(值得注意的,显著的) pres`tigious[pres`tidg s](有威信的,有声誉的)

38

Brooklyn: a town in New York, NE of the USA Miami: a large city in southeastern Florida, SE of the USA Newport: a city in Rhode island(罗得岛洲),near New York Palm Beach: a town in Florida

Brooklyn: a town in New York, NE of the USA

39

Brooklyn Bridge

Miami: a large city in southeastern Florida,
SE of the USA

Miami

Newport: a city in Rhode island(罗得岛洲), near New York Palm Beach: a town in Florida The Joneses (people in general, synecdoche【修辞学】提喻法;
举隅法 yú 〔以局部代表全部和以全部喻指部分,例如用 roof 表示
40

from Brooklyn and Miami are not as “in” as the Joneses from Newport and Palm Beach.
整 个 house, 用 the army 表 示 某 一 个 soldier 〕 )

▲ meaning: The people from Brooklyn and Miami are not as pres`tigious( 有 威 信 的 , 有 声 誉 的)/noteworthy(值得注意的,显著的) as the people from Newport and Palm Beach. 6. ll.12-13 Greenwich and Cape Cod are worlds apart from(are completely different from) Newark and Miami.

41

Greenwich: a town in Connecticut, NE of the USA Cape Cod(科德角): a peninsula [pi`ninsjul ] 半岛 projecting from the southern coast of Massachusetts,NE of the USA

Greenwich: a town in Connecticut, NE of the USA

42

Greenwich in Connecticut

Cape Cod(科德角):

a peninsula

[pi`ninsjul ]



岛 projecting from the southern coast of Massachusetts,NE of the USA

Cape Cod(科德角)

Cape Cod house

Newark: New Jersey?s largest city, an industrial city near New York City, NE of the
USA

a Newark hotel
43

Newark castle

Miami: a large city in southeastern Florida,
SE of the USA

Miami

7. ll.13-14

Businesses

(business

firms)

located on Madison and Park Avenues have more tone than those on Seventh and Eighth Avenues. tone: the general quality/character (地方)情调,格调,风格,总体特性

▲ meaning Business firms on Madison and Park Avenues are more elegant or distinguished
44

than those on Seventh and Eighth Avenues. ☆ What is the conclusion of Par.1?

Space (or spatial allocation[` el keif n]) means differently for the English and for Americans, i.e. English and American concepts of space are quite different.

2

The middle-class American growing up

in the United States feels he has a right to have his own room or office, or at least part of a room. My American subjects, when
45

asked to draw an ideal room or office, invariably drew it for themselves and no one else. When asked to draw their present room or office, they drew only their own part of a shared room and then drew a line down the middle. Both male and female subjects identified the kitchen and the master bedroom as belonging to the mother or the wife, whereas father?s territory was a study or a den, if one was available; otherwise, it was “the shop,” “the basement,” or sometimes only a workbench or the garage. American women who want to be alone can go to the bedroom and close the door. The closed door is the sign meaning “Do not disturb” or “I? m angry.” An American is available if his door is open at home or at his office. He is expected not
46

to shut himself off but to maintain himself in a state of constant readiness to answer the demands of others. Closed doors are for conferences, private conversations, and business, work that requires concentration, study, resting, sleeping, dressing, and sex.

My American subjects, when asked to draw an ideal room or office, invariably
(often, unchangeably) (for)

drew it for themselves and

no one else.

8. l.21 subjects n.
1) (君主国的)臣民,国民。 2) 主题,问题;论题,话题;科目,学科;主旨。 3) 【语法】主语。
4)

被试,受试;被实验者(接受调查研究的人) ;对

象。 (public opinion poll 民意测验;grade teachers 评教)

subjects n. an academic term in social science
47

9. ll.29-30 An American is available if his door is open at home or at his office.

▲meaning If an American opens his door at home or at his office, it implies that he is ready for visit or help.
48

3

The middle-and upper-class Englishman,

on the other hand, is brought up in a nursery shared with brothers and sisters. The oldest occupies a room by himself which he vacates
[v `keit]

when he leaves for

boarding school, possibly even at the age of nine or ten. The difference between a room of one?s own and early conditioning to shared space, while seeming inconsequential, has an important effect on the Englishman?s attitude toward his own space. He may never have a permanent “room of his own” and seldom expects one or feels he is entitled to one. Even Members of

Parliament have no offices and often conduct their business on the terrace[`ter
s]

overlooking the Thames. As a consequence,
49

the English are puzzled by the American need for a secure place in which to work, an office. Americans working in England may become annoyed if they are not provided with what they consider appropriate

enclosed work place. In regard to the need for walls as a screen for the ego, this places the Americans somewhere between the Germans and the English. 10. ll.37-39 The difference between a room of one?s own (Am.) and early conditioning to shared space (Br. 早就习惯了与人共享 空 间 ), while seeming inconsequential (unimportant, insignificant), has an

important effect on (affects greatly) the Englishman?s attitude toward his own space.
50

Condition: make sb. adapt to; accustom oneself to sth 习惯了…… While: although Seeming: that seems to be E.g. He soon conditioned the boy to the cold weather They conditioned the plant to the northern climate.

美国人慷慨 英国人保守
51

▲ meaning It seems unimportant to have one?s own room or to adapt oneself to the shared space when one is young (早早地习惯于与人共享 空间), but it has a great influence on the English man?s attitude to his own space. 11. ll.40-41 Even members of parliament have no offices and often conduct their business on the terrace [`ter s]房屋之平顶 ( /平台) overlooking the Thames.

52

London Bridge over the Thames[temz] 英国泰晤士河上的伦敦桥

The London Eye on the bank of the Thames [temz] 英国泰晤士河畔的伦敦眼
53

the Thames (a river that flows through London. The parliament is on the southern bank of the Thames. It faces the river.).

12.

ll.41-43 As a consequence, the English

are puzzled by the American need for secure place in which to work, and office (vi.
〔美口〕(在办公室)办公。 Where do you office? 您在哪儿办 公? ).

▲meaning Americans often feel it is necessary to find a separate space for themselves, such as an office, where they may work without being disturbed. So it is hard for the English to figure out why Americans have such a concept of space. 美国人总喜欢呆在一个完全属于自己
54

的空间,比如说自己的办公室,而不喜欢让 人打扰, 而英国人对此很不理解/对此迷惑不 解。 13. ll.44-46 In regard to(about) the need for walls as a screen for the ego(有必要用墙 壁将自己与世隔绝), this places(v.) the Americans somewhere between the

Germans and the English. ←———————︱———————→ Germans Americans English

Stronger sense of space; Strong sense of space; Weak sense of space

▲meaning The Americans are different from both the Germans and the English so far as the need for walls is concerned. According to the context, the Americans
55

have a very strong sense of space, they like a private room/space. The sentence implies that the Germans have a stronger sense of space than the Americans. The English have a weak sense of space because they have shared space since their childhood. 有人喜欢用墙壁将自己与世隔绝。就这一 点来说,美国人介于德国人与英国人之间。 (美国人有强烈的空间观念,喜欢独立空 间,独享一间房子,而德国人的这种观念更 强烈。 )

☆ What does the author contrast in Par.2 & 3?

The difference between the English and Americans in space sharing. The
56

English have a strong sense of “shared space”, while the Americans have a very strong sense of “ones own space/ private space”.
4

The contrasting English and American

patterns have some remarkable implication, particularly if we assume that man, like other animals, has a built-in need to shut himself off from others from time to time. An English student in one of my semi`nars[-e-] typified what happens when hidden

patterns clash. He was quite obviously experiencing strain in his relationship with Americans. Nothing seemed to go right and it was quite clear from his remarks that did not know how to behave. An analysis of his complaints showed that a major source of
57

irritation was that no American seemed to be able to pick up the subtle clues that there were times when he didn?t want his thoughts intruded on. As he stated it, “I?m walking around the apartment and it seems that whenever I want to be alone my roommate starts talking to me. Pretty soon he?s asking ?What?s the matter?? and wants to know if I?m angry. By then I?m angry and say something.” ☆ Par.4 the story of an English/a British student

58

一个英国人的长征

An English student studied in America. He shared a room with an American student. When the English student wanted to be alone and think something, he walked around the room and kept silent. His American roommate was very curious about it, and asked him, “What?s the matter? Are you angry? ” The English student was thinking about something, so at such a
59

moment, the English student really got angry because the American student

interrupted him now and then. The English and the Americans have different concepts of space. When they want to be alone, the English and the Americans behave differently. How different are they?

The English provide subtle clues(暗示) to others. The Americans go to their own rooms and shut the door. An English student in one of my semi`nars[-e-]
60

typified what patterns clash.

happens

when

hidden

14. l.50 seminar[.semi`na:] n. a discussion on a special topic under the guidance of a tutor /professor 1) (大学的)研究班;研究小组。 2) (专家)研讨会,讲习会。 as formal as “subject”.

15. ll.50-51

He

was

quite

obviously

experiencing strain in his relationships with Americans ( having trouble getting along with Americans). ▲ Meaning Obviously the English student had trouble
61

getting along with Americans. / He
(the English student)

was suffering from the

tension in his contact with Americans.

16. ll.52-55. An analysis of his (the English student) complaints showed that a major source of irritation
(trouble)

was that no American

seemed to be able to pick up the subtle clues
(feel/perceive/understand the indirect hints)

that there were want his

times when he

(the English student) didn?t

thoughts intruded on
人的思路,打扰某人).

(intrude on one?s thoughts 打断某

Pick up the subtle clues: understand the indirect hints Intrude on: come or bring when not wanted E.g. Don?t intrude into other?s house (a
62

family dispute; a meeting) He intruded into the conversation

without a word of apology. 英国学生沉思默想时,不希望别人打断 他的思路。可是,美国人似乎无法察觉到英 国学生的这一暗示。这是这位英国学生碰到 的麻烦,也是他发出抱怨的原由。

5

It took some time but finally we were

able to identify most of the contrasting features of the American and British problems that were in conflict in this case. When the American wants to be alone he goes into a room and shuts the door---he depends on architectural features for

screening. For an American to refuse to talk
63

to someone else present in the same room, to give them the “silent treatment,” is the ultimate form of rejection and a sure sign of great displeasure. The English, on the other hand, lacking room of their own since childhood, never developed the practice of using space as a `refuge from others. They have in effect internalized a set of barriers, which they erect and which others are supposed to recognize. Therefore, the more the Englishman shuts himself off when he is with an American the more likely the American is to break in to assure himself off that all is well. Tension lasts until the two get to know each other. The important point is that the spatial and architectural needs of each are not the same at all.

64

17.

ll.59-60. It took some time but finally we

were able to identify most of the contrasting features of the American and British problems(the problems when they want to stay alone) that were in conflict in this case (the story mentioned in Par.4). Par.4 the story of an English/a British student

一个英国人的长征

An English student studied in America. He shared a room with an American
65

student. When the English student wanted to be alone and think something, he walked around the room and kept silent. His American roommate was very curious about it, and asked him, “What?s the matter? Are you angry? ” You know the English student was thinking about something, so at such a moment, the English student really got angry because the American student interrupted him now and then. The English and the Americans have different concepts of space. When they want to be alone, the English and the Americans behave differently. The English provide subtle clues(暗示) to others. The Americans go to their own rooms and shut the door.
66

▲ Meaning It was time-taking, but finally we

discovered the major differences that had frustrated both the English and Americans in the above story (story told in Par.4). i.e. We spent some time finding out sources of the conflict in the story told above. 在第四段所讲述的故事中,显然英国人 与美国人都感到困惑不解、灰心丧气,要探 寻其中原因,尽管费时不易,但最终我们还 是找到了英美人想独处的显著差异。 The English provide subtle clues(暗示) to others. The Americans go to their own rooms and shut the door.

18. ll.64-66. The English, on the other hand,
67

lacking rooms of their own since childhood, never developed the practice of using space as a refuge ([`refju:dg] protection ) from others. ▲ Lacking rooms of their own: without rooms for themselves ▲Developed the practice of: form the habit of ▲As a `refuge: to stay away /escape ▲meaning The English have lacked separate rooms since their childhood, thus they never formed the habit of using space as a way of escaping others.

19. ll.66-67. They have in effect (in fact) internalized a set of barriers(set up a
68

psychological

wall/barrier),

which

they

erect (build/set) and which others are supposed to recognize. ▲ meaning of Am.: “a closed door”: barrier to

physical/architectural

indicate their rejection/displeasure Br.: psychological barrier with no

implication of rejection/displeasure

▲meaning In fact, the English have built up a psychological wall for themselves. They think the wall may keep them safe from being disturbed, and they also assume that others should be able to perceive and respect the wall. 事实上,英国人已经为自己竖起了一道
69

心理防线/一堵心理围墙。 他们认为这堵墙可 以使自己免受打扰,而且他们相信别人会察 觉这堵墙的存在,并尊重这堵墙。

☆ the contrast in par. 4 & 5: How differently would the English and the Americans behave when they want to be alone?

70

英国绅士 休.格兰特

华裔美国人

a Chinese American

Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama.

2008 年美国总统参选人希拉里与奥巴马
Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama--the nominees /
71

candidates for the November (2008) US presidential election
贝拉克· 奥巴马与希拉里· 罗德姆· 克林顿

2007 年 1 月 28 日,美国前第一夫人、民主党参议员希拉里· 罗德姆· 克林顿在艾奥瓦州的达文波特参加竞选活动。希拉里当日说,美国

总统布什应该在离任前撤出驻伊拉克美军,将伊战留给下一任总统处理,属于极度不负责的行为。新华社/法新

The Americans would go to their own rooms and shut the door. The English would provide subtle clues to others that they don?t wish to be disturbed.

20. ll.70-71 The important point is that the spatial and architectural needs of each (each people=the English or the Americans) are not the same at all (quite different). ▲conclusion of the text ▲meaning The English or the Americans behave
72

quite differently when they have the same need to satisfy.

★ Post-reading

读后

▲Is the text argumentative or expository?

Expository. ▲ The author contrasts the English and American in concepts of space. The author explains the apparent clash between them, i.e. why they behave differently when they have the same need to satisfy.
73

▲ How different are the English and American in concepts of space? (the answer to the question is the general idea of the text) the English
Par.1 Sense of social status Par.2 & 3 Sense of space Par.4 & 5 Need of being alone

the American

the English

the American

Par.1 One’s class/family One’s address Sense of social background symbolizes his status determines his status or activities
74

social status Par.2 & 3 Sense of space Have a strong sense of “shared space”, share space/room since childhood Par.4 & 5 Psychological Need of being barrier/screen alone Providing subtle clues to others that they don’t wish to be disturbed “private space /one’s own space”

Physical barrier/screen Going to their own rooms and shut the door

▲ the flavor/tone(风味,情趣,气息,风 趣) of the text 临 夏 : a

hui

autonomus

prefecture[`pri:fek-], many mosques in the city. Men wore small white caps, and women had veils( 面 纱 ). An Arabian[ `reib-] country. Foreign flavor (异国情调). 灶王爷:”Kitchen God” Restaurant in Lanzhou. The gate of the restaurant is
75

decorated with a picture of

”Kitchen

God”, and in the restaurant, there are many baskets of fruits and vegetables, e.g. apples, pears, cabbages, carrots, garlic, potatoes, hot peppers, corns etc. A strong countryside flavor(浓厚的乡土气息). ▲ What kind of flavor is there in the text? a. a foreign flavor b. a countryside flavor c. a religious flavor d. an academic flavor

76



Author
Edward T. Hall

Edward T. Hall ( 1914- ) , U.S. anthropologist ( 人 类 学 家 ), author and teacher. He uses some academic terms: ll.2-5 The differences for which language gets blamed may not be due so much to words as to communications on other levels beginning with English intonation(which sounds affected[unnatural] to many Americans) and continuing to ego-linked (personal/individual) ways of handling time, space, and materials.
77

ll.5-7 If there ever were two cultures in which differences of the proxemic details are marked(noticeable, obvious) it is in the educated (public school) English and the middle-class Americans. l.21 subjects n. 1) (君主国的)臣民,国民。 2) 主题,问题;论题,话题;科目,学 科;主旨。 3) 【语法】主语。 4) 被试,受试;被实验者(接受调查研 究的人) ;对象。 (public opinion poll 民意测验;grade teachers 评教) subjects n. an academic term in social science l.50 seminar[.semi`na:] n. a discussion on a special topic under the guidance of a tutor /professor
78

1) (大学的)研究班;研究小组。 2) (专家)研讨会,讲习会。 as formal as “subject”. ★Organization and development
1. The thesis statement of the text. The sentence in the first paragraph that states the thesis: If there ever were two cultures in which differences of the proxemic details are marked it is in the educated English and the middle-class Americans. 2. The article builds on contrast. The words or phrases to make contrast and what contrast they introduce. In paragraph one: “Whereas”: contrasting space for Americans with the social system for the English as a factor determining a person?s social status. “however”: contrasting the importance of one?s address in the United States with that of the position in the social system into which a person is born in Britain. In paragraph 3. “on the other hand”: contrasting what is said in the second paragraph with what is said in the third, i.e. the American?s sense of space that can be called his own with Englishman?s sense of shared space In paragraph 5. “on the other hand”: contrasting the different ways in which Americans and the English behave when seeking seclusion. 3. The conclusion of the contrasting leading to: the contrast serves to explain the apparent clash between the English and the Americans. i.e. why they behave differently when they have the same need to satisfy.

★Rhetoric
Goals for Studying Rhetoric The purpose of this section is to provide the students with a brief introduction to rhetoric. It concludes the following topics: 1. the changing concepts of rhetoric. (1)(2)(3) 2. Contents of modern rhetoric (1) Two main rhetorical trends in contemporary western culture. (2) Two basic aspects of rhetoric 3. Goals for studying rhetoric To be effective in communication. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to take it into consideration---effective use of language and grammatical correctness of language.

79

Unit One English and American Concepts of Space Edward T. Hall Pre-class work II. Lexical Work 1. ego: self, esp. as contrasted with another self or the world. rel: egocentric: individualistic; self-centered egoism≈egotism (selfish concern for the welfare of oneself; selfishness) ant. altruism (unselfish concern for the welfare of others; selflessness) egoistic≈egotistic: ant. altruistic 2. disparity: a noticeable difference rel: difference, inequality, unevenness, dissimilarity,

distinction, divergence ant: parity (equality) 3. prestigious: having prestige; famous; esteemed 4. allot: give as a share or set apart for a purpose 5. syn: admeasure, allocate, apportion, assign, give den: usu. lair or hideout, here a small quiet comfortab le room in a house, where a person, usually a man, can be alone “私室” rel: denizen: inhabitant, resident
80

6. “the shop”: a place where things are made or repaired “工场” 7. vacate: give up the occupancy of; stop using; leaving (a room or place) so that it is available for someone else to use rel: empty, relinquish, leave, quit n. vacation 8. inconsequential: unimportant; insignificant 9. be entitled to: possess the right to have or to do something entitle: authorize, qualify, empower 10. implication: something that is suggested or implied by a particular situation, event, or statement v. implicate 11. typify: be a typical example of; show all the most usual characteristics of sth. syn. epitomize (缩写;代表) 12. strain: a state of tension within or among people 13. refuge: a place providing protection or shelter take refuge 14. intrude on/upon: to put or force (ideas, etc.) in; interfere with

81

II.Comprehension: 1) Main Idea The English and the Americans have been conditioned quite differently with regard to space. 2) Purpose of writing and tone In this text, the author gives a contrast between English and American concepts of personal space, and shows us the implications of such a difference. 3) Organization and development: Introduction to the thesis statement: (Para. 1) The English and the Americans are different in their attitudes toward how space is allotted. Body: (Paras. 2-3 ) Para. 2: The Americans? feelings for their private rooms. Para. 3: The Englishmen?s attitude toward his own space. Conclusion: (Para. 4 — 5) : The contrasting English and American patterns have some remarkable implications.

82

The most obvious method used to development the author?s ideas is “contrast”. In fact, paragraph 2 and paragraph 3 have formed a sharp contrast. In paragraph 2, the author introduces to us the feeling of Americans for their own rooms and in paragraph 3, the author is mainly introduces to us the English people?s feeling about private rooms. In the text, the author has used contrasts several times to express us that there is so great a difference between Americans and English people in their attitudes towards private space. This passage is an expository essay. 4) Comprehension questions a) In what sense does Hall use the word “separated” in the first sentence? b) What, according to the author, has really separated the English and the Americans? c) What does the “social system” in England refer to?

d) What does the author try to contract in the second and the third paragraph? e) How do you interpret “experiencing strain in his
83

relationships with Americans” in paragraph 4? f) How differently would the English and the Americans behave when they want to be alone? 5) Difficult sentences for paraphrasing a) The differences for which language gets blamed may not be due so much to words as to communications on other levels beginning with English intonation (which sound affected to many Americans) and continuing to ego-linked ways of handling time, space, and materials. b) One of the basic reasons for this wide disparity is that in the United States we use space as a way of classifying people and activities, whereas in England it is the social system that determines who you are. c) It took some time but finally we were able to identify most of the contrasting features of the American and British problems that were in conflict in this case. 6) Difficult sentences for translation (English-Chinese) a) The differences for which language gets blamed may not be due so much to words as to communications on other levels
84

beginning with English intonation (which sound affected to many Americans) and continuing to ego-linked ways of handling time, space, and materials. b) One of the basic reasons for this wide disparity is that in the United States we use space as a way of classifying people and activities, whereas in England it is the social system that determines who you are. c) It took some time but finally we were able to identify most of the contrasting features of the American and British problems that were in conflict in this case. d) They have in effect internalized a set of barriers, which they erect and which others are supposed to recognize. e) Therefore, the more likely the American is to break in to assure himself that all is well. Tension lasts until the two get to know each other. The important point is that the spatial and architectural needs of each are not the same at all. 7) Key words and expressions 1. get blamed: get v-ed is one form of passivity besides be v-ed. 2. identify?as
85

3. shut ? off 4. in regard to 5. typify 6. pick up 7. intrude on 8.be entitled to sth. 8) Translation exercise for practice of language points

(Chinese-English) 1. 我的同桌今天又因为迟到受到了老师的批评. (get blamed) 2. 他认出那个人就是袭击过他的人. (identify ? as) 3. 这个村子周围有湖泊与沼泽地,隔断了与外界的联系.( shut ? off) 4. 对于你的投诉我无可奉告. (in regard to) 5. 他成了百万富翁,可以说是白手起家的典型. ( typify) 6. 我们在在河对岸发现了的这只狼的遗迹. ( pick up) 7. 他们正伤心时,我觉得好象骚扰了他们. ( intrude on)

86

8. 她劳累了一天, 觉得理应休息一下了. (be entitled to sth.)
--END--

87


更多相关文档:

李观仪第七册-1单元-课堂_图文.doc

李观仪第七册-1单元-课堂 - February 28, 2011 外国语学院

李观仪第七册-3单元-课堂_图文.doc

李观仪第七册-3单元-课堂 - March 18, 2011 外国语学院 Int

李观仪第七册-2单元-课堂_图文.doc

李观仪第七册-2单元-课堂 - March 8, 2011 外国语学院 Inte

李观仪第七册-5单元-课堂_图文.doc

李观仪第七册-5单元-课堂 - April 11, 2011 外国语学院 Int

李观仪 3-7 new.ppt

李观仪 3-10 new 35页 5财富值 李观仪 3-13 new 23页 5财富值 李观仪第七册-3单元-课堂 62页 2财富值 新编英语教程第3册(李观仪... 3页 1财富值喜欢...

新编英语教程第3册(李观仪主编)第一单元课后练习答案_.doc

新编英语教程第3(李观仪主编)第一单元课后练习答案_ - Answers to

李观仪四册第10课.doc

李观仪册第10课 - Unit Ten From Composer to In

我的英语学习和教学_李观仪.pdf

01-005 0-06 我的英语学习和教学李观仪(上海外国语...这七年的英语课堂教学应该说完全是传统的语法翻译法...7.编写《新编英语教程》第1-4 册时的构思与设想 ...

基础英语1 李观仪 教学大纲 修订版.doc

上机内容与学时分配 无七、考核方法与成绩评定 本课程采用形成性考核与课程终结...九、教材及教学参考书: 1、教材:李观仪主编. 1999. 新编英语教程(第一册)....

新编英语教程1 李观仪 全部课文.doc

新编英语教程1 李观仪 全部课文_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。第一册的课文Un

新编英语教程第3册(李观仪主编)第二单元课后练习答案_.doc

新编英语教程第3(李观仪主编)第二单元课后练习答案_ - 练习册第单元参考答案 Text 1 A. True (T) or False (F)? 1. Simone drank some ...

TEM_4的考试改革及其对英语教学的反拨作用.pdf

高一英语上册unit1教案1/2 相关文档推荐 ...一直采用李观仪编写的《新编英语教程》1~4 册作为综合...( 3) 教学形式 《教学大纲》明确要求 : 课堂教学...

新编英语教程第3册(李观仪主编)第三单元课后练习答案_.doc

新编英语教程第3(李观仪主编)第三单元课后练习答案_ - 第三单元练习答案

新编英语教程4_李观仪版Unit_1课件_图文.ppt

新编英语教程4_李观仪版Unit_1课件_初二英语_英语_初中教育_教育专区。U

新编英语教程第3册(李观仪主编)第五单元课后练习答案_.doc

新编英语教程第3(李观仪主编)第五单元课后练习答案_ - 第五单元练习答案

新编英语教程5(第三版李观仪)Unit1-8课文及译文参考.doc

新编英语教程5(第三版李观仪)Unit1-8课文及译文参考_法语学习_外语学习_

李观仪论英语学习.doc

我的英语学习和教学(李观仪) 、英语学习的经历 ...这七年的英语课堂教学应该说完全是传统的语法翻译法...英语学习 二虽侧重听说训练,但每单元所有课文都要求...

2012西北工业考研专业课参考书目.doc

(5-6 ) 《现代大学英语》(5-6 ) 出版社 上海外语教育出版社 外语教学与研究出版社 作者 李观仪 徐克容 242 俄语(一外) 《大学俄语》(12 册全部) ...

外国语学院专业图书目录.xls

英语精读1 语言课堂中的教与学 课程设计 课堂教学...21世纪大学新英语练习1234 21世纪大学新英语视听说...李观仪 杨岂深 何其莘 张冠林 丁往道 人事部振业技术...

新编英语教程第3册(李观仪主编)课后练习答案 第2单元.doc

新编英语教程第3(李观仪主编)课后练习答案 第2单元 - Text 1 Comprehension A. 1. Tom and Peter had always had great fun t...

更多相关标签:
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com