当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> 非谓语动词用法比较和归纳

非谓语动词用法比较和归纳


语法复习三---非谓语动词
He came here to borrow a book. I pretended to be reading when my mother came in. She is said to have been sent to Europe on business Being a student, he was interested in books. Having done his homework, he went to bed. The question being discussed is important.

用法比较
(一) .不定式和-ing 形式作主语的区别 1.动名词和不定式都可以作主语,动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的经常性,习惯性行为,不定式作 主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。 Learning a foreign language is very useful. It is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体很不好。(具体) 2..---不定式做主语, 一般用 it 当形式主语, 把作主语的不定式短语后置。 常见句型有 it is adj. (of/for sb.) to do sth. It took will and patience to do anything well. It is nice of you to say so. 3. 动名词在“It is no use/ no good/useless + doing”结构中作主语,it 为形式主语。 It is no good writing to him; he never answers letters.写信给他不妥,他从来不回信。 It is no good crying the spilt milk.覆水难收 4.. 主表对称原则 Seeing is believing. To see is to believe. (二) .不定式和动名词形式作宾语的区别 1. 动名词形式作宾语通常表示一般的、经常性的行为,而不定式作宾语表示特定的、具体的、一 次性动作 I like swimming ,but I don’t like to swim today. 2. 1)有些动词或短语要求只接不定式作宾语:hope/ manage/ refuse/ pretend/ plan/ offer/ decide/ agree/ fail/ afford/ happen/ should(would) like/love/ be likely + to do 2)有些动词或短语只接动名词作宾语:enjoy 喜欢; practise 练习; finish 完成; avoid 避免; imagine 想象; keep 保留; mind 在意; miss 错过; suggest 建议;admit 承认 ; risk 冒险; dislike 讨厌;appreciate 欣赏;forgive 宽恕; delay 耽搁; excuse 原谅 ; feel like 想要;give up 放弃; put off 推迟; look forward to 期望, keep on 一直, set about 着手, She finished reading the book (看完这本书)yesterday. Will you admit having broken the window? 你承认不承认打破了窗户? Do you feel like taking a walk? 你要不要去散步? We are looking forward to coming to China. 我们期待着来中国。 Do you mind my smoking in the room?你介意我在室内吸烟吗? (三) .作宾补时的区别 1.有些动词接不定式作宾补: (和宾语有主谓关系强调动作将发生或全过程;表一次性动作) Tell/ order/ persuade/ invite/ force /warn / encourage/ get/ ask + sb to do He asked me to finish the work in time. 2 感官动词,使役动词后接 do/doing/done 作宾补: do (和宾语有主谓关系强调动作将要发生或已经完成,do 变被动以后前要加 to.) doing (和宾语有主谓关系,强调动作正在进行,) done (和宾语有动宾关系,表动作已经完成) 注: have \ make\ let\get(使役动词); listen to \hear\ look at\ see\ watch\ observe\ notice\ \ find\feel(感 官动词) I heard her sing the song many times. I found her listening to the radio. I heard her singing the song when I passed her room. Speak louder so that you can make yourself heard. I had my bike repaired yesterday.
1

(四) .作表语时的区别 1).不定式作表语是对主语内容的解释, 一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。 My job is to help the patient now.( 说明主语具体内容) 2). 动名词做表语是对主语内容的解释,表示抽象的、一般性的经常性的行为。这时主语与表 语位置可以互换。 His hobby is collecting stamps. (说明主语具体内容,主表可换位) Its full-time job is laying eggs. 它的(指蚁后)的专职工作是产卵。 3) 现在分词做表语表示主语的性质与特征;现在分词表示进行与主动。过去分词作表语表示主 语所处的被动状态或完成某动作的状态。 His report is interesting. The music sounds exciting. The cups are broken. She is interested in the job. Cleaning women in big cities usually get paid by the hour. The joke is amusing . The problem is puzzling. The village is surrounded by high mountains. He is well educated. Climbing is tiring. They are very tired. (五) .作定语时的区别 1.不定式作定语表将来的动作且后置,若为动宾关系,动词须为及物动词。 常常修饰代词 anything/something/noting,名词 chance/ opportunity 等 或由序数或形容词最高级修 饰的名词。 You are the third one to enter the room. I have something important to say. I need a pen to write with. The question to be discussed tomorrow will be important. 2. 动名词做定语说明所修饰名词的用途(无时间性) He has a reading room. a sleeping car 3. 现在分词做定语,表示所修饰名词进行的动作,表正在进行(主谓关系)即主动进行,可换为 定语从句; 过去分词作定语有(动宾关系,表完成)即被动完成,可换为定语从句。 a sleeping boy The girl gathering flowers is beautiful. The question being discussed now is important. a broken cup The question discussed yesterday is important. All the people invited to the meeting are VIP. ((All the people who are invited to the meeting are VIP. ) We can see a lot of fallen leaves on the ground. (We can see a lot of leaves which have fallen on the ground. ) (六).作状语时,三者的区别 (常都可以变为状语从句) 1)不定式作状语通常表示①原因(谓动之前) ②目的(谓动之后)(可用 so as to/in order to 替换 ) ③ 结果 (意想不到的结果,常为 only to do) We were very excited to hear the news. They are so foolish as to believe him. He travelled around the world to give lectures. He rushed to school only to find there was nobody there. 2)现在分词或过去分词作状语通常表示①原因 ②时间 ③条件 ④让步 ⑤结果(意料之中) ⑥伴随(逗号) (主语一致性;-ing 表主动,过去分词表被动) Hearing a sound, the baby stopped crying. Given an apple, the child stopped crying. Not satisfied with the result, we decided to do the experiment again. Having lived in the country for many years, she knows how to grow vegetables. When/If heated, ice will be changed into water. Seen from the top of the mountain, the village looks very small. Being very small, computers are widely used. His parents died, leaving him an orphan. He cut off the electricity, preventing an accident. The teacher entered the room, followed by some students. The teacher entered the room and he was followed by some students.
2

读书笔记:请完成下列表格 主语 宾语 表语 定语 状语 宾补

动名词

不定式

现在 分 词 过去

逻辑主语 时态和语态 语态 时态 一般 进行 主动 完成 一般 被动 完成

不定式

-ing

过去分词

3

非谓语动词特殊用法: 一.下列情况用不定式: ①.sth. be adj(hard\difficult\easy\heavy) to do The question is difficult to answer. ②.sb. have sth. to do I have a lot of work to do. ③.There be sth. to do\to be done There is nothing to talk about. ④.find (think\feel\consider\make\believe) it adj to do sth ⑤There is no need to do. ⑥一般介词后面不可用不定式作宾语, (except, but 除外) He has no choice but to lie down and sleep. She did nothing but cry. 注意 to 是介词的短语,如 be /get used to, be accustomed to(习惯于), contribute ? to ?, devote oneself to /be devoted to, get down to, look forward to 等。 二.在“have difficulty (trouble, problem, a hard time, fun, a good time) (+in) + doing; be busy (in) +doing; There is no point (in) + doing”等结构中, in 常要省去。 The children are busy doing their homework.孩子们忙于做作业。 There is no point (in) making the simple experiments once again.??毫无意义的。 三.在(be)worth 后面只能用-ing 的主动态来表示被动意义。 His suggestion is worth considering.他的提议值得考虑, 此句可转换成:His suggestion is worthy to be considered. 在表示“需要”的 need, want 和 require 等后用-ing 形式的主动形式表示被动意义,也可用不定式 的被动式 四.固定结构(独立结构) (1) -ing 形式的独立成分: judging by /from( 根据?判断), generally speaking( 一般说来 ), strictly speaking(严格说来), frankly speaking(坦率地说)等。 (2)不定式的独立结构:to tell you the truth(和你说实话吧), to make things worse(情况更糟的是)等。 (3)用作介词或连词的 considering(考虑到,就?而言)和 given(考虑到)后接名词或 that 从句。

4


赞助商链接
更多相关文档:

非谓语动词用法归纳(非常齐全)

非谓语动词用法归纳(非常齐全)_英语_高中教育_教育专区。非谓语动词用法归纳上传...每天都熬夜没有什么好处 2.不定式和动名词作宾语的区别 英语中大多数动词既可...

非谓语动词用法归纳

非谓语动词用法归纳 非谓语动词用法归纳 2012 年高考对非谓语动词的考查将主要集中在如下两方面:1、非谓语动词的句 法功能,即其在句中所充当的成分;2、非谓语...

非谓语动词用法归纳

非谓语动词用法归纳 2012 年高考对非谓语动词的考查将主要集中在如下两方面:1、非谓语 动词的句法功能,即其在句中所充当的成分;2、非谓语动词的一些特 殊用法...

(高考非谓语动词用法总结)

(高考非谓语动词用法总结)_英语_高中教育_教育专区。非谓语动词用法总结 非谓语...一.非谓语动词区别简表 类别 区别 含义 成分 主动被动同位或将来 (名词)主语...

非谓语动词用法总结

非谓语动词用法总结非谓语动词是历年高考英语的重要考点之一,同 时也是较难掌握...(表伴随) 七.非谓语动词的区别问题(一)动词后接 to do 不定式还是动名词 (...

非谓语动词用法归纳(语法)

非谓语动词用法归纳(语法) - 非谓语动词用法归纳 主动 概括;抽象;一般 3. having done 有先后动作表完成(一般用在句首) 5. to do 用在要求动词后;目的;...

非谓语动词形式用法一览表

非谓语动词的用法表解 14页 免费 非谓语动词用法归纳(语法... 5页 1下载券...与现在分词做状语比较,不定 式短语做状语着重推理分析, 而现在分词则侧重现实的...

非谓语动词用法归纳与练习

非谓语动词用法归纳与练习非谓语动词主要包括不定式、 动名词和现在分词。 为了区分...2.不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别 (1)不定式作表语 1)不定式作表语一般表示...

(非谓语动词)教案

动词过去分词的基本用法 教学难点:非谓语动词三种形式用法区别 分词、不定式作定语...引导学生归纳非谓语动 词的三种形式 三、 由浅入深, 带领学生学习动词不定式...

非谓语的用法总结

非谓语动词用法总结李靖 非谓语动词(不定式、动名词、分词)不是真正意义上的谓语动词,在句中都不能单独作谓 语。 但都具有动词的某些特点, 可以有自己的宾语...

更多相关标签:
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com