Section Ⅳ Learning about Language & Using Language
Office of the City Government Tangshan, Hebei China July 5,201____ Dear ________，
Congratulations①！ We are pleased to②tell you that you
[k?n?ɡr?t??'leI?n] n ． 祝 贺；(复数)贺词 ②be pleased to do sth.乐于 做某事
have won the high school speaking competition about new Tangshan. Your speech was heard by a group of five judges③ ， all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year④. Your parents and your school should be very proud of⑤ you!
[读文清障] ③judge [d??d?] n．裁判员；法官
vt.断定；判断；判决 judging from/by 从……判断， 常用作状语。 ④all of whom 引导的定语从句修 饰 judges。 ⑤be proud of 为……感到自豪； 因……而骄傲 take pride in 因……感到自豪
Next month the city will open a new park to honour⑥
those who died in the terrible disaster⑦. The park
will also honour those who helped the survivors. Our office would like to⑧ have you speak⑨ to the park visitors on July 28 at 11：00 am. As you know⑩， this is
the day the quake happened thirty-________ years ago.
⑥honour vt.尊重；尊敬 n.荣誉； 光荣
⑦ who died in the terrible disaster 是 who 引导的定语从 句，修饰 those。
⑧would like to do sth.愿意做某 事
⑨have sb. do sth.使某人做某事 ⑩as you know 是 as 引导的非限
[原文呈现] We invite you to bring your family? and friends on that special day. Sincerely?，
?family 在这里指“家人”。 ?sincerely [sIn'sI?lI] adv.真诚
201 年 7 月 5 日
敬。我们办公室想请你在 7 月 28 日上午 11 点给来公园的参观者
Step 1 Read the letter and then tell true(T) or false(F)．
1．This is a letter of congratulation.
2．A high school student will be invited to give a speech in a
3．On July 28, 1976, a terrible earthquake hit Tangshan.( )
4．Only the high school student was invited on that special day.
答案：1.F 2.T 3.T 4.F
Step 2 Choose the best answers according to the text. 1．Why was the student invited to Tangshan?
A．Because the student saved several people in the earthquake.
B ． Because the student won the high school speaking
competition. C．Because the student gave lots of money to the organization.
D．Because the student gave lots of money to build the park.
2．________ will be built to honour the Tangshan earthquake.
A．A new park
B．A new building
C．A new museum
D．A new library
3．In his/her speech, the student may not mention _________. A．the terrible quake that happened in 1976 B．the great work people have done to rebuild new Tangshan C．the bright future of Tangshan D．his/her hobbies 答案：1～3 BAD
1. bar n．
2. damage n．& vt.
3. sincerely adv.
4. express vt.
5. outline n.
Ⅱ.拓展词汇 1. frighten vt.使惊吓；吓唬→ frightened adj.受惊的；受恐
吓的→ frightening adj.令人恐惧的 2. congratulation n．祝贺；(复数)贺词→congratulate vt.祝贺；
恭喜；庆贺 3. judge vt.断定；判断；判决 n．裁判员；法官→judgment
n．审判；判决；裁判；判断 4. cyclist n．骑自行车的人→cycle vi.骑自行车
①earth (地球)＋quake(震动)→earthquake n．地震
①damage n．& vt.
③ruin n．& vt.
1． at the top of 2． refer to 3． wake up 4． put up 5． be known as
在……顶部 提及；指的是；参考 叫醒 搭起 作为……而出名
1．a letter of invitation
2．give a speech
3．be pleased to do sth. 4．be proud of
5．express one's thanks to
1.As you know, this is the day the quake happened ... 你知道……这一天正
as 引导定语 从句，意为 “正如；正
后仿用 _A_s__I_e_x_p_e_c_te_d__, he got
the first place again in
2.The man was sleeping be doing sth. I _w_a_s__d_o_in_g__m__y_ downstairs when the when ... _h_o_m__e_w_o_r_k__w_h_e_n_ the earthquake happened. 正在做某事 phone rang. 这名男子正在楼下睡觉， 这时(突 我正写作业时，突然
这时突然地震发生了。 然)……。 电话响了。
(1)cause/do damage to pay the damage
(2)damage one's health
对……造成损害；损害…… 赔偿损失 损害某人的健康
①Damage caused by the earthquake disaster can't be ignored. 地震灾害导致的损失不容忽视。 ②This could cause serious damage to our environment. 这可能会对我们的环境造成严重的破坏。 ③As we all know, smoking can damage our health . 众所周知，抽烟会损害我们的健康。
2．(教材 P28)It was a frightening night. 这是一个骇人的夜晚。
frighten sb./sth. away
frighten sb. into/out of (doing) sth. 恐吓某人做/不做某事
be frightened to do sth.
be frightened at ...
①The news was frightening and they were all frightened. 那条消息是令人恐惧的，他们都吓坏了。 ②When you stand at an altitude to see the _f_ri_g_h_t_e_n_in_g_ rapids and waterfall, you will feel much frightened .(frighten) 当你站在高处看到可怕的急流和瀑布时，你会感到十分害怕。 ③Sorry, I didn't mean to frighten you into doing that. 对不起，我没有要吓唬你去做那事的意思。
3．(教材 P30)Congratulations! We are pleased to tell you that you have won the high school speaking competition about new Tangshan. 恭喜！我们很高兴地告诉你，你在以新唐山为主题的高中演讲 比赛中获胜了。
(1)express/offer/send one's congratulations to sb.
a letter of congratulation
congratulate sb. on (doing) sth. 因(做)某事向某人祝贺
①We sent our congratulations to her when she passed the exam. 当她通过考试时，我们向她表示祝贺。 ②I sincerely express my congratulations (congratulate) on your graduating from Beijing University. 我真诚地祝贺你从北京大学毕业。 ③Let's go and congratulate him on being accepted by Tsinghua University. 他被清华大学录取了，我们去祝贺他吧。
4．(教材 P30)Your speech was heard by a group of five judges,
all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year. 评委会的五位评委听了你的演讲，他们都认为这是今年最好
judge n．裁判员；法官 vt.断定；判断；判决
(1)judge sb./sth. by/from 通过……判断……
as far as I can judge
(2)judging from/by ...
①As the old saying goes, “You can't judge a book by its cover.” 俗话说，“你不能以貌取人。” ② As far as I can judge , Li Ming is more reliable. 据我判断，李明更可靠。 ③ Judging (judge) from her last letter, they are having a wonderful time. 从她的上封信看，他们过得非常愉快。
5．(教材 P30)I would like to express my thanks to ... 我想向……表达我的感谢。
express vt.表示；表达 n.快车；速递
(1)express one's thanks to express one's satisfaction with express oneself
(2)expression n. beyond expression
表达对……的感谢 表达对……的满意 表达自己的意见 表达；表情 无法表达
①I would like to express my sincere thanks to all those who have helped me. 我想对所有帮助过我的人表示诚挚的谢意。 ②She expressed herself (she) clearly in English. 她用英文清楚地表达了自己的意思。 ③As a matter of fact, the beauty of Guilin is beyond _e_x_p_r_e_ss_i_o_n_ (express)． 实际上，桂林之美无法用言语表达。
1．As you know, this is the day the quake happened ... 你知道……这一天正是发生地震的日子。
(1)as you know 为非限制性定语从句，as 指代整个主句的内容。 (2)关系代词 as 引导非限制性定语从句，从句可放在主句前、主
句中或主句后，常用逗号与主句隔开。as 意为“正如”，其 后的谓语动词多是 see, know, expect, say, report 等。
①As is known to us, the earth moves around the sun. 众所周知，地球围绕太阳转。 ②He was late for class, as is often the case. 他上课迟到了，他经常这样。 ③The air quality in the city, as is shown in the report , has improved over the past two months. 正如报告所显示的，在过去的两个月里，这个城市的空气质 量已有所改善。
2．The man was sleeping downstairs when the earthquake
be doing sth. when ...正在做某事这时(突然)……。when 为
并列连词，相当于 and just at that time。
be about to do ... when ...
be on the point of doing ... when ... 正要做……这时……
had just done ...when ...
①I was walking along the street when I heard my name called. 我正在街上走着，突然听到有人叫我的名字。 ②We were about to start when it began to rain. 我们正要动身，这时突然下起雨来。 ③I was on the point of telephoning him when his letter arrived. 我正要给他打电话，这时他的信到了。 ④I had just finished my test paper __w_h_e_n__th_e__b_e_ll_r_a_n_g__, announcing the exam was over. 我刚完成试卷这时宣告考试结束的铃声响了。
Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1．I _w_a__s _w_a_t_c_h_in__g_ (watch) TV when the electricity was cut off. 2． Judging (judge) from his accent, he is from Shanghai. 3．Teenagers are damaging (damage) their health because
they play computer games too much.
4 ． At the sight of the _f_r_ig_h_t_e_n_i_n_g_ scene, he was almost _f_r_ig_h_t_e_n_e_d_ to death.(frighten)
5．He expressed his thanks to us last Friday, with a thankful _e_x_p_r_e_s_s_io_n_ on his face.(express)
6．He sent me an e-mail of congratulation , congratulating me
on the good result I gained.(congratulate)
Ⅱ.补全句子 1．As is known to all/As we all know, the West Lake is famous
for its beauty. 众所周知，西湖以其美而闻名。 2．_A_s_w__a_s_e_x_p_e_c_te_d_, he won the gold medal in the competition. 正如所预料的那样，他在比赛中赢得了金牌。 3．John was studying in his room_ when he heard someone screaming. 约翰正在房间里学习，突然听到有人尖叫。
4．①We were about to leave when a big noise came from the next room.(about) ②We were on the point of leaving when a big noise came from the next room.(point) 我们正要离开时隔壁发出了巨大的响声。
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