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非谓语动词解析与练习大总结


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第九章 非 谓 语 动 词
动词除了在句子中充当谓语外,还具有名词、形容词及副词的性质动词的非谓语形式,可在句中作主语、表语、 宾语、定语、补语和状语等,称作非谓语动词,包括动词不定式、分词和动名词。 高考重点要求: 1、掌握不定式、分词、动名词在句子中的作用 2、区分不定式、分词作定语和状语的异同 3、掌握不定式、动名词作宾语,不定式和分词作宾补的惯用结构 4、注意非谓语动词与句子谓语动词的时间关系,以确定非谓语动词的时态形式 5、弄清非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系,以确定非谓语动词的语态形式

第一节 知识点概述
一、动词不定式
动词不定式的基本形式是“to+动词原形”,有时可以不带 to。动词不定式没有人称和数的变化,在句子中不能作 谓语,但可以担任主语、表语、宾语、状语和宾语补足语。动词不定式仍保留动词的一些特点。

(一 ) 动 词 不 定 式 的 特 征 及 用 法
1.动词不定式的构成及特征 “to +动词原形”构成动词不定式,是一种非谓语形式,在句子中不能作谓语,没有人称和数的变化,它具有 名词、形容词和副词的特征。 2.动词不定式的用法 动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,在句子中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语和状语。 1. 作主语 例如:To learn English well is not easy. 或 It is not easy to learn English well. 动词不定式作主语时,往往用 it 作形式主语,这种句型可归纳为下面的句型: It is + adj.+ 动词不定式 如果要说明不定式的动作执行者,可以用 for It is + adj.+ for sb. to do sth. 2. 作表语 My wish is to become a teacher. 3. 作宾语 Most of us like to watch football matches. 4. 作宾语补足语 He told me to be here on time. 5. 作定语 I have nothing to say about that thing. 6. 作状语 He stopped to have a look. 3.动词不定式的否定形式 动词不定式的否定形式 not + to + 动词原形 例如: He asked me not to make such a mistake. 4.动词不定式与疑问词连用 疑问代词 who, what, which 和疑问副词 when, where, how, why 等后面可以接动词不定式, 构成动词不定式短语,
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可以在句子中作主语、宾语、表语等成分。 例如:(1) He doesn’t know how to use the machine. (不定式作宾语) (2) How to use the machine is a question. (不定式作主语) (3) The question is when to go there. (不定式作表语)

(二 ) 动 词 不 定 式 的 时 态 和 被 动 形 式
动词不定式是非谓语动词的一种,由不定式符号(to)加动词原形构成。不定式的形式有五种: 1. 一般式 to do 例如:I like to read English. 2. 进行式 to be doing 例如:He seemed to be reading something at that time. 3. 完成式 to have done 例如:He seemed to have cleaned the room. 4. 被动式 to be done 例如:The work is to be done soon. 5. 完成被动式 to have been done 例如:The boy is said to have been sent to hospital yesterday.

二、分词
分词是动词非谓语形式的一种,包括现在分词和过去分词。现在分词表示:主动,动作正在进行。过去分词表示: 被动,动作已经完成。

(一)分词的作用
分词在句中可以作定语、表语、状语和宾语补足语。例如: 1.作定语 Do you know the boy standing at the gate? Have you read the book written by Lu Xun? 2.作表语 We are excited at the news. The news he told us is exciting. 3.作宾语补足语 I heard him singing a song in the classroom. We found the ground covered with snow. 4.作状语 While lying in bed, he listened to some music. Seen from the hill, the village looks move beautiful. 分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,否则分词前面必须有自己的主语。

(二)分词的时态
现在分词分一般式和完成式,而过去分词则没有时态形式的变化。 现在分词的一般式表示动作与谓语动词同时发生,或在谓语动词之前发生。例如: Knowing his uncle would come, he began to make some preparations. 现在分词的完成时,表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。常用作状语。例如: Having finished his homework, he went to bed.

(三)现在分词的被动式
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被动一般式 being done 被动完成式 having been done This is one of the new supermarkets being built in our city. Having been told many times, he was able to operate the machine.

(四)分词的否定形式
分词的否定式,由 not+分词构成,例如: Not having heard the news. I wrote to him again. Not knowing how to work out the maths problem, I went to the teacher for help.

(五)分词独立主格结构
当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时,带逻辑主语的分词短语成为独立主格结构,在句法功能上起状语作用。 例如: Weather permitting, they will go and visit the science museum. The meeting being over, they all left the room.

三、动名词
动名词是动词非谓语形式的一种,由动词加 ing 构成。动名词既有动词特征,也有名词特征。 动名词在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语和定语。例如: ⑴ Smoking does great harm to people’s health. (作主语) ⑵ My job is looking after children. (作表语) ⑶ I have finished reading the novel. (作宾语) ⑷ We have got a swimming pool in our school. (做定语) 动名词的否定形式由 not +动名词构成。例如: He made me angry by not taking the medicine. 动名词的复合结构由名词所有格或物主代词加上动名词构成。例如: Would you mind my opening the door? 动名词的一般式,表示的动作可以与谓语动词同时发生或在前,或在后。 例如: We all enjoy listening to music.(同时发生) Do you remember meeting me there?(在谓语动词前发生) 动名词的完成式表示在谓语动词之前完成的动作。例如: I regret not having been taken to the Great Wall when I was a child. She attended the party without being invited.

第二节 实战演练
一、复习时需注意的要点
1. 动词不定式一般式表示的动作可能与谓语动词的动作同时发生,也可能在其之后发生。 例如:I saw the young man enter the house.(同时发生) I hope to go there next time.(之后发生)
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2.不定式完成式表示不定式的动作在谓语动词之前发生。 例如:I’m sorry to have broken your glasses. 3.不定式进行式表示不定式的动作,与谓语动词同时发生。 例如:When he came in, I happened to be reading at the table. 4.不定式的被动式有两种形式:to be done 表示将要被做,to have been done 表示已被做。 例如:The new cinema to be put up next year will be very large. The cinema is said to have been built last year. 5. 在表示情绪的动词,如 like, love, hate, prefer 等后,用动名词作宾语表示一般倾向,用不定式表示特定某事。但在 would/should like/love/prefer 后要用不定式 例如:I hate eating the same food every day. Would you like to watch TV in the evening? 6. 在动词 need, want, require 后用动名词表示被动含义,相当于动词不定式的被动式;而用动词不定式的主动式表示主 动含义。 例如:The house needs cleaning. = The house needs to be cleaned. He needs to clean the house first. 7. 在介词后一般用动名词作宾语,但在少数介词,如 but, except 后用动词不定式作宾语,但要注意“to”的省略,如 but 前有“do”则省去“to” 。 例如:I have done nothing but help him with his luggage. I have no choice but to wait for him at the bus stop. 8. 分词的完成式一般不用来作定语,因此,要表示完成主动的意思常用定语从句。 例如:The accident which happened yesterday was very serious. 9. 如果分词短语的逻辑主语与句子不是相同的,则要用从句或分词独立主格结构来表示。 例如:Weather permitting, we will go to the Center Park. 10. 分词作状语时, 分词的逻辑主语要与句子的主语相一致。若它们之间的关系是主谓关系,用现在分词,而动宾关 系则用过去分词。如果分词的动作先于谓语,分词要用完成时。 例如:Having finished his composition, he went home. While looking through the paper, he found some errors.

二、历届高考试题分析
例 1、The discovery of new evidence led to _________. A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught 答案为 C。 【解析】 lead to 这个词组中 to 是介词,后面跟名词,于是 B 被排除,the thief 是动名词逻辑上的主语,构成动名词 的复合结构,与 catch 之间应是被动关系,故排除 A。常见的带介词 to 的短语有:(get) be used to, look forward to,look up to, stick to, object to, be devoted to, pay attention to 等。 例 2、Though _______money, his parents managed to send him to university. A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in 答案为 C。 【解析】 lack 是及物动词,后接宾语 money。his parents 与 lack 是逻辑上的主谓关系,要用现在分词作状语。译文: 虽然缺钱,他的父母亲还是设法让他上了大学。 例 3、He got well-prepared for the job interview, for he couldn’t risk ____ the good opportunity.
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A. to lose B. losing C. to be lost D. being lost 答案:B 【解析】 risk 后面只能带动名词做宾语,含义为“冒??之险” 。

例4、 _____ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one's skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed 答案为 C。 【解析】 在非谓语动词中,用动名词或不定式来作主语,而分词和介词短语不能作主语,因此 A、D 被排除。在这 个句子中,will do 是谓语,缺少主语,要用动名词作主语。expose 与 one's skin 是动宾关系,所以要用动名词的被动式 being exposed。译文:在阳光下晒太长时间对人的皮肤有坏处。 例 5、____ into use in April 2000, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns. A. Put B. Putting C. Having put D. Being put 答案:A 【解析】 put sth. into use “让??投入使用” 。显然,put 和句子主语 the hotline 构成被动关系,所以用表示被动的 过去分词。 例 6、It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just ____ a look at the sports stars. A. had B. having C. to have D. have 答案:C 【解析】 动词不定式充当目的状语。 例 7、With a lot of difficult problems _______, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 答案为 C 【解析】动词不定式 to settle 作为 difficult problems 的定语表示现在或将来要解决的难题;过去分词 settle 作定语表示 已经解决的难题,现在分词的被动式 being settled 作定语表示正在解决的难题。 例 8、More and more people are signing up for Yoga classes nowadays, ____ advantage of the health and relaxation benefits. A. taking B. taken C. having taken D. having been taken 答案:A 【解析】 take advantage of (利用)和句子主语 More and more people 构成主动关系,且和句子谓语 sign up for (报 名参加)同时发生,所以选择 A。 例9、 Sandy could do nothing but ________ to his teacher that he was wrong. A. admit B. admitted C. admitting D. to admit 答案为 A。 【解析】 该句中的 but 是介词,后接动词不定式。当谓语动词是 do,does 或 did 时,后接不带 to 的不定式;是其他 动词时,后接带 to 的不定式。该句的谓语是 could do nothing,要填动词原形 admit。译文:山德不得不向老师承认自 己错了。 例10、 He sent me an e-mail, ________ to get further information. A. hoped B. hoping C. to hope D. hope 答案为 B。 【解析】 现在分词 hoping 表示与 send me an e-mail 同时发生的动作。一些考生认为应该填不定式作目的状语。不定
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式作目的状语时,句子的正确形式是:He sent me an e-mail to get further information.不需要 hope 一词,如果要选择 “hoped”时,句子的正确形式是:He sent me an e-mail and hoped to get further information。 “hope”和“sent”作并列 谓语。

第三节 巩固练习
Direction: Beneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer that completes the sentence. 1. _____ anything about the accident ,he went to work as usual. A. Not known B. Known not C. Knowing not 2. —Have you decided when_____?
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D. Not knowing

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—Yes, tomorrow morning. A. to leave B. to be leaving C. will you leave D. are you leaving 3. I really enjoy_____ that kind of job. A. do B. doing C. to do D. to be doing 4. —There’s a hole in your bag. —l know. I am going to have it_____. A. mend B. mending C. mended D. to be mended 5. The next morning she found the man in bed, _____ dead. A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying 6. Tell him_____ the window. A. to shut not B. not to shut C. to not shut D. not shut 7. The furniture ______on October 15 was seriously damaged because of a road accident . A. being delivered B. having delivered C. having been delivered D. delivered 8. He had his leg_____ in the match yesterday. A. to break B. broken C. break D. breaking 9. I can’t imagine_____ that with them. A. do B. to do C. being done D. doing 10. Most of the people_____ to the party were famous scientists. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. inviting 11. —Good morning. Can I help you? —I’d like to have this package_____, madam. A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed 12. Slowly she opened the letter, _____. A. her hands trembled slightly B. slightly her hands were trembled C. her hands slightly trembling C. trembling her hands slightly 13. All ______will be present at the conference . A. parties concerned B. parties concerning C. concerned parties D. concerning parties 14. _____ more attention, the trees could have grown better. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given 15. She reached the top of the hill and stopped_____ on a big rock by the side of the path. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest 16. Last summer I took a course on_______. A. how to make dresses B. how dresses be made C. how to be made dresses D. how dresses to be made 17. The murderer was brought in, with his hands_____ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 18. The secretary worked late into the night, _____ a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing 19. I can hardly imagine Peter_____ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail B. to sail C. sailing D. to have sailed 20. —The light in the office is still on. —Oh, I forgot_____. A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off 21. The Olympic Games, ______ in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912.
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A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 22. Not having finished his homework, _____ to watch the game. A. so he was forbidden B. he forbade C. he was forbidden D. mother forbid him 23. The _____ world population is the result of recent advances in medical science. A. increased B. increase C. being increasing D. Increasing 24. _____ it with me and I’ll see what I can do. A. When left B. Leaving C. If you leave D. Leave 25. Cleaning women in big cities usually get______ by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 26. European football is played in 80 countries, ______ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make 27. Robert is said_____ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in. A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying 28. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _____ it more difficult. A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make 29. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door, ______ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A. read B. reads C. to read D. reading 30. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what______ in my new job. A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects 31. It is impossible to avoid ______by advertisements in a modern society. A. to be influenced B. being influenced C. to influence D. influenced 32. Some people believe that some numbers show the ______side of a person’s personality. A. hiding B. hid C. hidden D. hide 33 —How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers? —key ______ the problem is to meet the demand _______ by the customers. A. to solving…making B. to solving…made C. to solve…making D. to solve…made 34. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains______ whether they will enjoy it. A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen 35. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows______. A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 36. The research is so designed that once______ nothing can be done to change it. A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun 37. The teacher asked us______ so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make 38. ______ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given 39. Walking past the park, I couldn’t help ______some children flying kites. A. stop to watch B. stopping watch C. stopping to watch D. to stop to watch 40. Generally speaking, ______ according to directions, the drug has no side-effect. A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken 41. An army spokesman stressed that all the soldiers had been ordered_______ clear warnings before firing any shots.
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A. to issue B. being issued C. to have issued D. to be issued 42. There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars_______ road conditions need ______. A. that…to be improved B. which…to be improved C. where…improving D. when…improving 43. —What do you think made the woman so upset? —_____ weight. A. As she put on B. Put on C. Putting on D. Because of putting on 44. The manager,______ his factory’s products were poor in quality, decided to give his workers further training. A. knowing B. known C. to know D. being known 45. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if _______ whether he was going in the right direction. A. seeing B. having seen C. to have seen D. to see 46. Don’t be discouraged. ______ things as they are and you will enjoy every day of your life. A. Taking B. To take C. Take D. Taken 47. Friendship is like money, easier made than ____. A. kept B. to be kept C. keeping D. being kept 48. ______the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attended D. The president’s attending 49. Unless______ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference. A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited 50. Time should be made good use of ____ our lessons well. A. learning B. learned C. to learn D. having learned

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