The Evolution of Galaxies by the Incompatibility between Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter DingYu Chung* chung@wayne.edu
In this paper, the evolution of galaxies is by the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. Due to the structural difference, baryonic matter and dark matter are incompatible to each other as oil droplet and water in emulsion. In the interfacial zone between dark matter and baryonic matter, this incompatibility generates the modification of Newtonian dynamics to keep dark matter and baryonic matter apart. The five periods of baryonic structure development in the order of increasing incompatibility are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the galaxy, the cluster, and the supercluster periods. The transition to the baryonic droplet generates density perturbation in the CMB. In the galaxy period, the firstgeneration galaxies include elliptical, normal spiral, barred spiral, irregular, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In the cluster period, the secondgeneration galaxies include modified giant ellipticals, cD, evolved S0, dwarf elliptical, BCD, and tidal dwarf galaxies. The whole observable expanding universe behaves as one unit of emulsion with increasing incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. Introduction Dark matter has been detected only indirectly by means of its gravitational effects astronomically. Dark matter as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) has not been detected directly on the earth [1]. This paper proposes that the absence of the direct detection of dark matter on the earth is due to the incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter, analogous to incompatible oil and water. The incompatibility means that when baryonic matter and dark matter are far away from each other, they attract each other through gravity, but when they are close together, they repel each other. The incompatibility leads to distribution of the dark matter and baryonic matter in different regions like emulsion. Most dark matter fermions form dark matter halos outside of baryonic galaxies. Some dark matter fermions remain inside of galaxies, such as the Milky Way Galaxy. The dark matter particles in the Milky Way Galaxy form the thin dark matter halos around star systems, such as the solar system. The repulsion in the thin dark matter halo causes Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts in the outer space of the solar system to have anomalous acceleration toward the sun [2]. Section 1 describes the four basic assumptions. Section 2 describes cosmology. The formation of inhomogenous structure in the observable universe based on the Milky Universe is described in Section 3. The evolution of galaxies is stated in Section 4.
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1.
The Four Assumptions
The four assumptions in the eternal inflationdeflation in the multiverse are the multiverse background, the object structure, the space structure, and the dimensional oscillation. The first assumption of this paper is that the multiverse background is the homogeneous static universe, consisting of 11D (spacetime dimensional) positive energy membrane and negative energy antimembrane, as proposed by Mongan [3]. The only force in the homogeneous static universe is the attractive prestrong force, the predecessor of the strong force. It does not have gravity that causes instability and singularity [4], so the initial universe remains homogeneous, flat, and static. This initial universe provides the globally stable static background state for an inhomogeneous eternal universe in which local regions undergo inflationdeflation [4]. The second assumption is about the object structure [5], consisting of 11D membrane (311), 10D string (210), variable D particle (1≤10), and empty object (0). The four stages in the evolution of our universe are the 11D membrane universe (the background), the dual 10D string universe, the dual 10D particle universe, and the dual 4D/variable D particle universe, involving of 11D membrane, 10D string, 10D particle, and 4D/variable ≤ 10 D particle, respectively. Empty object corresponds to the antiDe Sitter bulk space in the RandallSundrum model [6]. The surrounding object can extend into empty object in the form of decomposition of space dimension as described by Bounias and Krasnoholovets [7]. For an example, 11D membrane (311) in the presence of empty space (0) decomposes into 10D string (210) surrounded by a virtue particle (11) attached to the space of 10D string. the decomposition 311 + 011 ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?→ 210 11 (1)
The third assumption is about space structure [8][9], consisting of attachment space (denoted as 1) and detachment space (denoted as 0). Attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed or reversibly at the speed of light. Detachment space irreversibly detaches from the object at the speed of light. Attachment space relates to rest mass, while detachment space relates to kinetic energy. Different stages of our universe have different space structures. The first three stages of the cosmic evolution do not have detachment space. The cosmic origin of detachment space is the cosmic radiation that initiates big bangs. Some objects in 4Dattachment space, denoted as 14, convert into the cosmic radiation in 4Ddetachment space, denoted as 04 some objects in 1 4 the big bang ?? ? ? ? ?→ the cosmic radiation in 0 4 (2)
The combination of attachment space (1) and detachment space (0) results in miscible space, binary partition space, or binary lattice space for fourdimensional spacetime.
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( 1 ) attachment space 4 n
combination + (0 ) det achment space ?? ? ? ??→ 4 n
(3)
(1 0 ) binary lattice space , miscible space , or (1 ) (0 ) binary partition space 4 4 n 4 n 4 n
Binary lattice space, (1404)n , consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment space. Thus, binary lattice space consists of multiple quantized units of attachment space separated from one another by detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is no separation of attachment space and detachment space. Binary partition space, (14)n(04)n, consists of separated continuous phases of attachment space and detachment space. Binary lattice space is consists of multiple quantized units of attachment space separated from one another by detachment space. Binary lattice space slices an object into multiple quantum states separated from one another by detachment space. Binary lattice space is the space for wavefunction. In wavefunction, n Ψ = ∑ c φ i i i =1 , (4)
Each individual basis element, ?φ i ?, attaches to attachment space, and separates from the adjacent basis element by detachment space. Detachment space detaches from object. Binary lattice space with n units of fourdimensional, (04 14)n, contains n units of basis elements. Detachment space contains no object that carries information. Without information, detachment space is outside of the realm of causality. Without causality, distance (space) and time do not matter to detachment space, resulting in nonlocalizable and noncountable spacetime. The requirement for the system (binary lattice space) containing nonlocalizable and noncountable detachment space is the absence of net information by any change in the spacetime of detachment space. All changes have to be coordinated to result in zero net information. This coordinated nonlocalized binary lattice space corresponds to nilpotent space. All changes in energy, momentum, mass, time, space have to result in zero as defined by the generalized nilpotent Dirac equation [10]. (m k? / ?t ± i? + jm) (± ikE ± ip + jm) exp i ( ? Et + p r ) = 0
.
,
(5)
where E, p, m, t and r are respectively energy, momentum, mass, time, space and the symbols ± 1, ± i, ± i, ± j, ± k, ± i, ± j, ± k, are used to represent the respective units required by the scalar, pseudoscalar, quaternion and multivariate vector groups. The changes involve the sequential iterative path from nothing (nilpotent) through conjugation, complexification, and dimensionalization. The nonlocal property of binary lattice space for wavefunction provides the violation of Bell inequalities [11] in quantum mechanics in terms of fasterthanlight influence and indefinite property before measurement. The nonlocality in Bell inequalities does not result in net new information.
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In binary lattice space, for every attachment space, there is its corresponding adjacent detachment space. Thus, a basis element attached to attachment space can never be at rest with complete localization even at the absolute zero degree. The adjacent detachment space forces the basis element to delocalize. In binary lattice space, for every detachment space, there is its corresponding adjacent attachment space. Thus, no part of the object can be irreversibly separated from binary lattice space, and no part of a different object can be incorporated in binary lattice space. Binary lattice space represents coherence as wavefunction. Binary lattice space is for coherent system. Any destruction of the coherence by the addition of a different object to the object causes the collapse of binary lattice space into miscible space. The collapse is a phase transition from binary lattice space to miscible space.
(( 0 4 )( 1 4 )) n
??? ??? ??→
collapse
miscible space
(6)
binary lattice space Another way to convert binary lattice space into miscible space is gravity. Penrose [12] pointed out that the gravity of a small object is not strong enough to pull different states into one location. On the other hand, the gravity of large object pulls different quantum states into one location to become binary partition space. Therefore, a small object without outside interference is always in binary lattice space, while a large object is never in binary lattice space. In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is no separation of attachment space and detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space contributes zero speed, while detachment space contributes the speed of light. A massless particle, such as photon, is on detachment space continuously, and detaches from its own space continuously. For a moving massive particle consisting of a rest massive part and a massless part, the massive part with rest mass, m0, is in attachment space, and the massless part with kinetic energy, K, is in detachment space. The combination of the massive part in attachment space and massless part in detachment leads to the propagation speed in between zero and the speed of light. To maintain the speed of light constant for a moving particle, the time (t) in moving particle has to be dilated, and the length (L) has to be contracted relative to the rest frame. t = =t 1 ?υ 2 / c 2 = t γ ,
0
0
L = L0 / γ , E = K + m c2 = γ m c2
0 0
(7)
where γ = 1 / 1 ? υ 2 / c 2 is the Lorentz factor for time dilation and length contraction, E is the total energy and K is the kinetic energy.
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The information in miscible space is contributed by the combination of both attachment space and detachment space, so detachment space with information can no longer be nonlocalize. Any value in miscible space is definite. All observations in terms of measurements bring about the collapse of wavefunction, resulting in miscible space that leads to eigenvalue as definite quantized value. Such collapse corresponds to the appearance of eigenvalue, E, by a measurement operator, H, on a wavefunction, Ψ. HΨ = E Ψ , (8)
The fourth assumption [5] is about the dimensional oscillation between high dimensional spacetime and low dimensional spacetime. The vacuum energy of the multiverse background is the Planck energy. Vacuum energy decreases with decreasing dimension number. The vacuum energy of 4D spacetime is zero. With such vacuum energy differences, the local dimensional oscillation between high and low spacetime dimensions results in local eternal inflationdeflation. Eternal inflationdeflation is like harmonic oscillator, oscillating between the Planck vacuum energy and the lower vacuum energy. m2 2 V (φ ) = φ (10) 2 Eternal inflationdeflation starts with eternal inflation [13][14][15]. In eternal inflation, once inflation has started, it continues forever, producing an unlimited number of pocket universes. Such pocket universes correspond to the units of 11D membranes. Once inflation, all adjacent units of 11D membrane inflate into lower D entities. For the dimensional oscillation, deflation occurs at the end of inflation. Each local region in the universe follows a particular path of the dimensional oscillation. Each path is marked by particular set of force fields. The path for our universe is marked by the strong force, gravityantigravity, charged electromagnetism, and asymmetrical weak force, corresponding to the four stages of the cosmic evolution. Since the initial universe is flat and homogeneous, the dimensional oscillation changes from one flathomogeneous state into another flathomogeneous state. The universe requires overall flatness and homogeneity, and allows temporary local deviations from flatness and homogeneity. The universe does not need inflation to reach flatness and uniformity. The vacuum energy differences among spacetime dimensions are based on the varying speed of light. Varying speed of light has been proposed to explain the horizon problem of cosmology [16][17][18]. The proposal is that light traveled much faster in the distant past to allow distant regions of the expanding universe to interact since the beginning of the universe. Therefore, it was proposed as an alternative to cosmic inflation. The time dependent speed of light varies as some power of the expansion scale factor a in such way that
c (t ) = c 0 a n
(11)
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where c0 > 0 and n are constants. The increase of speed of light is continuous. In this paper, varying dimension number (VDN) relates to quantized varying speed of light (QVSL), where the speed of light is invariant in a constant spacetime dimension number, and the speed of light varies with varying spacetime dimension number from 4 to 11.
cD = c / α D?4
,
(12)
where c is the observed speed of light in the 4D spacetime, cD is the quantized varying speed of light in spacetime dimension number, D, from 4 to 11, and α is the fine structure constant for electromagnetism. Each dimensional spacetime has a specific speed of light. The speed of light increases with the increasing spacetime dimension number D. In special relativity, E = M 0 c 2 modified by Eq. (12) is expressed as E = M 0 ? (c 2 / α 2 ( D ? 4 ) ) = (M 0 / α
2 ( d ? 4)
(13a) (13b)
) ?c .
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Eq. (13a) means that a particle in the D dimensional spacetime can have the superluminal speed c / α D ? 4 , which is higher than the observed speed of light c, and has the rest mass M 0 . Eq. (13b) means that the same particle in the 4D spacetime with the observed speed of light acquires M 0 / α 2( d ? 4) as the rest mass, where d = D. D in Eq. (13a) is the spacetime dimension number defining the varying speed of light. In Eq. (13b), d from 4 to 11 is “mass dimension number” defining varying mass. For example, for D = 11, Eq. (13a) shows a superluminal particle in elevendimensional spacetime, while Eq. (13b) shows that the speed of light of the same particle is the observed speed of light with the 4D spacetime, and the mass dimension is eleven. In other words, 11D spacetime can transform into 4D spacetime with 11d mass dimension. QVSL in terms of varying spacetime dimension number, D, brings about varying mass in terms of varying mass dimension number, d. The QVSL transformation transforms both spacetime dimension number and mass dimension number. In the QVSL transformation, the decrease in the speed of light leads to the decrease in spacetime dimension number and the increase of mass in terms of increasing mass dimension number from 4 to 11, cD = cD ? n / α 2 n , M 0, D , d = M 0, D ? n , d + nα 2 n , QVSL D, d ?? ? ?→ (D m n), (d ± n) (14a) (14b) (14c)
where D is the spacetime dimension number from 4 to 11 and d is the mass dimension number from 4 to 11. For example, the QVSL transformation steps a particle with 11D4d to a
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particle with 4D11d. In terms of rest mass, 11D spacetime has 4d with the lowest rest mass, and 4D spacetime has 11d with the highest rest mass. Rest mass decreases with increasing dimension number. The decrease in rest mass means the increase in vacuum energy, so vacuum energy increases with increasing dimension number. The vacuum energy of 4D particle is zero, while 11D membrane has the Planck vacuum energy. Vacuum energy differences among 11D membrane, 10D string, and variable D particle produces inflationdeflation. For our observable universe, the vacuum energy differences as expressed in Eq. (14) become the massenergy differences for 4D elementary particles, including quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons [19]. Eq. (14) provides the base for the periodic table of elementary particles to calculate accurately the masses of all 4D elementary particles in the observable universe. In the normal supersymmetry transformation, the repeated application of the fermionboson transformation carries over a boson (or fermion) from one point to the same boson (or fermion) at another point at the same mass. In the “varying supersymmetry transformation”, the repeated application of the fermionboson transformation steps a boson from one point to the boson at another point at different mass dimension number in the same spacetime number. The repeated varying supersymmetry transformation carries over a boson Bd into a fermion Fd and a fermion Fd to a boson Bd1, which can be expressed as follows M d, F = M d, B α d, B , (15a) (15b)
M d ? 1, B = M d, F α d, F ,
where Md, B and Md, F are the masses for a boson and a fermion, respectively, d is the mass dimension number, and α d, B or α d, F is the fine structure constant that is the ratio between the masses of a boson and its fermionic partner. Assuming α d, B or α d, F , the relation between the bosons in the adjacent dimensions then can be expressed as
2 M d ? 1, B = M d , B α d .
(15c)
Eqs. (15) show that it is possible to describe mass dimensions > 4 in the following way F5 B5 F6 B6 F7 B7 F8 B8 F9 B9 F10 B10 F11 B11 , (16)
where the energy of B11 is the Planck energy. Each mass dimension between 4d and 11d consists of a boson and a fermion. Eqs. (15) show a stepwise transformation that converts a particle with d mass dimension to d ± 1 mass dimension. The transformation from a higher dimensional particle to the adjacent lower dimensional particle is the fractionalization of the higher dimensional particle to the many lower dimensional particle in such way that the number of lower dimensional particles becomes n d1 = n d / α 2 . The transformation from lower dimensional particles to higher dimensional particle is a condensation. Both the fractionalization and the condensation are stepwise. For example, a particle with 4D
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(spacetime) 10d (mass dimension) can transform stepwise into 4D9d particles. Since the supersymmetry transformation involves translation, this stepwise varying supersymmetry transformation leads to a translational fractionalization and translational condensation, resulting in expansion and contraction. Another type of the varying supersymmetry transformation is not stepwise. It is the leaping varying supersymmetry transformation that transforms a particle with d mass dimension to any d ± n mass dimension. The transformation involves the slicingfusion of particle. Bounias and Krasnoholovets [20] propose another explanation of the reduction of > 4 D spacetime into 4D spacetime by slicing > 4D spacetime into infinitely many 4D quantized units surrounding the 4D core particle. Such slicing of > 4D spacetime is like slicing 3space D object into 2space D object in the way stated by Michel Bounias as follows: “You cannot put a pot into a sheet without changing the shape of the 2D sheet into a 3D dimensional packet. Only a 2D slice of the pot could be a part of sheet”. In this paper, this slicing involves the slicing of mass dimensions. For example, the slicing of > 4d 4D particle is as follows.
(14 + k )m
??? ?? ?? ?→
slicing
( 14 )m
+
k =1
∑
k
(( 0 4 )( 14 ))n, k
k types of 4 d units
> 4 d attachment space
4 d core attachment space
(17)
The two products of the slicing are the 4D4dcore attachment space and six types of 4D4d quantized units. The 4D4d core attachment space surrounded by six types of infinitely many 4D4d quantized units corresponds to the core particle surrounded by six types of infinitely many small 4D4d particles. Therefore, the transformation from d to d – n involves the slicing of a particle with d mass dimension into two parts: the core particle with d – n dimension and the n dimensions that are separable from the core particle. Such n dimensions are denoted as n “dimensional orbitals”, which become force fields. The sum of the number of mass dimensions for a particle and the number of dimensional orbitals (DO’s) is equal to 11 for all particles with mass dimensions. Therefore, Fd = Fd ? n + (11 ? d + n) DO' s (18)
where 11 – d + n is the number of dimensional orbitals (DO’s) for Fd  n. For example, the slicing of 4D9d particle produces 4D4d particle that has d = 4 core particle surrounded by 7 separable dimensional orbitals in the form of B5F5B6F6B7F7B8F8B9F9B10F10B11. Since the slicing process is not stepwise from higher mass dimension to lower mass dimension, it is possible to have simultaneous slicing. For example, 4D9d particles can simultaneously transform into 4D8d, 4D7d, 4D6d, 4D5d, and 4D4d core particles, which have 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 separable dimensional orbitals, respectively. Therefore, varying supersymmetry transformation can be stepwise or leaping. Stepwise supersymmetry transformation is translational fractionalization and condensation,
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resulting in stepwise expansion and contraction. Leaping supersymmetry transformation is not translational, and it is slicing and fusion, resulting possibly in simultaneous formation of different particles with separable dimensional orbitals. In summary, the QVSL transformation carries over both spacetime dimension number and mass dimension number. The varying supersymmetry transforms varying mass dimension number in the same spacetime number as follows (D = spacetime dimension number and d = mass dimension number). QVSL D, d ?? ? ?→ (D m n), (d ± n) stepwise varying supersymmetry D, d ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??→ D, (d ± 1) leaping varying supersymmetry D, d ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??→ D, (d ± n)
2.
Cosmology
As in Einstein’s static universe, the time in the multiverse background has no beginning. Different parts of the background have potential to undergo local inhomogeneity to develop different universes with different object structures, space structures, and vacuum energies. This paper proposes that the multiverse background is the 11D membrane universe consisting of the closely packed identical 11D positive energy membranenegative energy antimembranes, denoted as 311 3 11. The only force among the membranes is the prestrong force, s, as the predecessor of the strong force. It is from the quantized vibration of the membranes to generate the reversible process of the absorptionemission of the massless particles among the membranes. The prestrong force mediates the reversible absorptionemission in the flat space. The prestrong force is the same for all membranes, so it is not defined by positive or negative sign. The expression for 11D membrane and the prestrong force is 311 s. In certain regions of the 11D membrane universe, the local inflation takes place by the transformation from 11D membrane into 10D string. The inflation is the result of the vacuum energy difference between 11D membrane and 10D string. With the emergence of empty space (011), 11D membrane transforms into 10D brane (string) warped with virtue particle as pregravity. 311 s + 011 ←??→ 210 s 11 = 210 s g + (19)
The g is in the bulk space [6], which is the warped space (transverse radial space) around 210. As in the AdS/CFT duality [21][22][23], the prestrong force has 10D dimension, one dimension lower than the 11D membrane, and is the conformal force defined on the conformal boundary of the bulk space. The prestrong force mediates the
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reversible absorptionemission process in the flat space, while pregravity mediates the reversible condensationdecomposition process in the bulk space. Through symmetry, antistrings form 10D antibranes with antipregravity as 2 ?10 g , where g is antipregravity. 3 ?11 s + 0 ?11 ←? ?→ 2 ?10 s 1?1 = 2 ?10 s g ? (20)

Pregravity can be attractive or repulsive to antipregravity. If it is attractive, the universe remains homogeneous. If it is repulsive, n units of (210)n and n units of (210)n are separated from each other. + ? ( ( s 210 ) g ) ( g ( s 2 ?10 )) n (21)
n
The universe with pregravity and antipregravity is the dual 10D string universe, which leads to the evolution of our observable universe. The dual 10D string universe consists of two parallel universes with opposite energies: 10D branes (strings) with positive energy and 10D antibranes (antistrings) with negative energy. The two universes are separated by the bulk space, consisting of pregravity and antipregravity. The continuous spread of the local inflation enlarges the dual 10D string universe by converting the surrounding 11D membrane universe continuously. Like the expansion of the observable universe, the enlargement of the dual 10D string universe has no one specific mass center in spacetime. Such dual universe separated by bulk space appears in the ekpyrotic universe model [24][25]. When the local inflation stops, the pressure of the surrounding 11D membrane universe forces the dual 10D string universe to deflate, resulting in the coalescence of the two universes. The coalescence allows the two universes to mix. The first path of such mixing is the braneantibrane annihilation, resulting in disappearance of the dual universe and the return to the multiverse background. The outcome is the completion of one oscillating cycle. The second path is the emergence of the precharge force, the predecessor of electromagnetism with positive and negative charges. During the coalescence before the mixing, the positive precharge (e+) is added to the positive energy brane, while the negative precharge (e ) is added to the negative energy antibrane. The mixing becomes the mixing of positive charge and negative charge, resulting in the preservation of the dual universe with the positive energy and the negative energy, which do not form a mixture. Our universe follows the second path. During the coalescence for the second path, the two universes coexist in the same spacetime, which is predicted by the Santilli isodual theory [26]. Antiparticle for our positive energy universe is described by Santilli as follows, “this identity is at the foundation of the perception that antiparticles “appear” to exist in our space, while in reality they belong to a structurally different space coexisting within our own, thus setting the foundations of a “multidimensional universe” coexisting in the same space of our sensory perception” (Ref. 26, p. 94). Antiparticles in the positive energy universe actually come from the coexisting negative energy universe.
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The mixing process follows the isodual hole theory that is the combination of the Santilli isodual theory and the Dirac hole theory. In the Dirac hole theory that is not symmetrical, the positive energy observable universe has an unobservable infinitive sea of negative energy. A hole in the unobservable infinitive sea of negative energy is the observable positive energy antiparticle. In the dual 10D string universe, one universe has positive energy branes with pregravity, and one universe has negative energy antibranes with antipregravity. For the mixing of the two universes during the coalescence, a new force, the precharged force, emerges to provide the additional distinction between brane and antibrane. The precharged force is the predecessor of electromagnetism. Before the mixing, the positive energy brane has positive precharge (e+), while the negative energy antibrane has negative precharge (e ). During the mixing when two 10D string universes coexist, a half of positive energy branes in the positive energy universe move to the negative energy universe, and leave the Dirac holes in the positive energy universe. The negative energy antibranes that move to fill the holes become positive energy antibranes with negative precharge in the positive energy universe. In terms of the Dirac hole theory, the unobservable infinitive sea of negative energy is in the negative energy universe from the perspective of the positive energy universe before the mixing. The hole is due to the move of the negative energy antibrane to the positive energy universe from the perspective of the positive energy universe during the mixing, resulting in the positive energy antibrane with negative precharge in the positive energy universe. In the same way, a half of negative energy antibranes in the negative energy universe moves to the positive energy universe, and leave the holes in the negative energy universe. The positive energy branes that move to fill the holes become negative energy branes with positive precharge in the negative energy universe. The result of the mixing is that both positive energy universe and the negative energy universe have branesantibranes. The existence of the precharge provides the distinction between brane and antibrane in the braneantibrane. At that time, the space (detachment space) for radiation has not appeared in the universe [5], so the braneantibrane annihilation does not result in radiation. The braneantibrane annihilation results in the replacement of the braneantibrane as the 10D stringantistring, (210 210) by the braneantibrane as the 10D particleantiparticle (110 110). The 10D particlesantiparticles have the multiple dimensional KaluzaKlein structure with variable space dimension number without the requirement for a fixed space dimension number for stringantistring. The dual 10D particle universe has particles, while the multiverse background (11D membrane universe) has membranes, so the multiverse background and the dual 10D particle universe are completely transparent and oblivious to each other. Without the pressure from the multiverse background, pregravity and antipregravity again separate the two universes, resulting in the dual 10D particle universe. The dual 10D particle universe is represented as below.
(( s 110 e + _ + e 1 ?10 s ) g ) n ? + _ ( g ( s 110 e e 1 ?10 s )) n ,
(22)
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where s and e are the prestrong force and the precharged force in the flat space, g is pregravity in the bulk space, and 110 110 is the particleantiparticle. The dual 10D particle universe consists of two parallel particleantiparticle universes with opposite energies and the bulk space separating the two universes. Without relation with the multiverse background, the dual achiral universe has its own vacuum energy that decreases from the nonzero to zero. With decreasing vacuum energy and the KaluzaKlein structure without a fixed number of space dimensions, the spacetime dimension and the mass dimension of particleantiparticles decrease to lower dimensional spacetime, leading to the inflation of the universe. The transformation of 10D particles in the dual universe can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. In the symmetrical transformation, both universes have the same transformation in such way that the tendimensional spacetime decreases dimensionbydimension to the 4D spacetime slowly, sequentially, and reversibly, or decreases to the 4D at once. The transformation that leads to our observable universe is asymmetrical. It results from the emergence of the asymmetrical weak force, which has the spatially asymmetrical transformation from one particle to another particle. The vacuum energy of the positive energy universe decreases to zero at once, and the spacetime dimension decreases to 4D at once. The vacuum energy of the negative energy universe decreases to zero slowly, and the spacetime dimension decreases to 4D slowly and sequentially. The result is the dual 4D/variable D universe in the two different modes: the quick mode and the quick mode. As shown later, the 4D is the observable universe, while the variable universe is the hidden universe. The observable universe has detachment space, resulting in the emergenceo of light, so it is the light universe. The hidden universe does not have detachment space, so it is the dark universe. In the dark universe, the 10D4d particles at high vacuum energy transform into 9D5d particles at lower vacuum energy and higher rest mass through the QVSL transformation. Through the varying supersymmetry transformation, 9D5d transforms into 9D4d. Such varying supersymmetry transformation brings about the stepwise translational fractionalization, resulting in cosmic expansion. Further decrease in vacuum energy repeats the same process again until particles are the 4D particles at zero vacuum energy as follows
The Slow Mode : The Hidden Dark Universe and the Dark Energy Universe 10D4d → 9D5d → 9D4d → 8D5d → 8D4d → 7D5d → ? ? ?? → 5D4d → 4D5d → 4D4d hidden dark universe ←a dark energy ← a the
The dark universe consists of two periods: the hidden dark universe and the dark energy universe. The hidden dark universe composes of the > 4D particles. As mentioned before, since the speed of light for > 4D particle is greater than the speed of light for 4D particle, the observation of > 4D particles by 4D particles violates casualty. Thus, > 4D particles are hidden particles with respect to 4D particles. The universe with > 4D particles is the hidden dark universe. The 4D particles transformed from hidden > 4D particles in the
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dark universe are observable dark energy for the light universe, resulting in the accelerated expanding universe. The accelerated expanding universe consists of the positive energy 4D particlesantiparticles and dark energy that includes the negative energy 4D particlesantiparticles and the antigravity. Since the dark universe does not have detachment space, the presence of dark energy is not different from the presence of the high vacuum energy. The quick mode is used in the light universe. Through zero vacuum energy, 10D4d particle transforms through the quick QVSL transformation quickly into 4D10d particles, leading to the inflation. At the end of the inflationary expansion, all 4D10d particles undergo simultaneous slicing to generate equally by mass and number into 4D10d, 4D9d, 4D8d, 4D7d, 4D6d, 4D5d, and 4D4d core particles. Baryonic matter is 4D4d, while dark matter consists of the other six types of particles (4D10d, 4D9d, 4D8d, 4D7d, 4D6d, and 4D5d). The mass ratio of dark matter to baryonic matter is 6 to 1 in agreement with the observation [27] showing the universe consists of 23% dark matter, 4% baryonic matter, and 73% dark energy. The mechanism for the simultaneous slicing of mass dimensions requires detachment space that slices mass dimensions. The dual universe consists of 10D particleantiparticle. With the CP symmetry, 10D particleantiparticle undergoes annihilation (implosion). Annihilation is the detachment of energy from the original position. The space is detachment space, and the detached energy is cosmic radiation. The particles with CP asymmetry remain as the particles (matter). The whole process becomes
The Quick Mode : The Light Universe quick QVSL transforma tion , inf lation simul tan eous slicing with det achment space ?→ 4D10d ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?→ 10D4d ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? dark matter ( 4 D10 d + 4 D 9 d + 4 D 8d + 4 D 7 d + 4 D 6d + 4 D 5d) + baryonic matter ( 4 D 4 d) + cosmic radiation → thermal cos mic exp ansion (the big bang )
For baryonic matter, the slicing of mass dimensions is as follows.
6 ∑ 04 14 n ,6 ?? ? ?? ? ? ?→ 1 4D > 4d attachment space 4 D4d core attachment space 6 types 4D4d units slicing +
(14 + 6 )m
(14 )m
(( )( ))
(23)
where 4 and 6 (for six gauge force fields) are d mass dimensions. The two products of the slicing are the 4D4dcore attachment space and six types of 4D4d quantized units. The 4D4d core attachment space surrounded by six types of infinitely many 4D4d quantized units corresponds to the core particle surrounded by six types of infinitely many small 4D4d particles. The gauge force fields are made of such small 4D4d quantized virtual particles surrounding the core particle. The six > 4d mass dimensions (dimensional orbitals) for the gauge force fields and the one mass dimension for gravity are as in Figure 1.
13
d= 5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure 1. The force fields as > 4d mass dimensions (dimensional orbitals). The dual 4D/variable D particle universe involves two distinctively different modes of the transformation (decay) from 10D to 4D, representing chirality of transformation. In the observable universe, such chirality is signified by the weak interaction (decay), involving the decay of particles with chirality. The dual 4D/variable D particle universe is as follows.
+ + ? _ + ? + + ? _ (( s 1 4 e w e w 1 ? 4 s ) g ) n ( g ( s 1≤10 e w e w 1≥ ?10 s )) n
(24)
where s, g, e, and w are the strong force, gravity, electromagnetism, and weak interaction, respectively for the observable universe, and where 1414 and 1≤101≥10 are 4D particleantiparticle for the observable universe and variable D particleantiparticle for the hidden universe, respectively. In summary, the whole process of the local inflationdeflation in the static universe is illustrated as follows.
inf lation ? decomposition deflation, coalescence, annihilati on ?→ membrane universe ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?→ dual string universe ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 311 s s 3?11
+ ? ( ( s 210 ) g ) ( g ( s 2 ?10 )) n n
dual 10 D particle universe
inf lation ? deflation ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?→
dual 4 D / var ible D particle universe
+ _ + ? + _ (( s 110 e e 1?10 s ) g ) n ( g ( s 110 e e 1?10 s )) n
+ + ? _ + ? + + ? _ (( s 14 e w e w 1? 4 s ) g ) n ( g ( s 1≤10 e w e w 1≥ ?10 s )) n
where s, e, and w are in the flat space, and g is in the bulk space. Each stage generates one force, so the four stages produce the four different forces: the strong force, gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak interaction, sequentially. Gravity appears in the first dimensional oscillation between the 11 dimensional membrane and the 10 dimensional string. The asymmetrical weak force appears in the asymmetrical second dimensional oscillation between the ten dimensional particle and the four dimensional particle. Charged electromagnetism appears as the force in the transition between the first and the second dimensional oscillations. The cosmology explains the origins of the four forces. The hidden universe with D > 4 and the observable universe with D = 4 are the “parallel universes” without any interaction between them. When the slow QVSL transformation of 5D hidden particles in the hidden universe into observable 4D particles, the observable 4 D particles become the dark energy for the observable universe.
14
Physically, the observable universe gradually “swallows” the hidden universe including its energy density and negative pressure from antigravity, resulting in accelerated cosmic expansion. At a certain time, the hidden universe disappears, and becomes completely observable as dark energy. Afterward, 4D dark energy transforms back to > 4D particles that are not observable. The removal of dark energy in the observable universe leads to the removal of energy density and negative pressure, resulting in the stop of accelerated expansion and the start of contraction of the observable universe. The end of dark energy starts another “parallel universe period” without any interaction between them. Both hidden universe and observable universe contract synchronically. Eventually, gravity causes the observable universe to crush to lose all cosmic radiation, resulting in the return to 4D10d particles. The increase in vacuum energy (deflation) allows 4D10d particles to become positive energy 10D4d particlesantiparticle. Meanwhile, hidden > 4D particlesantiparticles in the hidden universe transform into negative energy 10D4d particlesantiparticles. Both universes can undergo transformation by the reverse isodual hole theory to become dual 10D string universe, which in turn can return to the 11D membrane universe as the multiverse background as follows. the 11D membrane universe (the mutltiverse background)
the 10D string universe .
the10D antistring
universe
the positive energy 10D particleantiparticle universe
The negative energy 10D particleantiparticle
universe the deflation quick transformation slow stepwise transformation
quick transformation the inflation the expanding observable 4D universe
6 Force
slow stepwise transformation
the contracting the expanding observable 4D hidden > 4D universe universe the accelerated expanding observable 4D universe with dark energy
Figure 2. Cosmology
the contracting hidden > 4D universe
15
3.
The Formation of Inhomogeneous Structure
The observable universe consists of baryonic matter and dark matter. The baryonic matter has the 4dimensional mass. Dark matter consists of five types of particles with mass dimensions from 5d to 9d. Both dark matter and baryonic matter share the same longranged gravity. Dark matter does not have electromagnetism [28], so it cannot be seen, but it can be observed by gravity. Such difference in electromagnetism results in the mass dimensional incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The Inflationary Universe scenario [29] provides possible solutions of the horizon, flatness and formation of structure problems. In the standard inflation theory, quantum fluctuations during the inflation are stretched exponentially so that they can become the seeds for the formation of inhomogeneous structure such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. They also produce anisotropies in CMB (cosmic microwave background). This paper posits that the inhomogeneous structure comes from both quantum fluctuation during the inflation and the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter after the inflation. The inhomogeneous structure is analogous to emulsion (such as milk) by the incompatibility between two materials such as oil and water. (The incompatibility between oil and water is due to electromagnetic property in terms of polarity.) Cosmic radiation is compatible with both baryonic matter and dark matter through the commonality in detachment space. The incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter increases linearly with decreasing temperature of cosmic radiation whose temperature decreases with increasing size of the universe. Thus, the incompatibility increases with increasing size of the universe. The whole universe behaves as one unit of emulsion. In emulsion, oil exists as free oil among water or as oil in oil droplet. Similarly, baryonic matter exists as free baryonic matter among dark matter or as baryonic matter in the baryonic droplet. At the beginning of the expanding universe after the inflation and the fission, with high cosmic radiation density, baryonic matter and dark matter were completely compatible with each other, and baryonic matter existed entirely as free baryonic matter. At the time of the recombination, the inhomogeneous structure by the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter causes smallscale variant in terms of inhomogeneous structure as observed recently [30] by the presence of small amount of baryonic matter droplet. As the universe expanded after the time of recombination, the density of cosmic radiation decreases, and the size of the baryonic droplets increased with the increasing incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The growth of the baryonic droplet by the increasing incompatibility from the cosmic expansion coincided with the growth of the baryonic droplet by gravitational instability from the cosmic expansion. The formation of galaxies is through both gravitational instability and the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. The pregalactic universe consisted of the growing baryonic droplets surrounded by the dark matter halos, which connected among one another in the form of filaments and voids. These dark matter domains later became the dark matter halos, and the baryonic droplets became galaxies, clusters, and superclusters.
16
Incompatible materials separate from each other. The force to maintain the separation is the antiexpansion force to keep one material to expand into the region of other material. The dimensional incompatibility between the baryonic droplet and the dark matter halo is expressed as the interfacial zone between the two different matter domains as Fig. 3. normal gravity baryonic matter d=4 enhanced gravity a0 enhanced gravity a0 dark baryonic interfacial border interfacial zone zone normal gravity dark matter d>4
Fig. 3: the antiexpansion force in the interfacial zone between baryonic matter and dark matter. The region with the acceleration higher than a0 has normal gravity, and the interfacial zone with the acceleration lower than a0 has the enhanced gravity. The baryondark border between baryonic matter and dark matter is in the middle of the interfacial zone. The interfacial zone consists of the dark interfacial zone and the baryonic matter zone for two sides of the baryondark border. The force in the interfacial zone is the antiexpansion force as the enhancement of gravity in the interfacial zone away from the baryondark border to maintain a clear border. Such enhancement of gravity is same as the enhancement of gravity in the M. Milgrom’s [31] Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). The starting line of the interfacial zone has a0 as the acceleration. The Newtonian acceleration is aN. In the interfacial zone, aN < a0. The effective acceleration ab for the baryonic interfacial zone and the ad for the dark interfacial zone are as follows. ab = (aN a0 )1/2 ad = (aN a0 )1/2 enhancement of gravity away from the border ∝ (a0 – aN )1/2 border, ab, r = ad, r (a0 – aN )b, r 1/2 = (a0 – aN )d, r 1/2 (27) (25) (26)
In the equilibrium state, ab is symmetrical to ad. At a distance, r, away from the
The enhancement of gravity away from the border in the baryonic interfacial zone results in flat rotation curves as observed in some galaxies [32]. The enhancements of gravity away from the border in both interfacial zones are equal and cancel each other. The net antiexpansion force is zero. This cancellation of the enhancement of gravity is the global cancellation of the deviation (the antiexpansion force) between MOND and Newtonian gravity in a large area that is larger than the interfacial zones. The distance
17
from the center of baryonic mass to the starting line of the interfacial zone increases with increasing a0. The size of the universe is directly proportional to a0. As in emulsion, the size of the baryonic droplet grows with increasing incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. As the incompatibility between dark mater and baryonic matter increases with increasing size of the universe, the droplet develops the droplet growth potential as the potential to increase the mass of the droplet. The droplet growth potential converts to the nonzero net antiexpansion force by moving the baryondark border outward to absorb free baryonic matter outside and to merge with other droplets. Such movement of the baryondark border is derived from the uneven enhancement of gravity in the interfacial zone: high enhancement of gravity away from the border in the dark interfacial zone and low or no enhancement of gravity away from the border in the baryonic interfacial zone. ab, r < ad, r (a0 – aN )b, r 1/2 < (a0 – aN )d, r 1/2 (28)
In the extreme case, ab = aN, so there is low or no enhancement of gravity in the baryonic interfacial zone as observed as falling rotation curves in bright galaxies [32]. In the case of the trapping of free dark matter inside the baryonic droplet, the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matte generates the droplet contraction potential. The potential is to contract the droplet in order to remove the free dark matter inside. The droplet contraction potential converts to the nonzero net antiexpansion force by moving the baryondark border inward to expel free dark matter inside. The inward movement involves the uneven enhancement of gravity: low enhancement of gravity in the dark interfacial zone and high enhancement of gravity in the baryonic interfacial zone. ab, r > ad, r (a0 – aN )b, r 1/2 > (a0 – aN )d, r 1/2 (29)
The high enhancement of gravity away from the border in the baryonic interfacial zone is observed as rising rotation curves in dwarfs and low surface brightness galaxies [32]. 4. The Evolution of Galaxies, Clusters, and Superclusters
When there were many baryonic droplets, the merger among the baryonic droplets became another mechanism to increase the droplet size and mass. In Fig. 4, the baryonic droplets (A and B) merged into one droplet (C). When three or more droplets merged together, dark matter was likely trapped in the merged droplet (D, E, and F in Fig. 4). The droplet with trapped dark matter inside is the heterogeneous baryonic droplet, while the droplet without trapped dark matter inside is the homogeneous baryonic droplet.
18
A
B
C
D
E
F
Fig. 4: the homogeneous baryonic droplets (A, B, and C), and the heterogeneous baryonic droplets (D, E, and F) For the heterogeneous droplet, the dark matter core is essentially the dark droplet surrounded by the baryonic matter shell. As the dark droplet, the dark matter core has the droplet growth potential proportional to the size of the universe, and has the baryondark border moving toward the baryonic matter shell. Thus, two baryondark borders in the heterogeneous droplet are the external border between the dark matter halo and the and the dark matter halo and the internal baryondark border between the baryonic matter shell and the dark matter core. The external border moved toward the dark matter halo, while the internal border moved toward the baryonic matter shell. When a section of the internal border and a section of the external border merged, the dark matter from the dark matter core moved to the dark matter halo away from the heterogeneous droplet, and the droplet became homogeneous. When the temperature dropped to ~ 1000°K, some hydrogen atoms in the droplet paired up to create molecular baryonic matter. The most likely place to form such molecular baryonic matter was in the interior part of the droplet. For heterogeneous droplet, molecular baryonic matter formed a molecular layer around the core. Molecular hydrogen cooled the molecular layer by emitting infrared radiation after collision with atomic hydrogen. Eventually, the temperature of the molecular layer dropped to around 200 to 300°K, reducing the gas pressure and allowing the molecular layer to continue contracting into gravitationally bound dense molecular layer with high viscosity. Without electromagnetism, the viscosity of dark matter remained low. The viscosity in the dense molecular layer around the core slowed the movement of the internal baryondark border toward the baryonic matter shell. On the other hand, the lowviscosity dark matter did not hinder the movement of the external baryondark border toward the dark matter halo. The increasing difference in the speeds of movement between the internal and external borders increased the fraction of the heterogeneous baryonic droplets. Subsequently, the whole baryonic matter shell became the dense molecular layer. The dense baryonic matter shell contracted into gravitationally bound clumps, which prevented the movement of the internal border. The dark matter cores build up the internal pressure from the accumulated droplet growth potential. Eventually, the core with high internal pressure caused the eruption to the droplet. The dark matter rushed out of the droplet within a short time, and the baryonic matter shell collapsed. This eruption is much larger in area and much weaker in intensity than supernova. The “big eruption” of the baryonic droplet brings about the morphologies of galaxies. If there was very small or no dark matter core as in the homogeneous baryonic droplet, the shape of the resulting galaxy is circular as in the E0 type elliptical galaxy. If the relative size of the dark matter core was small, the change in the shape of the shell was
19
minor. It is like squeezing out orange juice (dark matter core) through one opening on the orange skin (baryonic matter shell). As the dark matter core moved out, the baryonic matter shell stretched in the opposite direction. The minor change resulted in an elliptical shape as in E1 to E7 elliptical galaxies, whose lengths of major axes are proportional to the relative sizes of the dark matter core. During the collapse of the baryonic matter shell in the big eruption, the collision produced a shock front of high density, which resulted in the formation of many massive first stars. After few million years, such massive first stars became supernovas and black holes. Most of the massive first stars became black holes without contributing to the metal enrichment of the surrounding. The mergers of black holes generated the supermassive black hoe as the nucleus of quasar. Such first quasar galaxies that occurred as early as z = 6.28 were observed to have about the same sizes as the Milky Way [33]. The supernova shock wave induced the formation of stars in the exterior part of the droplet. The time difference in the formations of the nucleus and the formation of stars in the surface was not large, so there are small numbers of observed young stars in elliptical galaxies. This formation of galaxy follows the monolithic collapse model [34] in which baryonic gas in galaxies collapses to form stars within a very short period. Elliptical galaxies continue to grow slowly as the universe expands. If the size of the dark matter core is medium (D in Fig.4), it involves a large change on the baryonic matter shell. It is like to release air (the dark matter core) from a balloon (the baryonic matter shell) filled with air. As the dark matter core moved out, the baryonic matter shell moved in the opposite direction. If there was only one opening as an air balloon with one opening, the dark matter stream from the dark matter core and the baryonic stream from the baryonic matter shell moved in opposite directions. Later, the two streams separated. The dark matter stream merges with the surrounding dark matter. The baryonic stream with high momentum penetrated the surrounding dark matter halo. As the baryonic stream penetrated into the dark matter halo, it met resistance from the antiexpansion force. Eventually, the stream stopped. The minimization of the interfacial area due to the incomparability between baryonic matter and dark matter transformed the shape of the stream from linear to disk. (The minimization of the interfacial area is shown in the water bead formation on a wax paper.) To transform into disk shape, the stream underwent differential rotation with the increasing angular speeds toward the center. The fast angular speed around the center allowed the winding of the stream around the center. After few rotations, the structure consisted of a bungle was formed by wrapping the stream at the center and the attached spiral arms as spiral galaxy as Fig. 5.
20
differential rotation
Fig. 5: from the linear baryonic stream to normal spiral galaxy with the baryondark border (dot line) During the stream formation, the highdensity region derived from the collision during the collapse spread out, so the density of the stream was too low to form stars. As the stream wrapped around at the center, the wrapping of the stream produces the highdensity region for the star formation in a steady pace. Thus, the first stars and the black holes at the center in spiral galaxies are smaller than in elliptical galaxies. The stars at the center became black holes and supernovas that induced the star formation in spiral arms. The massive center area decreases the angular speed around the center, greatly retarding the winding of the spiral arms around the center. With this steady pace for the star formation, there are still many young stars in spiral galaxies. When there were more than one baryonic stream in the same general direction, there are more than two spiral arms. Some streams went through the dark matter halos, and entered into the adjacent baryonic droplets. The adjacent droplet captured a part of the stream, and another part of the stream continued to move to the dark matter halo, and finally settled near the droplet in the dark matter halo. Dependent on the direction of the entry, the captured part of the stream later became a part of the disk of the host galaxy, star clusters in the halo, or both. The part of the stream that settled near the droplet became the dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Under continuous disruption and absorption of the tidal interaction from the large galaxy nearby, the dwarf spheroidal galaxy does not have welldefined baryonicdark border, disk, and internal rotation. When two connected dark matter cores inside far apart from each other (E in Fig.4) generated two openings in opposite sides of the droplet, the momentum from the two opposite dark matter streams canceled each other nearly completely. The result was the slow moving baryonic droplet. Two opposite baryonic streams formed side by side with the two opposite dark matter streams. When the baryonic stream entered the dark matter halo, the size of the stream decreased due to the antiexpansion force by the dark matter, so there were the thick stream in the baryonic matter shell and the thin stream in the dark matter halo. As the baryonic stream penetrated into the dark matter halo, it met resistance from the antiexpansion force. Eventually, the stream stopped. The result after few differential rotations is the structure with one center, one bar from the thick stream stranding across the center, and arms attached to the bar as bar spiral galaxy as Fig. 6.
21
differential rotation
Fig. 6: from the barred linear baryonic stream to barred spiral galaxy with the baryondark border (dot line) The result is barred spiral galaxy. As in normal spiral galaxy, the length of the spiral arm depends on the size of the dark matter core. The smallest dark matter core for barred spiral galaxy brings about SBa, and the largest dark matter core brings about SBd. The stars form in the lowdensity spiral arms much later than in the nucleus, so they are many young stars in the spiral arms. If the size of the dark matter core was large (F in Fig. 4), the total dark matter mass was nearly large enough or large enough for dark matter to have low droplet growth potential. The escape of the dark matter from the droplet involved little or no eruption, resulting in the gradual migration of large amount of dark matter outward and the gradual migration of small amount of baryonic matter inward. Such opposite migrations are long and continuous processes. The result is irregular galaxy. When enough baryonic matter migrated to the center, and first star formation started. As baryonic matter continues migrating toward the center, the star formation continues in a slow rate up to the present time. At the end of the big eruption, vast majority of baryonic matter was primordial free baryonic matter resided in dark matter outside of the galaxies from the big eruption. This free baryonic matter constituted the intergalactic medium (IGM). Stellar winds, supernova winds, and quasars provide heat and heavy elements to the IGM as ionized baryonic atoms. The heat prevented the formation of the baryonic droplet in the IGM. Galaxies merged into new large galaxies, such as giant elliptical galaxy and cD galaxy (z > 12). Similar to the transient molecular cloud formation from the ISM (interstellar medium) through turbulence, the tidal debris and turbulence from the mergers generated the numerous transient molecular regions, which located in a broad area [35]. The incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter transformed these transient molecular regions into the stable secondgeneration baryonic droplets surrounded by the dark matter halos. The baryonic droplets had much higher fraction of hydrogen molecules, much lower fraction of dark matter, higher density, and lower temperature, and lower entropy than the surrounding. The baryonic droplets started small with the enormous droplet growth potential. The rapid growth of the baryonic droplets drew large amount of the surrounding IGM inward, generating the IGM flow shown as the cooling flow. The IGM flow induced the galaxy flow. The IGM flow and the galaxy flow moved toward the merged galaxies, resulting in the protocluster (z ~ 0.5) with the merged galaxies as the cluster center.
22
Before the protocluster stage, spirals grew normally and passively by absorbing gas from the IGM as the universe expanded. During the protoculster stage (z ~ 0.5), the massive IGM flow injected a large amount of gas into the spirals that joined in the galaxy flow. Most of the injected hot gas passed through the spiral arms and settled in the bungle parts of the spirals. Such surges of gas absorption from the IGM flow resulted in major starbursts (z ~ 0.4) [36]. Meanwhile, the nearby baryonic droplets continued to draw the IGM, and the IGM flow and the galaxy flow continued. The results were the formation of highdensity region, where the galaxies and the baryonic droplets competed for the IGM as the gas reservoir. Eventually, the maturity of the baryonic droplets caused a decrease in drawing the IGM inward, resulting in the slow IGM flow. Subsequently, the depleted gas reservoir could not support the major starbursts (z ~ 0.3). The galaxy harassment and the mergers in this highdensity region disrupted the spiral arms of spirals, resulting in S0 galaxies with indistinct spiral arms (z ~ 0.1 – 0.25). The transformation process of spirals into S0 galaxies started at the core first, and moved to the outside of the core. Thus, the fraction of spirals decreases with decreasing distance from the cluster center [36]. The static and slowmoving secondgeneration baryonic droplets turned into dwarf elliptical galaxies and globular clusters. The fast moving secondgeneration baryonic droplets formed the secondgeneration baryonic stream, which underwent a differential rotation to minimize the interfacial area between the dark matter and baryonic matter. The result is the formation of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCD), such as NGC 2915 with very extended spiral arms. Since the star formation is steady and slow, so the stars formed in BCD are new. The galaxies formed during z < 0.10.2 are mostly metalrich tidal dwarf galaxies (TDG) from tidal tails torn out from interacting galaxies. In some cases, the tidal tail and the baryonic droplet merge to generate the starbursts with higher fraction of molecule than the TDG formed by tidal tail alone [37]. When the interactions among large galaxies were mild, the mild turbulence caused the formation of few molecular regions, which located in narrow area close to the large galaxies [35]. Such few molecular regions resulted in few baryonic droplets, producing weak IGM flow and galaxy flow. The result is the formation of galaxy group, such as the Local Group, which has fewer dwarf galaxies and lower density environment than cluster. Clusters merged to generate tidal debris and turbulence, producing the baryonic droplets, the ICM (intracluster medium) flow, and the cluster flow. The ICM flow and the cluster flow directed toward the merger areas among clusters and particularly the rich clusters with high numbers of galaxies. The ICM flow is shown as the warm filaments outside of cluster [38]. The dominant structural elements in superclusters are single or multibranching filaments [39]. The cluster flow is shown by the tendency of the major axes of clusters to point toward neighboring clusters [40]. Eventually at the maximum incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter, the observable expanding universe will consist of giant voids and superclusters surrounded by the dark matter halos. In summary, the whole observable expanding universe is the “Milky Universe” as one unit of emulsion with increasing incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. The five periods of baryonic structure development are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the galaxy, cluster, and the supercluster periods as Fig. 7. The first23
generation galaxies are elliptical, normal spiral, barred spiral, irregular, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The secondgeneration galaxies are giant ellipticals, cD, evolved S0, dwarf ellipticals, BCD, and TDG. The universe now is in the early part of the supercluster period. clusters with the firstbaryonic merger the secondcosmic big generation merger droplets generation baryonic superclusters galaxies galaxies matter expansion free baryonic matter beginning pregalactic
eruption
IGM galaxy
ICM cluster superclusters
Fig. 7: the five levels of baryonic structure in the Milky Universe 5. Conclusion
The observable universe is the Milky Universe. In the Milky Universe model, baryonic matter with fourmass dimension is incompatible with dark matter with higher massdimensions. Both of them are compatible with cosmic radiation. The incompatibility increases with the increasing size of the universe by the dilution of cosmic radiation. Such incompatibility brings about the formation of inhomogeneous structure (anisotropies in the CMB) where the baryonic matter domains surrounded by the dark matter halos as oil droplets surrounded by water in emulsion. The gravitational interaction between baryonic matter and dark matter can be described by the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) (Fig.3). The five periods (Fig. 7) of baryonic structure development in the order of increasing incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the galaxy, the cluster, and the supercluster periods. The transition to the baryonic droplet generates density perturbation in the CMB. The transition from the baryonic droplet to galaxy is through the big eruption for the formations of the firstgeneration galaxies, including elliptical, normal spiral (Fig. 5), barred spiral (Fig. 6), irregular, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The transitions to cluster and supercluster are the mergers and interactions of galaxies for the formation of the secondgeneration galaxies, including modified giant ellipticals, cD, evolved S0, dwarf elliptical, BCD, and tidal dwarf galaxies. The universe now is in the early part of the supercluster period. The whole observable expanding universe behaves as one unit of emulsion with increasing incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. References *
chung@wayne.edu P.O. Box 180661, Utica, Michigan 48318, USA 24
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