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Using cadmium telluride quantum dots as a proton flux sensor and applying to detect H9 avian influen


ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
Analytical Biochemistry 364 (2007) 122–127 www.elsevier.com/locate/yabio

Using cadmium telluride quantum dots as a proton ?ux sensor and applying to detect H9 avian in?uenza virus
Zhang Yun
b

a,b

, Deng Zhengtao c, Yue Jiachang

a,*

, Tang Fangqiong c, Wei Qun

b

a National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Key Laboratory, Beijing 100875, China c Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China

Received 9 November 2006 Available online 3 March 2007

Abstract Semiconductor nanocrystals, often known as quantum dots, have been used extensively for a wide range of applications in bioimaging and biosensing. In this article, we report that the pH-sensitive cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) were used as a proton sensor to detect proton ?ux that was driven by ATP synthesis in chromatophores. To con?rm that these QD-labeled chromatophores were responding to proton ?ux pumping driven by ATP synthesis, N,N 0 -dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was used as an inhibitor of ATPase activity. Furthermore, we applied the QD-labeled chromatophores as a virus detector to detect the H9 avian in?uenza virus based on antibody–antigen reaction. The results showed that this QD virus detector could be a new virus-detecting device. ? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Proton ?ux; Quantum dots; F0F1–ATPase; ATP synthesis; H9 avian in?uenza virus

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs),1 also called semiconductor nanocrystals [1], are roughly spherical and generally composed of atoms from groups II and VI (e.g., cadmium selenide [CdSe], cadmium sul?de [CdS], cadmium telluride [CdTe]) or groups III and V (e.g., indium phosphide [InP]) of the periodic table. The diameters of QDs typically are between 1 and 10 nm, and each dot contains a relatively small number of atoms in a discrete cluster [2]. Interestingly, the electronic properties of QDs di?er signi?cantly between bulk semiconductor and nanocrystals of the same material as a result of quantum con?nement e?ects in the QDs [2–5]. Consequently, QDs
Corresponding author. Fax: +86 10 64871293. E-mail address: yuejc@sun5.ibp.ac.cn (Y. Jiachang). 1 Abbreviations used: QD, quantum dot; CdSe, cadmium selenide; CdS, cadmium sul?de; CdTe, cadmium telluride; InP, indium phosphide; F-DHPE, N-(?uorescein-5-thiocarbamoyl)-1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero3-phosphoethanolamine; DCCD, N,N 0 -dicyclohexylcarbodiimide; TGA, thiolglycolic acid; TF1b, thermophilic bacterium Bacillus PS3 b-subunit; PBS, phosphate-bu?ered saline. 0003-2697/$ - see front matter ? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2007.02.031
*

have an exploitable property on irradiation. Energy is absorbed (at any wavelength greater than the energy of QDs’ lowest energy transition) and converted into an extremely narrow bandwidth emission close to the band edge [6–8]. The unique photophysical properties of QDs provide a new class of biological labels that could overcome the limitations of conventional organic ?uorophores. Stability against photobleaching [9], large molar extinction coe?cients, high quantum yield [10], and large surface/volume ratios make QDs superior to organic ?uorophores in detection sensitivity as well as in luminescent stability. For these advantages of QDs, many researchers have used QDs as signal reporters conjugated with biomaterial. It has been reported that aqueous compatible, silanized CdSe/CdS were labeled with cell nuclei via electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions with trimethoxysilylpropyl urea [11]. Later, Zhang and coworkers [12] demonstrated that 3-mercaptopropyl acid-stabilized CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous solution could be e?ectively bound

Using quantum dots as a proton ?ux sensor / Z. Yun et al. / Anal. Biochem. 364 (2007) 122–127

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to a biomacromolecule, papain, via electrostatic interaction. More recently, QDs were used to compose a mechanism to probe changes of pH with pronounced ?uorescence changes [13]. Another report described how mercaptoacetic acid-capped CdSe QDs were in?uenced by pH [14]. These reports indicate that QDs have some relationship with the concentration of proton. However, limited information about the application of pH sensitivity of QDs has been published. The F0F1–ATP synthase is a nanoscale rotary biological motor. Cui and coworkers [15] labeled N-(?uorescein-5-thiocarbamoyl)-1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3phosphoethanolamine (F-DHPE) on the surface of chromatophores to detect proton ?ux through F0F1–ATPase driven by ATP hydrolysis. Based on their experiment, Liu and coworkers [16] devised a biosensor to detect single virus. In this context, we describe the pH sensitivity of CdTe QDs and successfully label QDs on the surface of chromatophores to monitor proton ?ux. Furthermore, we use these QD-labeled chromatophores to construct a novel QD virus detector for detecting the H9 avian in?uenza virus. Materials and methods Materials

precipitate (QD-labeled chromatophores) was resuspended in 100 ll of 50 mM tricine bu?er (pH 6.5) and stored at 4 °C before use. Preparation of antithermophilic bacterium Bacillus PS3 b-subunit antibody The b-subunit of F0F1–ATPase from thermophilic bacterium Bacillus PS3 (TF1b) was expressed in Escherichia coli JM103 [19] and puri?ed as in Ref. [20]. The antibody was prepared according to Ref. [21]. The antibody was puri?ed by precipitation with 33% (NH4)2SO4 and stored at –20 °C before use. Preparation of H9 avian in?uenza virus The H9 in?uenza A viruses were propagated in the allantoic cavities of 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs at 37 °C for 3 days. The allantoic cavities were collected and centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 40 min, and then the supernatant was centrifuged again at 100,000 g for 2 h. The viruses were resuspended in phosphate-bu?ered saline (PBS) bu?er and used in the following experiments [22]. The H9 in?uenza A and H9 in?uenza A antibodies were obtained from Ni Zhiqian (Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Harbin, China). Constructing the QD virus detector

N,N 0 -Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and ADP were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (USA). All other analytically puri?ed reagents were of analytical grade. Synthesis of water-soluble CdTe QDs The CdTe QDs were synthesized via a modi?ed protocol that was adopted from the literature by adding freshly prepared NaHTe solution to nitrogen-saturated Cd(NO3)2 solutions at pH 8.5 in the presence of thiolglycolic acid (TGA) as a stabilizing agent. A small amount of ammonia was added in the solution as an additional stabilizing agent and pH controller because this would enable us to obtain high-quality QDs with a smaller size and a higher quantum yield. A series of QDs with sizes ranging from 2 to 5 nm were obtained, and in this work we used QDs with a maximum emission wavelength of 535 nm. Labeling of QDs on the outside surface of chromatophores Chromatophores were prepared from the cells of Rhodospirillum rubrum according to Refs. [17,18]. The suspension of chromatophores (100 ll) was centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 30 min at 4 °C to wash away the glycerol. The precipitate was resuspended in bu?er A (50 mM tricine–NaOH, 5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM KCl, pH 6.5) and incubated for 3 h at room temperature after adding 100 ll CdTe QDs (1 · 1015/ll, dissolved in water). Free QDs were washed away by centrifuging at 13,000 rpm for 30 min at 4 °C three times. The

Here 2 ll of 2 lM biotin was added in 20 ll b-subunit antibody and incubated for 30 min at room temperature, followed by adding 2 ll of 2 lM streptavidin and incubating for 30 min at room temperature. The biotinstreptavidin-labeled b-subunit antibody was added to 100 ll QD-labeled chromatophores and incubated for 1 h at 37 °C. Redundant free b-antibody was washed by centrifuging at 13,000 rpm for 10 min three times. Then 15 ll H9 avian in?uenza virus antibody, after being incubated with 2 ll of 2 lm/ml biotin for 30 min at room temperature, was added. Free antibody was washed by centrifuging at 13,000 rpm for 10 min three times. The prepared QD virus detectors were resuspended in 100 ll of 0.1 mM tricine bu?er (pH 8.0) and stored at 4 °C. Fluorescence assay ADP was dissolved in 1 ml ATP synthesis bu?er (0.1 mM tricine, 5 mM MgCl2, 5 mM K2HPO4, 10% glycerol, pH 8.0) with a ?nal concentration of 4 mM. Then 100 ll QD virus detectors was added and incubated for 5 min at 37 °C. The ?uorescence changes of QD virus detectors were recorded by an F-4500 ?uorescence instrument (Hitachi, Japan) for 900 s at 37 °C. Fluorescence was excited at 488 nm and registered at 535 nm. All experimental data were obtained from at least four to six independent tests.

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Using quantum dots as a proton ?ux sensor / Z. Yun et al. / Anal. Biochem. 364 (2007) 122–127

Results and discussion Relationship between ?uorescence intensity of CdTe QDs and pH values In our experiment, we noticed that water-soluble CdTe QDs are sensitive to pH changes. Photoluminescence measurement of QDs in indicated pH bu?ers (6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 9.0) was performed by the F-4500 ?uorescence instrument with an excitation wavelength at 488 nm. As can be seen in Fig. 1A, the ?uorescence intensity of QDs with the maximum emission wavelength at 535 nm increased with decreasing pH values. Fig. 1B illustrates the peak ?uorescence intensity of each curve. The results show the linear relationship between ?uorescence intensity of CdTe QDs and pH values from 8.0 to 6.0, so a pH value of 8.0 was chosen for the following tests. Using QD-labeled chromatophores to detect proton ?ux driven by ATP synthesis Because of the electrostatic e?ect, QDs can readily attach to the surface of chromatophores. These noncovalent conjugations were very steady and did not in?uence

the ?uorescence of QDs. To con?rm the existence of QDs on the surface of chromatophores, a kind of QD ?uorescence quencher should be used. In our experiment, the well-known ?uorescence quencher Cu2+ was attempted. As shown in Fig. 2A, when 10 ll QDs was added to 3 ml tricine bu?er, the ?uorescence intensity was remarkably higher than that of tricine bu?er as the control (curve a vs. curve c). However, after the addition of 1 mg/ml CuCl2, the ?uorescence intensity of QDs was as low as the control (curve b vs. curve c). The results indicate that Cu2+ is a valid ?uorescence quencher of QDs. Then we used the 1 mg/ml CuCl2 to test the conjugation. Fig. 2B shows the ?uorescence intensity changes of QD-labeled chromatophores when CuCl2 was added. The ?uorescence intensity of QDlabeled chromatophores (curve a) was higher than that of chromatophores as the control (curve c) even though it was washed by centrifugation several times. However, the ?uorescence intensity decreased rapidly when 1 mg/ ml CuCl2 was added (curve b). This result indicated that CuCl2 quenched the ?uorescence of QDs, which were really labeled to the outer surface of chromatophores. These QD-labeled chromatophores provided us with a proton detector for the following application.

Fig. 1. Relationship between ?uorescence intensity of QDs and pH values. (A) Spectrum of CdTe QDs in indicated pH bu?er. Here 20 ll CdTe QDs was added into 2 ml tricine (50 mM) with various pH values (6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 9.0). Photoluminescence measurement of QDs was excited at 488 nm and scanning from 500 to 650 nm. (B) Peak ?uorescence intensity of each curve.

A 140
Fluorescence intensity
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 500 520 540 560 580

Fluorescence intensity

a b c

B 18
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 600 500 520 540 560 580

a b c

600

Wavelength (nm)

Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 2. Using Cu2+ to con?rm the existence of QDs on the surface of chromatophores. (A) Cu2+ as a valid ?uorescence quencher of QDs: (a) 10 ll QDs was added to 3 ml tricine bu?er (50 mM, pH 6.5) with excitation at 488 nm; (b) 10 ll CuCl2 (1 mg/ml) was added to sample; (c) ?uorescence intensity of tricine bu?er as control. (B) Testing the labeling of QDs using Cu2+: (a) ?uorescence intensity of QD-labeled chromatophores (20 ll) dissolved in 3 ml tricine bu?er (50 mM, pH 6.5) with excitation at 488 nm; (b) 10 ll CuCl2 (1 mg/ml) was added to sample; (c) ?uorescence intensity of chromatophores as control.

Using quantum dots as a proton ?ux sensor / Z. Yun et al. / Anal. Biochem. 364 (2007) 122–127

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A 28
Fluorescence intensity

26 b 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -24 0 24 48 72 96 120144 168192 216 240 264

a

B 50
45

a b

Fluorescence intensity

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Time (h)

Time (h)

Fig. 3. Tests of the physical and ?uorescent stability of QD-labeled chromatophores. (A) Physical stability of QD-labeled chromatophores: (a) ?uorescence intensity of QD-labeled chromatophores after storing at 4 °C (for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h); (b) ?uorescence intensity of tricine bu?er as control. (B) Fluorescent stability of QD-labeled chromatophores: (a) ?uorescence intensity of QDs after being excited at 488 nm with 150-W Xe lamp for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 h as control; (b) ?uorescence intensity of QD-labeled chromatophores after being excited at 488 nm with 150-W Xe lamp for 10 h.

Furthermore, the physical and ?uorescent stability of QD-labeled chromatophores was tested and is shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3A shows that the ?uorescence of QD-labeled chromatophores had no obvious change (curve a) after 240 h of storing at 4 °C. As shown in Fig. 3B, QD-labeled chromatophores (curve b) showed a capability of high photostability similar to that of the QDs (curve a). As we know, F0F1–ATPase is the universal enzyme that synthesizes ATP. When the ATP is synthesized, the protons are pumped out of chromatophores and subsequently result in an increase of concentration of H+ in the solution. Thus, the pH will decrease in a solution of 0.1 mM tricine with poor bu?er capacity, and the pH-sensitive QDs are expected to detect the pH decrease by recording the ?uorescence intensity. Furthermore, DCCD is an F0 channel inhibitor, and this can inhibit the ATPase activity of chromatophores and block the proton pump; therefore, it can be used to con?rm that the ?uorescence intensity change of the QDs was really caused by the proton ?ux out of the chromatophores. As shown in Fig. 4, when 4 mM ADP was added to initialize
56

the reaction at 37 °C, the ?uorescence intensity increased, indicating an increase of pH value near chromatophores (curve a), whereas QD-labeled chromatophores incubated with 2 lM DCCD previously showed no obvious change of ?uorescence intensity (curve b). The ?uorescence intensity changes of QD-labeled chromatophores without adding ADP was the control. Because of the lack of ADP, ATP could not be synthesized and few protons were pumped out of chromatophores; consequently, the ?uorescence of QDs had no obvious changes (curve c). The results showed that the increasing ?uorescence intensity was coupled with ATP synthesis activity and proton ?ux. Construction and application of QD virus detector As mentioned above, when the F0F1–ATPase synthesized ATP, the velocity of the proton pump could be

Fluorescence intensity

54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38

a

b c
0 200 400 600 800 1000

Time (s)
Fig. 4. E?ect of inhibitor on ?uorescence intensity changes of QD-labeled chromatophores. Curve a: ?uorescence intensity changes of QD-labeled chromatophores when 4 mM ADP was added to initialize reaction. Curve b: QD-labeled chromatophores incubated with 2 lM DCCD for 1 h at room temperature previously when 4 mM ADP was added to initialize reaction. Curve c: ?uorescence intensity changes of QD-labeled chromatophores without adding ADP as control.

Fig. 5. Basic design of QD virus detector based on F0F1–ATPase antibody of b-subunit (1), the system of biotin-streptavidin-biotin (2), the antibody of H9 avian in?uenza virus (3), H9 avian in?uenza virus (4), 535 nm QDs (5), and chromatophores with F0F1–ATPase (6). The ‘‘a,b,c’’ and ‘‘a,b,c,e,d’’ represent subunits of F0F1–ATPase. And the ‘‘H+’’ represent protons.

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Using quantum dots as a proton ?ux sensor / Z. Yun et al. / Anal. Biochem. 364 (2007) 122–127

A
Fluorescence intensity

70 65 60 55 50 45 40 0 200 400 600 800 1000

a b

B

a

b

Time (s)

Fig. 6. E?ects of H9 virus on ATP synthesis activity of F0F1–ATPase. (A) Fluorescence intensity changes of QD virus detector, either virus loaded or not virus loaded, during ATP synthesis. Curve a: QD virus detector with capturing virus. Curve b: QD virus detector without capturing virus. (B) Schematic view of QD virus detector during ATP synthesis. Left image: QD virus detector with capturing virus. Right image: QD virus detector without capturing virus. The ‘‘a,b,c’’ and ‘‘a,b,c,e,d’’ represent subunits of F0F1–ATPase. And the ‘‘H+’’ represent protons.

re?ected by measuring the ?uorescence changes of QDs labeled on the outer surface. So, the ?uorescence of QDs was related with the ATP synthesis activity. Moreover, according to the rotational catalysis mechanism [23], the rotation of the central cecn rotor relative to the a3b3 hexagon is critical for operation of the catalytic sites, and the rotation of cecn relative to the b-subunit is critical for proton transport during ATP synthesis. It has been reported that various molecules loading to the b-subunit can a?ect the ATP synthesis activity of F0F1–ATPase [16]; therefore, the change of QD ?uorescence can also re?ect various loadings of the b-subunit. Based on this principle, we designed a QD virus detector using the F0F1–ATPase shown in Fig. 5. The F1 b-subunit site of F0F1–ATPase linked to a b-antibody-biotin-streptavidin-biotin-antibody system (especially for the avian virus) was used as a capture reaction receptor. After capturing virus on the b-subunit, the ATP synthesis activity of F0F1–ATPase changes, resulting in the rate of the QD ?uorescence increase changing more evidently. As shown in Fig. 6, when 4 mM ADP was added to the reaction bu?er, the ?uorescence of the virus-loaded detector (Fig. 6A curve a) changed more evidently compared with that of the non-virus-loaded detector (Fig. 6A curve b). And Fig. 6B showed the Schematic view of QD virus detector during ATP synthesis. The result shows that the ?uorescence of the QD virus detector increased more rapidly after capturing the virus, with the possible mechanism being that di?erent load weights will a?ect the conformation of the b-subunit, but the exactly mechanism is still under discussion. Although it is unclear how it occurs in detail, the application of the QD virus detector, as a proton ?ux indicator and a virus detector, is vital to routine inspection. Furthermore, because QDs show size-tunable ?uorescence emission and have a narrow and symmetric spectral line pro?le (the full-width half maximum typically is 25–35 nm) compared with that of organic dyes [24,25], it is possible to develop an encoded method using the QD virus detector for detecting various viruses simultaneously.

Conclusion In this study, a new application of QDs as proton sensor has been achieved preliminarily. We showed that QDs have a potential application for detecting ATP-driven proton-pumping activity of F0F1–ATPase and proton translocation across F0 driven by proton-motive force. Based on these properties, we devised a QD virus detector and successfully captured the H9 avian in?uenza virus. Moreover, because of its unique optical properties and exceptional photostability of QDs, the QD virus detector may have a wide range of applications in the future. Acknowledgments This work was granted by programs of the Natural Science Foundation of China (30292905, 90306005, 20545002, 60572031, and 60372009) and nanobiomedical and device application of CAS (Kjcx-sw-h12). References
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